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Innovation Map

16-bit Monolithic DAC, 198132° 13' 1.67" N, 110° 52' 40.33" WTexas Instruments, 5411 East Williams Blvd, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A. In early 1982, Burr-Brown Research Corporation, later part of Texas Instruments, Inc., demonstrated a 16-bit monolithic digital-to-analog converter. Coupled with earlier compact disc development by Philips and Sony, it enabled affordable high-quality compact disc players, helped transform music distribution and playback from analog phonograph records to digital compact discs, and ushered in digital media playback.
19th Century Textile Tools and Machinery Collection42° 38' 31.10" N, 71° 19' 1.33" WDuring the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, textile manufacture was the catalyst for the Industrial Revolution in America. It was the leading edge in the transformation from an agricultural to a manufacturing economy and started the move of significant numbers of people from rural areas to urban centers. With industrialization came a change in the way people worked. No longer controlled by natural rhythms, the workday demanded a life governed by the factory bell. On the consumer side, industrialization transformed textiles from one of a person's most valuable possessions to a product widely available at incredibly low prices.
20-inch Diameter Photomultiplier Tubes, 1979 - 198734° 48' 51.88" N, 137° 50' 14.15" EThe plaque may be viewed at HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K. Electron Tube Division, Toyooka Factory 314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. began developing 20-inch diameter photomultiplier tubes at Toyooka Factory in 1979 for a 3000-ton water-filled Cherenkov particle detector, Kamiokande-II, in response to a request by Professor Masatoshi Koshiba. 1071 PMTs on it collected photons induced in the water by the particles falling on it. Kamiokande-II detected a neutrino burst in the Supernova SN1987A in 1987, earning Professor Koshiba a Nobel Prize in 2002.
A.B. Wood Screw Pump29° 56' 40.29" N, 90° 4' 18.21" WIn the early 20th century, New Orleans, with its water table several feet below ground level, faced a crisis after every heavy rainfall—not just through the flooding that continues to imperil the city today, but also through yellow fever, malaria, and other disease caused by impure water. Drainage in New Orleans meant lifting every inch of rainfall out of the city mechanically and lifting it over protective levees—a process that was never successful until the screw pump was developed by A. Baldwin Wood (1879-1956) in 1912.
AAR Railroad-Wheel Dynamometer38° 26' 0.34" N, 104° 17' 3.43" WAn inertia dynamometer is used to test railroad wheels under controlled conditions that can greatly exceed normal service. The dynamometer at the Association of American Railroads (AAR), built in 1955, is the first and only railroad dynamometer to test track wheels using vertical and lateral loads, as well as thermal braking loads, at the wheel rim. It can also test railway car and locomotive axles.
ABACUS II Integrated-Circuit Wire Bonder32° 54' 41.32" N, 96° 45' 10.90" WTI's early ABACUS ("Alloy, Bond, Assembly Concept, Universal System") models remained too costly to build and lacked reliability. The ABACUS II project was begun in late 1971. This all-new automatic wire bonder was to be controlled by the recently announced TI960A computer, a powerful and inexpensive "bit-pusher" process-control computer. By 1972, ABACUS II was on the market as the first practical automated production machine for the assembly of integrated circuits. Using heat and pressure, it bonded fine gold wire to microscopic contacts on the silicon chip and pin connections on the package. The ABACUS II could maintain a positioning accuracy of ± 0.00025 inch while bonding up to 375 devices an hour.
AC Electrification of the New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad41° 1' 46.00" N, 73° 35' 50.00" WOn July 24, 1907, the first regular train to be operated under electric power completed a trip from Grand Central to New Rochelle, New York. Electrification was extended to Stamford in October of 1907.
ALCOA 50,000-Ton Hydraulic Forging Press41° 26' 50.89" N, 81° 40' 32.94" WThe ALCOA 50,000-ton die-forging press is among the largest fabrication tools in the world. It was designed and built for the U.S. Air Force by the Mesta Machine Company of Pittsburgh, following the discovery a 30,000-ton press used by the Germans in World War II (and later acquired by the Soviet Union).
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code42° 18' 11.25" N, 83° 13' 59.31" WPublished in 1914-15, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) was the first comprehensive standard for the design, construction, inspection, and testing of boilers and pressure vessels. With adoption in the United States and use in many countries, it has contributed significantly to public safety and influenced the continued development of boiler and pressure vessel technology.
A .O. Smith Automatic Frame Plant43° 4' 54.48" N, 87° 56' 55.42" WBuilt in 1920, the A.O. Smith Corporation's automated automobile frame factory—which took 6 years of labor and $8,000,000 to build—began production May 23, 1921, and operated until June 24, 1958. Known as the " Mechanical Marvel," it achieved a manufacturing output of better than one frame every six seconds, or 10,000 frames a day.
Aberdeen Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground39° 26' 42.76" N, 76° 9' 25.22" WDuring the 1930's, research into advanced ballistic measurement techniques began at Aberdeen Proving Ground—the world's first large-scale, fully-instrumented ballistic range producing data on the aerodynamic characteristics of missiles in free flight.
Acequias of San Antonio, 1718-174429° 18' 16.40" N, 98° 28' 10.00" WThe Acequias of San Antonio represents one of the earliest uses of engineered water supply and irrigation systems in the United States.
Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo, 109-11041° 54' 0.00" N, 12° 30' 0.00" EThe Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo, the original aqueduct built by the Emperor Trajan, circa 110 AD, was a symbol of the advanced infrastructure of ancient Rome. It continues to provide water for the fountains of Rome.
Active Shielding of Superconducting Magnets, 1984-198951° 46' 40.36" N, 1° 21' 49.91" WAt this site, the first actively shielded superconducting magnets for diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) use were conceived, designed, and produced. Active shielding reduced the size, weight, and installed cost of MRI systems, allowing them to be more easily transported and advantageously located, thereby benefiting advanced medical diagnosis worldwide.
Acueduto de Queretaro, 1726-173820° 25' 48.00" N, 100° 27' 48.00" WThe Acueducto de Queretaro, one of Mexico’s most important monuments, provided a dependable supply of clean water to the city of Queretaro, Mexico. It is still virtually intact.
Acueduto de Segovia, 1 - 99 AD40° 57' 0.00" N, 4° 10' 0.00" WOne of the best preserved Roman constructions,the Roman Aqueduct at Segovia was still in use as recently as the mid-20th century and remains standing only through an equilibrium of forces.
Adams Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 189543° 4' 54.42" N, 79° 2' 34.61" WNiagara Falls, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1990 - IEEE Buffalo Section. Only the 1895 transformer house,(long, grey-roofed building in center of satellite photo) designed by the famous architects McKim, Mead and White, remains at the original location. The entrance to the first Adams plant has been re-erected in the park on Goats Island (between the falls). When the Adams Plant went into operation on August 26, 1895, it represented a key victory for alternating-current systems over direct-current. The clear advantage of high voltage AC for long distance power transmission and the unprecedented size of the plant (it reached its full capacity of ten 5,000-HP generators in May 1900) influenced the future of the electrical industry worldwide.
Advanced Engine Test Facility at Marshall34° 38' 56.45" N, 86° 40' 8.43" WThe Advanced Engine Test Facility was built in 1964, three years after President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to world leadership in aeronautical science. Conceived and designed by Wernher von Braun, the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, this facility was used to perform static tests on the booster of the Saturn V rocket, which launched Apollo 11 to the moon on July 16, 1969.
Alaska Highway, 194255° 44' 0.00" N, 120° 13' 0.00" WBuilt in just eight months, the 2500 km (1570 miles) Alaska Highway was a significant feat of time-critical engineering and construction. Besides being completed much sooner than expected, it was the largest undertaking at the time for a cold-regions construction project.
Alden Research Laboratory Rotating Boom42° 20' 13.47" N, 71° 50' 3.59" WIn need of a moving test stand for hydraulic experiments and for rating current meters, Professor Charles Metcalf Allen, head of the Alden Hydraulic Laboratory from 1896 to 1950, designed a rotating test boom in 1908.
Alexanderson Radio Alternator, 190442° 48' 35.82" N, 73° 57' 5.58" WGeneral Electric Co., 1 River Rd, Building 37, Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: February 1992 - IEEE Schenectady Section. The Alexanderson radio alternator was a high-power, radio-frequency source which provided reliable transoceanic radiotelegraph communication during and after World War I. Ernst F.W. Alexanderson (1878-1975), a General Electric engineer, designed radio alternators with a frequency range to 100 kHz and a power capability from 2 kW to 200 kW. These machines, developed during the period 1904 to 1918, were used in research on high-frequency properties of materials as well as for international communications.
Allegheny Portage Railroad, 183440° 27' 15.00" N, 78° 32' 25.00" WA 36-mile railroad project, the Allegheny Portage RR included the first railroad tunnel in the United States, 10 double-track inclined planes and 4 viaducts.
Alligator Amphibian38° 32' 38.47" N, 77° 20' 35.80" WDonald Roebling, a grandson of Colonel Washington Roebling (designer of the Brooklyn Bridge), built an amphibian tractor to rescue victims of Florida's devastating hurricanes (particularly those in 1926, 1928, and 1932 that hit southern Florida). Nicknamed the "Alligator," the aluminum tractor was being marketed as a vehicle for oil exploration when it came to the attention of the United States Marine Corps, which was searching for a vehicle that could cross the coral reefs encircling many of the Pacific Islands. It was modified for use as a ship-to-shore transport for people and supplies during World War II.
Alouette-ISIS Satellite Program, 196245° 20' 41.75" N, 75° 52' 58.41" WShirley's Bay Research Centre, Nepean, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Driven by the need to understand the characteristics of radio communication in Canada's North, Canadian researchers focused on the exploration of the earth's upper atmosphere, the ionosphere. Canada's satellite program commenced with the launch of Alouette-I on September 29, 1962. Alouette-II followed in 1965, ISIS-I in 1969, ISIS-II in 1971. The Alouette/ISIS tracking antenna serves as a reminder of Canada's contribution to this international effort in space science.
Alternating-Current Electrification of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 190741° 1' 48.69" N, 73° 35' 55.82" WDedicated May 1982 - IEEE Connecticut Section. (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE). This was a pioneering venture in mainline railroad electrification. It established single-phase alternating current as a technical and economical alternative to direct current. This concept exerted considerable influence over subsequent systems both in the United States and abroad. The major components of the system were developed by the engineering staffs of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Alternating Current Electrification, 188642° 11' 54.39" N, 73° 21' 40.35" W1886 Corner of Cottage and Main Streets, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dedication: 2 October 2004, IEEE Berkshire Section. On 20 March 1886 William Stanley provided alternating current electrification to offices and stores on Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He thus demonstrated the first practical system for providing electrical illumination using alternating current with transformers to adjust voltage levels of the distribution system.
Alvin Deep-Sea Research Submersible, 1965-198441° 31' 30.00" N, 70° 40' 18.12" WIn 1965, the U.S. Navy commissioned the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s deep-sea submersible, Alvin. From 1974-84, Alvin’s engineers developed acoustical navigation (ALNAV), communications, photography, lighting, and life support systems specifically intended for the deepest oceans. It became one of the world’s most important deep-sea scientific instruments. Alvin discovered effects of pressure on seafloor microbes, and Alvin's study of hydrothermal vents revolutionized our understanding of life’s origins.
Alvord Lake Bridge, 188937° 46' 11.00" N, 122° 28' 37.00" WThe Alvord Lake Bridge, located in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, was the first reinforced concrete bridge built in the United States
American Precision Museum43° 28' 29.20" N, 72° 23' 22.40" WThe American Precision Museum, founded in 1966, is housed in the original 1846 Robbins & Lawrence Armory (National Engineering Landmark #120). The firm Robbins and Lawrence, which fulfilled a contract for 25,000 U.S. Army rifles and a like quantity for the British government, was the first to achieve interchangeability of parts on a fully practical level. This was made possible by the systematic improvement and refinement of existing standard and special-purpose machine tools, enabling them to perform with the close-limit precision essential for repeatability and then interchangeability. The firm simultaneously introduced the milling machine and the turret lathe into routine commercial usage for production manufacturing.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASCII, 196340° 23' 50.48" N, 74° 8' 15.71" WASCII, a character-encoding scheme originally based on the Latin alphabet, became the most common character encoding on the World Wide Web through 2007. ASCII is the basis of most modern character-encoding schemes. The American Standards Association X3.2 subcommittee published the first edition of the ASCII standard in 1963. Its first widespread commercial implementation was in the American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) Teletypewriter eXchange network and Teletype Model 33 teleprinters.
Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 189137° 51' 55.80" N, 107° 52' 54.06" WColorado State Highway 145, near Ophir, Colorado, U.S.A. Dedication: July 1988 - IEEE Pikes Peak Section. Electricity produced here in the spring of 1891 was transmitted 2.6 miles over rugged and at times inaccessible terrain to provide power for operating the motor-driven mill at the Gold King Mine. This pioneering demonstration of the practical value of transmitting electrical power was a significant precedent in the United States for much larger plants at Niagara Falls (in 1895) and elsewhere. Electricity at Ames was generated at 3000 volts, 133 Hertz, single-phase AC, by a 100-hp Westinghouse alternator.
Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel37° 24' 40.25" N, 122° 3' 15.72" WThe discovery of Germany's advanced wind tunnel facilities after World War II, in conjunction with its leadership in the research and development of rocket engines, jet engines, and supersonic guided missiles, posed a serious challenge to America's national security, prompting the United States Congress to pass the Unitary Wind Tunnel Plan Act of 1949.
Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Field-Effect Transistor Switches for Liquid Crystal Displays, 197956° 27' 29.68" N, 2° 58' 55.71" WA research team in the Physics department of Dundee University, Scotland demonstrated in 1979 that amorphous silicon field-effect transistors were able to switch liquid crystal arrays. Other semiconductor thin film materials had been found to be unsuitable for deposition on large area substrates. The invention laid the foundation for the commercial development of flat panel television displays.
Ampex Videotape Recorder, 195637° 26' 30.78" N, 122° 8' 34.87" WIn 1956, Ampex Corporation of Redwood City, California, introduced the first practical videotape recorder for television stations and networks to produce and time-shift broadcasts, replacing impractical "kinescope" movie film previously used to record TV. The Emmy-award-winning Ampex "VTR" analog-video standard ruled broadcasting and video production worldwide for twenty years.
Anderson-Barngroer Cont. Rotary Pressure Sterilizer41° 53' 6.99" N, 87° 37' 17.56" WPrior to 1920, a problem had baffled engineers for years: How to introduce a continuous stream of filled, sealed cans into a pressurized chamber full of steam; heat the contents uniformly and cook the cans for a prescribed length of time; then retrieve and cool them under pressure in the same continuous stream. At that time, the standard method of cooking, or sterilizing, canned products was in a closed retort that required up to 15 men to operate and long times for the heat to penetrate to the center of the immobile cans.
Apollo 11 Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LURE), 196937° 20' 28.82" N, 121° 38' 50.28" WOn 1 August 1969, Lick Observatory made the first Earth-to-Moon distance measurement with centimeter accuracy. The researchers fired a gigawatt ruby laser at a retro-reflector array placed on the Moon by Apollo 11 astronauts, and measured the time delay in detecting the reflected pulse. This was the first experiment using a hand-placed extraterrestrial instrument.
Apollo Guidance Computer, 1962-197242° 21' 53.43" N, 71° 5' 27.02" WCharles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. The Apollo Guidance Computer provided spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control during all of NASA’s Apollo Moon missions. It was developed under the leadership of Dr. Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Lab - now Draper Laboratory. This pioneering  digital flight computer was the first real-time embedded computing system to collect data automatically and provide mission-critical calculations for the Apollo Command Module and Lunar Module.
Apollo Lunar Module LM-1340° 43' 41.05" N, 73° 35' 50.64" WThe Apollo lunar module (LM-13) was developed by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. (now Northrop Grumman). The LM's main functions were to carry two astronauts from lunar orbit to the moon's surface, and then return them to lunar orbit to rendezvous and dock with the Apollo command-service modules. On the surface, the LM served as a shelter and base of operations as the astronauts carried out their exploration and experiments. On July 20, 1969, the LM "Eagle" touched down on the moon, becoming the first piloted spacecraft to land on a celestial body other than Earth. Five more landings followed. This vehicle, LM-13, was scheduled to fly as Apollo 18, and is representative of the lunar modules that traveled to the moon.
Apollo Space Command Module28° 31' 36.13" N, 80° 46' 57.00" WWhen the United States undertook Project Apollo, with the intent of landing American astronauts on the moon, the objective was to send a three-man Apollo spacecraft to the moon and into lunar orbit, land two of the three men on the moon in the lunar module while the third remained in orbit, return the lunar explorers to the orbiting spacecraft, and then return all three men safely to earth.
Apollo Space Suit39° 0' 14.91" N, 75° 29' 14.79" WThe Model A7L suit protected astronauts from the harsh conditions of space, while providing good mobility and the flexibility to walk the lunar surface and handle cameras and other equipment.
Archimedes Screw Pump37° 31' 16.45" N, 122° 1' 44.57" WThe wind-driven Archimedes screw-pump was used to recover salt through an age-old process of solar evaporation, which shifted brine from one salt concentrating pond to the one of next higher salinity. The screw-pump preserved in California represents a mechanically simple method used for more than a century in the San Francisco Bay Area, from about 1820 to 1930.
Arecibo Radiotelescope18° 20' 46.86" N, 66° 45' 10.15" WThe Arecibo Observatory has the largest radio telescope ever constructed. Maintaining the greatest electromagnetic wave gathering capacity of any telescope, it has been an essential tool in modern astronomy, ionosphere, and planetary studies.
Armour-Swift-Burlington Bridge, 191139° 7' 0.00" N, 94° 34' 46.00" WThe Armour-Swift-Burlington Bridge is a unique, telescoping vertical-lift, steel-truss bridge that spans the Missouri River at Kansas City and is representative of the innovative moveable bridges designed by leading bridge engineer John Alexander Low Waddell.
Arnold AFB Wind Tunnel35° 21' 51.79" N, 86° 4' 50.02" WThis propulsion wind tunnel (PWT) at Arnold Air Force Base was the first large-scale facility for testing jet and rocket engines in simulated high-speed flight conditions. It has a unique combination of transonic (1955) and supersonic (1960) wind tunnels using a common 236,000 horsepower drive, the world's largest when built. It could achieve air speeds up to Mach 4.75 at altitudes up to 150,000 feet in its 16-foot square, removable test sections. Design engineers were Lief J. Sverdrup, John R. Parcel, Brice Smith, and Walter Cook, of Sverdrup and Parcel, St. Louis.
Arroyo Seco Parkway, 194034° 6' 0.00" N, 118° 12' 0.00" WThe 6.7-mile Arroyo Seco Parkway was the first freeway in the United States to be built as a state highway and the first freeway west of the Mississippi.
Ascutney Mill Dam, 183443° 28' 36.00" N, 72° 23' 46.00" WThe Ascutney Mill Dam is among the very earliest masonry dams of significant size. Made of granite, the dam is the structural precursor of today’s concrete gravity dams.
Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 193942° 1' 26.40" N, 93° 38' 21.12" W226 Atanasoff Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Dedication: April 1990 - IEEE Central Iowa Section. John Vincent Atanasoff conceived basic design principles for the first electronic-digital computer in the winter of 1937 and, assisted by his graduate student, Clifford E. Berry, constructed a prototype here in October 1939. It used binary numbers, direct logic for calculation, and a regenerative memory. It embodied concepts that would be central to the future development of computers.
Atlantic City Municipal Convention Center, 192939° 21' 24.00" N, 74° 26' 11.00" WWhen completed, the Atlantic City Convention Hall was the world’s largest auditorium and the greatest permanent-span three-hinged roof arch system ever built.
Atlantic Coast Line30° 19' 38.82" N, 81° 40' 20.21" WAtlantic Coast Line (ACL) 1504, built by American Locomotive Co. Richmond Works, is a "light pacific," the most common USRA passenger design. The 1504 was one of 81 light pacifics. It was in service on ACL for over 30 years, most of which was spent in passenger service hauling 10 to 12 cars at 70 mph. After diesel power was introduced, the P-5-A engines were put into freight service, and the 1504 was in service in the Tampa area until retired in 1952.
Atlas Computer and the Invention of Virtual Memory, 1957-196253° 27' 57.78" N, 2° 13' 50.31" WThe Atlas computer was designed and built in this building by Tom Kilburn and a joint team of the University of Manchester and Ferranti Ltd. The most significant new feature of Atlas was the invention of virtual memory, allowing memories of different speeds and capacities to act as a single large fast memory separately available to multiple users. Virtual memory became a standard feature of general-purpose computers.
Atlas Launch Vehicle32° 49' 31.99" N, 116° 58' 16.98" WIn October 1945, Convair signed a contract with the Air Force to come up with ideas for missiles in four ranges, from 20 to 5,000 miles. The assignment went to a group of engineers, headed by Charlie Bossart, at Convair's Vultee Field Division, near Downey, California. When Vultee closed, the engineers moved to San Diego. Almost from the start, they decided to concentrate on the toughest, but potentially most powerful, of the four missiles the study contract specified: a 5,000-mile ballistic missile.
BASIC Computer Language, 196443° 42' 9.60" N, 72° 17' 23.44" WBeginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) was created in this building. During the mid-1970s and 1980s, BASIC was the principal programming language used on early microcomputers. Its simplicity and wide acceptance made it useful in fields beyond science and mathematics, and enabled more people to harness the power of computation.
BF Clyde's Cider Mill41° 23' 56.18" N, 71° 57' 14.20" WBF Clyde's cider mill is a rare survivor of a once-commonplace seasonal rural industry. In the 19th and 20th centuries, a cider mill could be found in every community where apples were grown. In the fall, mills converted the fruit of the orchard into drink just as the grist mill converted the grain into flour.
Bailey Island Bridge, 192843° 44' 57.80" N, 69° 59' 18.60" WThe Bailey Island Bridge was an innovative split-stone open crib construction that carries the concrete deck that bridges the navigation channel without impeding tidal flow.
Baltimore & Ohio39° 17' 7.53" N, 76° 37' 57.41" WBaltimore & Ohio (B & O) 4500, built by Baldwin Locomotive Works, was the first USRA locomotive built. It is a "light Mikado," the most common USRA freight design. B&O assigned the 4500 Class Q-3 and acquired more than 100 of these 2-8-2s.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Old Main Line39° 17' 7.52" N, 76° 37' 57.96" WBefore the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was built, all American railroads were privately owned and created for the purpose of hauling the goods and materials of their owners. But on January 7, 1830, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad became the first railroad to carry paying passengers, and it is now the oldest railroad in the United States.
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Roundhouse & Shop complex, 1842-1850s39° 27' 0.00" N, 77° 57' 0.00" WThe B&O RR Roundhouse is the sole surviving cast-iron framed roundhouse and an important example of mid-19th century industrial building design.
Barker Turbine/Hacienda Buena Vista18° 5' 3.71" N, 66° 39' 16.98" WThe historic Hacienda Buena Vista coffee plantation, near Ponce, Puerto Rico, is home to the only known example of a Barker turbine, the earliest practical reaction turbine design. Water jetting from nozzles at the ends of the arms cause the arm-and-shaft assembly to rotate. The brass nozzles were adjusted to balance the water flow to each side. It can produce about 6 hp at 22 rpm.
Basic-Oxygen Steel Making Vessel42° 9' 14.64" N, 83° 10' 30.97" WIn 1934, Donald B. McLouth organized the McLouth Steel Corporation. By 1954, the corporation had to grow or die: As a small rerolling mill, it had to purchase its steel in a semi-finished state from other domestic mills. The strong demand for steel naturally dictated that these mills use their own capacity rather than sell it to a competitor.
Batavia Windmills41° 51' 5.16" N, 88° 18' 37.12" WThe early mass-produced, self-governing windmills in the Batavia Historical Society Museum and Research Center's collection were designed for ease of assembly, operation, and maintenance by six manufacturing companies in the town of Batavia, Illinois from 1863 to 1951. During this time, Batavia became known as "The Windmill City" for being the largest windmill manufacturer in the U.S.
Bay Area Rapid Transit System37° 47' 50.45" N, 122° 15' 54.94" WMass transit was in its heyday at the turn of the 20th century, marked by the opening of systems in Paris (1900), New York (1904), and Philadelphia (1907). But the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system didn't open until 1972—a gap in time that allowed for an innovative spirit and a "clean slate" approach to building the transit system of the future.
Bay City Walking Dredge25° 59' 29.95" N, 81° 35' 30.19" WBuilt by the Bay City Dredge Works of Bay City, Michigan, the Bay City Walking Dredge was used to construct a portion of US 41 called the Tamiami Trail, which connected Tampa with Miami through the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp. The last remaining display of walking dredges (of some 145 walking machines), it has a unique propulsion design enabling the dredge to cope with drainage problems in a wetlands environment.
Bayonne Bridge, 193140° 38' 32.00" N, 74° 8' 33.00" WAt the time of completion, the steel arch Bayonne Bridge was the greatest span (1675 feet) of its type in the world.
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1925-198340° 41' 3.75" N, 74° 24' 5.86" WThe plaque may be viewed at Alcatel-Lucent, 600 Mountain Ave., Murray Hill, NJ, U.S.A.
Belle Fourche Dam, 191144° 45' 0.00" N, 103° 40' 0.00" WThe Belle Fourche Dam was the largest homogeneous rolled-earth fill dam in the world when completed in 1911.
Belle Isle Gas Turbine34° 49' 51.45" N, 82° 17' 5.10" WThe 3,500 kilowatt (kW) gas turbine that General Electric (GE) delivered to the Belle Isle Station of the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company in Oklahoma City in July 1949 was the first gas turbine in the U.S. used to generate electric power. With an efficient power design created by GE's engineers, the turbine effectively gave birth to the modern power generation industry by transforming the early aircraft gas turbine—whose engines rarely ran for more than 10 hours at a time—into a long-running utility power machine.
Belle of Louisville38° 15' 33.07" N, 85° 45' 20.13" WApril 30, 1963 marked the beginning of a new tradition as the now-Belle of Louisville faced off against the Delta Queen in the now renowned Kentucky Derby Festival. Today, the steamboat, the oldest operating "western rivers" steamboat, is owned by the Louisville Metro Government and plays an important part in the cultural and historical heritage of the City of Louisville and the entire region.
Benjamin Franklin's work in London, 1757-177551° 30' 26.96" N, 0° 7' 29.64" W36 Craven Street, London, England. Dedication: 31 March 2003 - IEEE UKRI Section. Benjamin Franklin, American electrician, printer, and diplomat, spent many years on Craven Street. He lived at No. 7 between 1772 and 1775 and at No. 36 from 1757-1762 and again from 1764-1772. During these years, Franklin popularized the study of electricity, performed experiments, and served as an advisor on lightning conductors.
Bergen County Steam Collection40° 54' 7.60" N, 74° 2' 3.81" WBergen County Technical Schools' collection of equipment—all of it maintained in operating condition and used for educational purposes—was established in 1987. It spans the period from the late 19th century to the 1940s, when steam was the prime motive force for most U.S. industries, including rail and marine transportation.
Bessemer Conversion Engine43° 5' 52.16" N, 85° 34' 4.86" WThe 1895 discovery of oil underground at Titusville, Pa., required engines to drive drills and pump oil, but steam engines proved costly to operate. In 1898, Dr. Edwin J. Fithian and John Carruthers formed the Bessemer Gas Engine Company and produced kits to convert steam engines into the new internal combustion engines, fueled with oil-field natural gas. The landmark gas engine, in service for 75 years, is a kit conversion of an 1880s Innis steam engine. It illustrates the transition to internal combustion and how machine life can be extended by clever adaptation of newer technology to save cost and resources.
Bethlehem Waterworks, 175540° 37' 9.00" N, 75° 23' 0.00" WThe Bethlehem Waterworks was the first known pumping system providing drinking and wash water in the North American Colonies.
Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge, 185539° 30' 50.00" N, 121° 30' 19.01" WTypical of the suspension bridges constructed during California gold rush days, the Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge is the only remaining suspension bridge of its time in the West.
Big Brutus Mine Shovel37° 16' 24.65" N, 94° 56' 18.65" WWhen built in 1962 at a cost of $6.5 million, the "Big Brutus" mine shovel was the second largest in the world. It was used for the removal of overburden in the surface mining of thin coal seams. In its lifetime, it recovered nine million tons of bituminous coal from depths of 20 to 50 feet for local electric power generation. Standing 160-feet high, weighing 5,500 tons, and moving at speeds up to two-tenths of a mile per hour, the machine ran around the clock and stripped about a square mile each year. The bucket scooped out 90 cubic yards, or 135 tons, of earth with each bite.
Big Surf Waterpark33° 26' 44.60" N, 111° 54' 45.31" WBig Surf Waterpark opened in 1969 as a 20 acre complex in Tempe, 10 miles east of downtown Phoenix. The Waterpark's Waikiki Beach uses a mechanical wave machine that creates a single transverse wave of sufficient height and duration to permit surfing.
Birome Ballpoint Pen Collection34° 35' 36.98" S, 58° 22' 58.20" WThe ballpoint pen invented by Ladislao Jose Biro was originally patented in Hungary in 1938. As a journalist, Biro had been inspired by the concept of quick-drying ink in a print shop. He thought of a new type of pen that could use quick-drying thick ink, rather than the thin, wet, ink used in fountain and quill pens.
Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893#GS Yuasa International Ltd., Kyoto Head Office, Global Technical Head Quarters34° 58' 39.84" N, 135° 43' 23.98" EYai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.
Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893#GS Yuasa International Ltd., Tokyo Head Office35° 39' 26.65" N, 139° 45' 9.05" EYai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.
Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893#Panasonic Corporation, Automotive and Industrial Systems Company Head Office34° 44' 21.19" N, 135° 34' 21.60" EYai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.
Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893#Panasonic Corporation, Energy Device Business Division Head Office34° 43' 39.51" N, 135° 34' 0.42" EYai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.
Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893#Panasonic Corporation, Portable Rechargeable Battery Business Group Head Office34° 20' 37.73" N, 134° 51' 38.42" EYai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.
Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 189334° 58' 51.93" N, 135° 43' 41.00" EYai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.
Birthplace of Silicon Valley, 195637° 24' 17.55" N, 122° 6' 39.08" WAt this location, 391 San Antonio Road, the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory manufactured the first silicon devices in what became known as Silicon Valley. Some of the talented scientists and engineers initially employed there left to found their own companies, leading to the birth of the silicon electronics industry in the region. Hundreds of firms in electronics and computing can trace their origins back to Shockley Semiconductor.
Birthplace of the Bar Code, 194839° 57' 17.72" N, 75° 11' 10.83" WPlaque may be viewed at Drexel University's Bossone Research Center, 31st Street and Market Street, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. In an attempt to automate the reading of product information in a local grocery store, Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland at the Drexel Institute of Technology developed a solution that became the ubiquitous Barcode Identification System. Patented in 1952, the Barcode has become a key technology for product identification and inventory control in industry and daily life.
Birthplace of the Internet, 196934° 4' 15.74" N, 118° 26' 28.17" WUniversity of California, Los Angeles, CA. At 10:30 p.m., 29 October 1969, the first ARPANET message was sent from this UCLA site to the Stanford Research Institute. Based on packet switching and dynamic resource allocation, the sharing of information digitally from this first node of ARPANET launched the Internet revolution.
Blenheim Bridge, 185542° 28' 21.11" N, 74° 26' 28.58" WThe covered wooden truss Blenheim Bridge was the longest (210 feet) bridge of its kind in the world until the Blenheim Bridge was destroyed by flooding in 2011.
Blimp Hangars, 1942-194333° 42' 24.00" N, 117° 49' 18.00" WThe blimp hangars in California remain the largest clear span wooden structures in the world.
Blood Heat Exchanger43° 0' 2.82" N, 78° 47' 21.89" WThe design and development of a unique blood heat exchanger for use in open heart surgery was completed in 1957. It was a joint effort by engineers of Harrison Radiator Division, General Motors Corporation in Lockport, N.Y., and medical researchers from the Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C.
Blue Ridge Parkway, 193736° 31' 7.00" N, 80° 56' 9.00" WBegun in 1935, the 469-mile Blue Ridge Parkway was, at the time, the longest road ever planned as a single unit in the United States.
Boeing 367-8038° 54' 41.20" N, 77° 26' 38.80" WThe Boeing 367-80, also known as the Dash-80, is the prototype for most jet transports. Its success was due largely to its mechanical systems, including turbine engines with thrust reversers and noise suppressors, redundant hydraulic control systems, and an improved cabin-pressurization system. Honeycomb flap panels were introduced, along with a strong, lightweight structural design that controlled fatigue cracking. These led to several innovations in aircraft tooling and manufacturing techniques.
Bollman Truss Bridge, 185239° 8' 5.00" N, 76° 49' 31.00" WThe Bollman Truss Bridge is the only remaining example of a patented design that was used extensively on the Baltimore & Ohio and other railroads.
Bonneville Dam, Columbia River Power & Nav System, 193745° 38' 39.00" N, 121° 56' 26.00" WThe Bonneville Dam was the first Federal dam of 55 major hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River. The array constitutes one of the largest hydroelectric systems in the world.
Book “Experiments and Observations on Electricity” by Benjamin Franklin, 1751#American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, PA.39° 56' 55.86" N, 75° 8' 51.44" WIn April 1751 the Royal Society published Benjamin Franklin's book, "Experiments and Observations on Electricity: Made in Philadelphia in America." A collection of letters to London's Peter Collinson, it described Franklin's ideas about the nature of electricity and how electrical devices worked, and new experiments to investigate lightning.
Borden Base Line, 183142° 22' 21.00" N, 72° 37' 12.00" WThe Borden Base Line, a survey line of over 39,000 feet, remains today as an outstanding achievement in precision measurements. It obtained international recognition for American skill in geodetic engineering.
Boston Subway, 189742° 21' 23.00" N, 71° 3' 47.00" WAs the first subway in North America and an engineering innovation, the Boston Subway became the prototype for other urban mass transit subway systems in the United States.
Boulton & Watt Rotative Steam Engine33° 43' 30.39" S, 150° 58' 23.82" EJames Watt (1736-1819) designed and built engines incorporating many of the mechanical innovations that became steam engine practice: separate condenser, parallel motion and centrifugal governor, the sun-and-planet crank motion, and the double-acting cylinder.
Boyden Hydraulic Turbines42° 46' 55.56" N, 73° 42' 19.76" WThese two water turbines at Harmony Mill No. 3 in Cohoes were probably the largest and nearly the most powerful ever built in the United States, supplying direct mechanical power to a manufacturing plant. Their installation between 1871 and 1873 makes them among the oldest surviving water turbines.
Brandywine River Powder Mills39° 46' 25.27" N, 75° 34' 43.55" WFounded by Eleuthère Irénéé du Pont (1771-1834), the Brandywine River Mills became the largest maker of explosive black powder in the United States. That success resulted directly from the firm's pioneering use of gunpowder processing machinery driven by water wheels and water turbines. Divided into separate buildings to promote safety, its rolling, graining, and glazing mills produced black powder in a range of grades for military, sporting, hunting, construction, mining, and other applications.
Bridgeport Covered Bridge, 186239° 17' 33.86" N, 121° 11' 41.66" WThe Bridgeport Covered Bridge is the longest single span covered bridge (230 feet) west of the Mississippi River.
Bridges of Keeseville, 182144° 30' 0.00" N, 73° 29' 0.00" WThe Bridges of Keeseville, three remarkable operational 19th century bridges of different types, are all within 500 yards of each other. The evolution of civil engineering materials, analysis, and design, is clearly illustrated by these structures, all of which remain in service.
Bridges of Niagara, 1848 - 194143° 6' 33.00" N, 79° 3' 30.00" WThe Bridges of Niagara, a collective name for a series of structures built and replaced since 1848, span the Niagara Gorge below Niagara Falls. The successful crossing of the gorge required the skill of many engineers willing to take risks and extend their engineering knowledge beyond established limits, which greatly contributed to the advancement of design techniques for suspension and arch bridges.
Brooklyn Bridge, 188340° 42' 20.48" N, 73° 59' 47.00" WWhen built, the Brooklyn Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world and the first to use steel cables and trusses.
Brooks AFB, Old Hanger 9, 191929° 20' 37.00" N, 98° 26' 38.00" WOut of 16 hangars and support facilities of the Brooks Air Force Field, Old Hangar 9 is the only one still standing from this WWI era training camp.
Browning Firearms Collection41° 13' 14.83" N, 111° 58' 47.08" WThe Browning firearms collection at the Ogden Union Station Museum recognizes the inventive talents of John Moses Browning (1855-1926), a prolific and significant designer of firearms, whose designs were known for simplicity, accuracy, and reliability. He held more than 128 patents covering 80 distinct firearms produced by Winchester, Remington, Colt, Fabrique Nationale, Savage, and General Motors (during wartime), among others. The display includes 35 pistols, 33 rifles, 33 shotguns, and 9 military automatics, either production models or original guns made by Browning.
Buckeye Steam Traction Ditcher41° 2' 14.66" N, 83° 39' 21.85" WJames B. Hill (1856-1945) patented the first successful traction ditching machine in 1894. Hill initially worked in a Bowling Green, Ohio, machine shop. He later moved to Deshler, then Carey, Ohio, producing ditchers in both locations. Hill moved to Findlay in 1902, where a foundry (Van Buren, Heck, and Marvin Company) produced the ditchers. The name was changed to Buckeye Steam Traction Company in 1906. The ditcher was also used in New Orleans, Africa, and Ontario, Canada. Steam engines powered the ditchers until 1908, when gasoline engines replaced them; the gasoline engines were, in turn, replaced by diesel engines in the 1920s.
Budapest Metroline No.1., 189647° 29' 53.02" N, 19° 3' 8.32" EIn 1896, Budapest Metro Line No. 1 was inaugurated, the first underground railway designed specifically to use electric power, rather than adapted from steam-powered systems. It offered several innovative elements, including bidirectional motor carriages, the “goose neck chassis,” and electric lighting in the stations and carriages. This line's design influenced later subway construction in Boston, Paris, Berlin, and other metropolitan areas worldwide.
Buffalo Bill Dam, 191044° 30' 6.00" N, 109° 11' 3.00" WWhen completed, the Buffalo Bill Dam was the highest in the world, and the only one with a height/width ratio greater than one.
Bunker Hill Covered Bridge, 189435° 43' 17.00" N, 81° 6' 55.00" WThe Bunker Hill Covered Bridge, constructed in 1895 and restored in 1994, is the only remaining example of the improved lattice-truss timber bridge patented by Herman Haupt in 1839.
Burton Farmers Gin Mill30° 10' 49.95" N, 96° 35' 40.33" WThe Burton Farmers Gin Mill is the earliest known survivor of an integrated cotton ginning system widely used to process cotton from wagon to bale in a continuous operation.
CERN Experimental Instrumentation, 196846° 13' 42.39" N, 6° 4' 19.98" ECERN Laboratories, Geneva, Switzerland, Dedication: 26 September 2005, IEEE France Section, endorsed by the IEEE Switzerland Section. At CERN laboratories the invention of multiple-wire proportional chambers and drift chambers revolutionized the domain of electronic particle detectors, leading to new research on the constitution of matter. The development of unique electrical and electronic devices made possible the major high-energy physics experiments which have been recognized worldwide.
Cabin John Aqueduct, 1857-186238° 58' 22.28" N, 77° 8' 52.69" WThe Cabin John Aqueduct was the longest span stone masonry arch in the world until 1903. This structure still provides water to Washington, DC, as well as carrying the traffic loads.
Calcutta Electric Supply Corp, 189922° 33' 41.81" N, 88° 22' 0.27" EThe Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC) established the first commercial electric supply company in South Asia. CESC switched on the 1000 kW thermal power generation plant at Emambagh Lane, Prinsep Street in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on 17 April 1899. This delivered 450/225V DC power for street lighting, residential and office buildings, and the Calcutta Tramways. The event heralded the era of electricity in the Indian Subcontinent.
Caledonian Canal, 1804-182256° 59' 0.00" N, 5° 7' 19.80" WAt the time, the Caledonian Canal was the largest series of locks ever built. The canal significantly advanced highland development and engineering knowledge.
Callan's Pioneering Contributions to Electrical Science and Technology, 183653° 22' 54.19" N, 6° 35' 25.54" WElectronic Engineering and Biosciences Building, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland. Dedication: September 2006. Reverend Nicholas Callan (1799 - 1864), professor of Natural Philosophy at Saint Patrick's College Maynooth, contributed significantly to the understanding of electrical induction and the development of the induction coil. He did this through a series of experiments that made the inductive transient phenomena visibly clear. The apparatus used in these experiments was replicated in other laboratories.
Canton Viaduct, 183542° 9' 0.00" N, 71° 9' 0.00" WWhen completed, the Canton Viaduct was the longest and tallest railroad viaduct ever built. It is the last surviving viaduct of its kind and has been in continuous service for over 170 years.
Cape Cod Canal, 1909-191441° 45' 51.13" N, 70° 34' 6.28" WWithout the use of locks, the sea-level, 17-mile Cape Cod Canal was designed to successfully cope with a tidal differential of 4.5 feet coupled with a three-hour out-of-phase tidal cycle.
Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, 187035° 15' 1.92" N, 75° 31' 43.74" WAt 198 feet, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse is the tallest in the United States and the second tallest brick light tower in the world.
Carrollton Viaduct, 182937° 16' 0.00" N, 76° 40' 0.00" WThe Carrollton Viaduct was the first major structure that was part of an American railroad.
Castillo De San Marcos, 1672-169529° 53' 52.00" N, 81° 18' 41.00" WA unique link between medieval European military engineering and modern American civil engineering, the Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest major engineered structure in the United States.
Cedar Falls Water Supply, 1902-190547° 36' 35.00" N, 122° 19' 59.00" WThe Cedar Falls Water Supply was the first municipally owned hydroelectric project in the United Sates, and the forerunner of the public power movement.
Central Pacific Railroad, 186938° 33' 20.00" N, 121° 28' 8.00" WAmerica’s first transcontinental railroad, the Central Pacific Railroad, began in Sacramento in 1863, and was completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah.
Chain of Rocks Water Purification Plant, 1886-191538° 45' 0.00" N, 90° 30' 0.00" WAt the Chain of Rocks Water Purification Plant, a civil engineer and a chemist cooperated on an innovative process of chemical coagulation to purify the highly turbid water of the Mississippi River. This pioneering effort was recognized internationally as an outstanding success in the field of municipal water supply.
Chapin Mine Pump45° 49' 13.17" N, 88° 3' 49.50" WThe Chapin Mine, one of the large strikes in the Lake Superior geological district, was located under a cedar swamp—and it was completely unminable until it was drained by one of the largest pumping engines of the 1880s. The mine began producing ore in 1880, and while miners used the most advanced technology of the day to access it—sinking a deep shaft through 90 feet of quicksand, using enormous pumps driven by compressed air, freezing the sand with two of the largest refrigeration compressors built, and lining the shaft with a sectional cast-iron circular shell—this method, along with conventional pumps that removed water from the lower levels, proved inadequate within ten years. As the problem grew in severity, the Edward P. Allis Company of Milwaukee was contracted to build the gigantic pumping engine, now designated as a landmark, which began operating in 1893.
Charles River Basin Project, 191042° 21' 46.00" N, 71° 6' 28.00" WA pioneering environmental engineering project, the Charles River Basin Project converted 675 acres of estuarial muck into a freshwater basin of beauty and recreational value and has served as an international model in environmental engineering, landscape architecture, and urban planning.
Charleston-Hamburg Railroad, 183332° 47' 0.00" N, 79° 56' 0.00" WAt the time of its construction, the Charleston-Hamburg Railroad was the world’s longest railroad (136 miles).
Cheesman Dam, 190539° 12' 27.03" N, 105° 16' 20.05" WWhen completed, the Cheesman Dam was the world’s highest gravity stone arch masonry dam.
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, 182939° 32' 40.00" N, 75° 43' 14.00" WThe Chesapeake & Delaware Canal is the only canal built in 19th-century America that still operates today as a major shipping route. It was one of the first civil engineering projects proposed in the New World and one of the most difficult to carry out.
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Scoop Wheel & Engines39° 31' 38.47" N, 75° 48' 24.30" WAs early as 1661, a need was seen for a canal that would link Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River as a shortcut between Baltimore and Philadelphia. By 1802, sufficient funds had been raised to incorporate the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company. The success of the Erie Canal in 1825 sparked Pennsylvania's concern that New York would become the center of trade with the West, and construction of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal began in earnest, including the excavation of a three-mile stretch through solid rock, known as the "Deep Cut." The canal opened in 1829 and, at the time, was only 13 5/8-miles long with a width exceeding 66 feet.
Chesbrough's Chicago Water Supply system, 1864-186941° 53' 50.00" N, 87° 37' 26.00" WDesigned to supply 50 gallons of potable water per capita per day for one million people, the Chicago Water Supply System consisted of a two-mile tunnel under Lake Michigan with an intake crib.
Chestnut Street Pumping Engine42° 7' 54.29" N, 80° 5' 48.12" WBuilt in 1913 by the Bethlehem Steel Company, the engine operated from 1913 to 1951, when the plant was electrified.
Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad Roundhouse41° 45' 39.18" N, 88° 18' 31.15" WThe Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy Railroad (CB&Q) was the first railroad to link Chicago and the Mississippi River, in the 1850s. Its forty-stall roundhouse, large even for its time, became a major center for railroad activity for the CB&Q. As a repair and construction facility, it produced more steam engines, passenger cars, precision parts, tools, and machines than any other CB&Q installation. At least 250 locomotives were built in Aurora between 1871 and 1910—a period in which track mileage increased five-fold and railroads were the only cross-country transportation.
Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project34° 20' 59.00" N, 111° 41' 57.00" WThe Childs Plant, which included three Pelton-wheel generators at 9,000 horsepower (6,700 kilowatts), was completed in 1909, followed by the Irving Plant with a single Allis-Chalmers' Francis turbine at 2,100 horsepower (1,560 kilowatts), completed in 1916. Mule teams carried construction materials up the mountainous terrain, necessitating innovative use of steel towers rather than wooden transmission poles.
Chivilingo Hydroelectric Plant, 189737° 5' 25.85" S, 73° 9' 34.83" W14km south of Lota, Chile. Dedication: October 2001, IEEE Chile Section. The 1897 430 kW Chivilingo Plant was the first hydroelectric plant in Chile and the second in South America. A 10 km line fed the Lota coal mines and the railway extracting minerals 12 km from shore under the sea. It represented a new key technology and a new source of electrical energy in the region as a tool for economic development. Chivilingo demonstrated the advantages of industrial use of electricity and hastened its widespread adoption in Chile.
Choate Bridge, 176442° 40' 46.00" N, 70° 50' 16.00" WThe Choate Bridge is the oldest documented two-span masonry arch bridge in the United States
City Plan of Philadelphia, 168222° 36' 29.00" N, 102° 22' 45.00" WIncluding many firsts for the United States, such as a gridiron street pattern and open public squares, the city plan of Philadelphia provided a model for city planning that has helped mold the development of cities throughout the country.
City Plan of Savannah, 173332° 1' 0.00" N, 81° 7' 0.00" WThe city plan of Savannah is the oldest city plan in the United States to use a repetitive modular grid with mixed residential blocks and multi-purpose public areas, a concept still being emulated by urban planners today.
Cleveland Hopkins Airport, 192541° 24' 42.00" N, 81° 50' 59.00" WThe Cleveland Hopkins Airport is the first major municipal airport to provide an integrated engineered system of paved landing surfaces, floodlit runways, and a terminal complex consisting of both operational buildings and hangars.
Code-breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, 1939-194552° 0' 21.08" N, 0° 43' 39.90" WBletchley Park, Milton Keynes, England. Dedication: 1 April 2003 - IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section. On this site during the 1939-45 World War, 12,000 men and women broke the German Lorenz and Enigma ciphers, as well as Japanese and Italian codes and ciphers. They used innovative mathematical analysis and were assisted by two computing machines developed here by teams led by Alan Turing: the electro-mechanical Bombe developed with Gordon Welchman, and the electronic Colossus designed by Tommy Flowers. These achievements greatly shortened the war, thereby saving countless lives.
Colorado River Aqueduct, 1933-194134° 17' 23.94" N, 114° 10' 19.54" WThe 242-mile Colorado River aqueduct provided the water that made the large scale population and economic growth of Southern California possible.
Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge, 193040° 1' 44.00" N, 76° 31' 1.00" WWhen completed, the Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge was the longest multiple-arch concrete highway bridge (one-mile) in the world.
Columbia (Old) River Scenic Highway, 1913 - 192245° 38' 0.00" N, 121° 13' 0.00" WThe Columbia River Scenic Highway is an outstanding example of civil engineering, which blended 74 miles of roadways, tunnels, viaducts, and overlooks into the natural environment harmoniously.
Colvin Run Mill38° 58' 6.58" N, 77° 17' 34.99" WColvin Run Mill is an early 19th century operating gristmill, closely modeled on the principles developed by Oliver Evans (1755-1819). Powered by a waterwheel, the restored mill was probably built on or after 1811 on the site of an older mill. Originally, the site was the property of George Washington, who identified it as ideal for a mill site.
Commercialization and Industrialization of Photovoltaic Cells, 195934° 28' 32.66" N, 135° 44' 29.43" ESHARP Corporation, Katsuragi-shi, Nara, Japan. Sharp Corporation pioneered the development and commercialization of photovoltaic (PV) cells for applications ranging from satellites to lighthouses to residential uses. From the beginning of research into monocrystal PV-cells in 1959, to the mass production of amorphous PV-cells in 1983, this work contributed greatly toward the industrialization of photovoltaic technologies and toward the mitigation of global warming.
Commercialization of Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors with Nickel Electrodes, 198234° 55' 26.04" N, 135° 42' 6.84" EMurata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. commercialized Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors with Nickel Electrodes (Ni-MLCC) in 1982, of which it became a major manufacturer. Further innovations in capacitance enhancement, product miniaturization, and cost reduction made these ceramic capacitors widely used in computer and communication devices for industrial, medical, and consumer applications. Ubiquitous global applications of Ni- MLCC resulted in annual production of more than one trillion units in 2021.
Commonwealth Building Heat Pump45° 31' 14.99" N, 122° 40' 40.87" WThe use of heat pumps for the heating and cooling of the Commonwealth Building, initiated in 1948, was a pioneering achievement in the western hemisphere. The theoretical conception of the heat pump was described in a neglected book, published in 1824 and written by a young French army officer, Sadi Carnot. Its practical application on a large scale is attributable to designers J. Donald Kroeker and Ray C. Chewning, building engineer Charles E. Graham, and architect Pietro Belluschi.
Compact Disc Audio Player, 197951° 24' 54.77" N, 5° 27' 25.61" EHigh Tech Campus, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. On 8 March 1979, N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken demonstrated for the international press a Compact Disc Audio Player. The demonstration showed that it is possible by using digital optical recording and playback to reproduce audio signals with superb stereo quality. This research at Philips established the technical standard for digital optical recording systems.
Conwy Suspension Bridge, 182653° 17' 0.00" N, 3° 49' 0.00" WA major structure on the strategically important Bangor to Chester road, the Conwy Suspension Bridge was built with the identical technology developed for the larger Menai Bridge and still has its original iron chains.
Conwy Tubular Bridge, 184853° 16' 49.00" N, 3° 49' 25.00" WThe Conwy Tubular Bridge was the first railway bridge in which trains ran through the main girders. It represents a pioneering use of wrought iron for bridges and a major advance in the development of box-section girder elements.
Coolspring Power Museum41° 2' 34.40" N, 79° 5' 3.72" WThe Coolspring Power Museum exhibits examples of most of the early solutions and innovations that affected the marketability of the stationary internal combustion engine. Built up from the collections of John Wilcox and Paul Harvey (in the 1950s), this museum grew into possibly the largest US collection of internal combustion engine technology, including about 250 engines many of which are permanently mounted and operational.
Cooper-Bessemer Type GMV Integral-Angle Gas Engine-Compressor40° 22' 45.26" N, 82° 30' 31.35" WThe Cooper-Bessemer Type GMV Integral-Angle Gas Engine-Compressor was a product of the combined technology and design heritage of both the C. & G. Cooper Company of Mount Vernon and the Bessemer Gas Engine Company of Pennsylvania, which had merged in 1929. Ralph L. Boyer, the chief architect of the GMV, worked for Cooper-Bessemer from 1926 through 1965.
Cooper Steam Traction Engine Collection40° 22' 45.34" N, 82° 30' 31.41" WThe engines at the Knox County Historical Society, built by Cooper & Co. of Mount Vernon, are among the oldest surviving agricultural steam engines to show the evolution from the portable, skid-mounted engine (ca. 1860), to the horse-drawn engine (1875), to the self-propelled but horse-guided engine (1875), and finally to the self-propelled, self-steered traction engine (1883). Such engines powered the conversion to mechanized farming, which was a great hallmark of the Industrial Revolution. Cooper built over 15,000 engines between 1853 and 1890 and other companies built thousands more based on the pioneering Cooper designs.
Cooperative Fuel Research Engine43° 0' 14.73" N, 88° 14' 59.79" WThe first commercial CFR engine was designed and built in forty-five days, beginning in December 1928. It was put on display on January 14, 1929 at the Society of Automotive Engineer's Annual meeting. The engine improved the ability of the automotive and petroleum industries to tailor their products to perform better together, because it provided a recognized standard for defining fuel quality.
Corning Ribbon Machine42° 18' 11.41" N, 83° 13' 59.51" WCorning Glass Works and General Electric began developing rotary-style machines to produce light bulbs, but these still only produced 12, 24, or 48 bulbs during each revolution. In 1926, Corning Glass glassblower William J. Woods developed the ribbon machine, capable of producing up to two thousand light bulbs a minute.
Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge, 186643° 27' 53.00" N, 72° 22' 9.00" WThe Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge, a two-span covered bridge with an overall length of 460 feet, is the longest covered bridge existing in the United States.
Cornwall Iron Furnace40° 16' 15.38" N, 76° 24' 25.86" WFrom its inception, Cornwall occupied a special position among Pennsylvania's iron furnaces. It owes its existence to the Cornwall Ore Banks a few miles south of Lebanon, a deposit of rich magnetite ore that, until development of the Lake Superior deposits, was one of the most valuable iron-ore bodies in the U.S. It had been discovered in 1734 by Peter Grubb, who built a blast furnace in 1742.
County Kerry Transatlantic Cable Stations, 186651° 53' 33.17" N, 10° 23' 21.14" WCable Station, Waterville, County Kerry, Ireland. July 2000 - IEEE UKRI Section. On July 13, 1866 the Great Eastern steamed westward from Valentia, laying telegraph cable behind her. The successful landing at Heart's Content, Newfoundland on July 27 established a permanent electrical communications link that altered for all time personal, commercial and political relations between people across the Atlantic Ocean. Later, additional cables were laid from Valentia and new stations opened at Ballinskelligs (1874) and Waterville (1884), making County Kerry a major focal point for global communications.
Courtland Street Drawbridge, 190241° 55' 0.00" N, 87° 40' 0.00" WThe Cortland Street Drawbridge, a trunnion-bascule highway bridge, was the first of its kind and became the model for this type of urban transportation structure
Craigellachie Bridge, 181457° 29' 29.58" N, 3° 11' 32.58" WThe elegant 150-foot-span cast iron arch of the Craigellachie Bridge is the earliest surviving example of a new portable lattice-braced standard type developed for use at wide sites unsuitable for masonry spans.
Cranetown Triangulation Site, 181740° 51' 28.88" N, 74° 13' 47.25" WFieldwork established the Cranetown Triangulation Site as an essential part of the first precise geodetic survey in the United States.
Crawler Transporters of Launch Complex 3928° 34' 22.31" N, 80° 38' 56.41" WThe two crawler transporters of Kennedy Space Center's launch complex are the largest ground vehicles ever built. Each 6-million-pound transporter can carry a 12-millon-pound Saturn V rocket and mobile launcher combination several miles to the launch pads. The transporters are so versatile that they could also be used to carry Space Shuttle vehicles, with the only modifications needed being adaptors to fit different vehicles.
Creusot Steam Hammer46° 48' 19.66" N, 4° 25' 23.37" EThe introduction of steam-powered forging hammers by French and British engineers of the 1830s led to the building of an impressive hammer at Creusot that delivered blows to shape and strengthen iron and steel objects before forging. It was for years the most powerful steam hammer in the world—but was still, as a writer observed in 1878, "capable of... corking a bottle without breakage."
Croton Water Supply Systems, 1837-184240° 51' 28.88" N, 74° 13' 47.25" WIn its era, the Croton Water Supply System was the model municipal water supply system in the United States and the prototype for many large-scale projects that followed.
Crown Cork and Soda Filling Machine39° 20' 8.67" N, 76° 28' 36.68" WOn February 2, 1892, William Painter (1838-1906) patented a cheap, single-use metallic cap, crimped over a lip formed on the bottle neck and lined with a thin cork wafer that both formed a leakproof seal and separated drink and metal. In addition to solving previous engineering challenges, this disposable stopper insured future demand and continuing business.
Crozet's Blue Ridge Tunnel, 185838° 2' 18.00" N, 78° 51' 45.00" WThe 4,270-foot Crozet’s Blue Ridge Tunnel was the longest railroad tunnel in the United States of its time and represents the culmination of civil engineering technology based on manual drilling methods.
Cruquius Pumping Station52° 20' 17.34" N, 4° 38' 16.86" ENearly three identical pumping stations drained the Haarlemmermeer (Haarlem Lake) from 1849-1852 and then continued to maintain the polder's water table for more than 80 years. The Haarlemmermeer area covers 45,000 acres (about 70 square miles) in a triangular region between the cities of Amsterdam, Haarlem, and Leiden. The Cruquius pumping station was instrumental in removing millions of gallons of water to reclaim valuable new land for farming, industry, and residences. The traditional solution would have been windmills with Archmidean screw pumps, but designers Joseph Gibbs and Arthur Dean came up with a steam engine design based on the mining engines at Cornwall, England (known as Cornish engines).
Cryogenic Cooling System, Fermilab Tevatron41° 50' 17.99" N, 88° 15' 41.88" WWhen placed in service in 1983, the Tevatron cooling system at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory was the largest cryogenic system ever built, doubling the world's capacity to liquefy helium. The world's first high-energy accelerator, the Tevatron provided a benchmark of performance and feasibility for superconducting magnet design.
Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, 188036° 54' 0.00" N, 106° 35' 0.00" WThe 64-mile Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railway is now one of the last narrow gauge railroads in existence.
Curtis 500-kW Vertical Turbine39° 42' 43.48" N, 86° 11' 39.36" WIn 1896, Charles G. Curtis (1860-1953) patented two turbine concepts that led to the commercial production of low-cost, single-cylinder turbines to provide the electricity so much in demand in the United States during the early 1900s.
Curtis 5000-kW Vertical Turbine42° 48' 35.69" N, 73° 57' 13.53" WBuilt in 1903, the 5,000-kilowatt Curtis steam turbine-generator was the most powerful in the world at the time of its construction. It stood just 25 feet high, much shorter than the 60-foot reciprocating engine-generator of a similar capacity, and took up considerably less floor area. The combined innovation and effectiveness of the 5,000-kilowatt Curtis steam turbine-generator helped to stimulate the growth of modern electrical generation in large central stations nationwide.
Czochralski Process, 191652° 59' 29.63" N, 17° 29' 14.56" EIn 1916, Jan Czochralski invented a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors, metals, salts and synthetic gemstones during his work at AEG in Berlin, Germany. He developed the process further at the Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. The Czochralski process enabled development of electronic semiconductor devices and modern electronics.
Czochralski Process, 191652° 29' 35.65" N, 13° 31' 31.64" EIn 1916, Jan Czochralski invented a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors, metals, salts and synthetic gemstones during his work at AEG in Berlin, Germany. He developed the process further at the Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. The Czochralski process enabled development of electronic semiconductor devices and modern electronics.
Czochralski Process, 191652° 13' 13.87" N, 21° 0' 37.29" EIn 1916, Jan Czochralski invented a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors, metals, salts and synthetic gemstones during his work at AEG in Berlin, Germany. He developed the process further at the Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. The Czochralski process enabled development of electronic semiconductor devices and modern electronics.
DIALOG Online Search System, 1966#Computer History Museum, 1401 N Shoreline Blvd, Mountain View, CA 9404337° 24' 51.37" N, 122° 4' 38.64" WDIALOG was the first interactive, online search system addressing large databases while allowing iterative refinement of results. DIALOG was developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in 1966, extended through contracts with NASA, and offered commercially in 1972. Its speed, ease of use, and wide range of data content attracted professional users worldwide including scientists, attorneys, educators and librarians. DIALOG preceded major Internet search tools by more than two decades.
DIALOG Online Search System, 1966#Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (formerly Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, Bldg. 201), 3251 Hanover St., Bldg. 245, Palo Alto, CA 94304-121537° 24' 40.36" N, 122° 8' 35.69" WDIALOG was the first interactive, online search system addressing large databases while allowing iterative refinement of results. DIALOG was developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in 1966, extended through contracts with NASA, and offered commercially in 1972. Its speed, ease of use, and wide range of data content attracted professional users worldwide including scientists, attorneys, educators and librarians. DIALOG preceded major Internet search tools by more than two decades.
Dadda's Multiplier, 196545° 28' 43.18" N, 9° 13' 57.17" ELuigi Dadda published the first description of the optimized scheme, subsequently called a Dadda Tree, for a digital circuit to compute the multiplication of unsigned fixed-point numbers in binary arithmetic. This circuit allowed the arithmetic units of microprocessor-based computers to execute complex arithmetic operations with a performance/cost ratio unequaled at that time. His research and teaching pioneered computer engineering in Italy.
David Taylor Model Basin38° 58' 26.63" N, 77° 11' 46.69" WThe David Taylor Model Basin was conceived, designed, and built by the United States Navy Department in 1939 for building and testing ship models in accordance with the most modern and the most accurate methods.
Davis Island Lock & Dam, 1878-188540° 29' 35.00" N, 80° 3' 56.00" WThe Davis Island Lock facility, the world’s first rolling lock gate and the widest lock chamber ever built, served as the prototype for 50 similar locks in the Ohio River canalization.
Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Plant, 189843° 6' 58.81" N, 79° 14' 55.21" WDeCew Falls, Ontario, Canada. Dedication: 2 May 2004, IEEE Hamilton Section. The Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Development was a pioneering project in the generation and transmission of electrical energy at higher voltages and at greater distances in Canada. On 25 August 1898 this station transmitted power at 22,500 Volts, 66 2/3 Hz, two-phase, a distance of 56 km to Hamilton, Ontario. Using the higher voltage permitted efficient transmission over that distance.
Deep Space Station 43, 1972-198735° 24' 9.37" S, 148° 58' 50.26" EFirst operational in 1972 and later upgraded in 1987, Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43) is a steerable parabolic antenna that supported the Apollo 17 lunar mission, Viking Mars landers, Pioneer and Mariner planetary probes, and Voyager's encounters with Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Planning for many robotic and human missions to explore the Solar System and beyond has included DSS-43 for critical communications and tracking in NASA’s Deep Space Network.
Demonstration of Practical Telegraphy, 183840° 48' 43.20" N, 74° 28' 52.32" W333 Speedwell Avenue, Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: May 1988 - IEEE North Jersey Section. In this building in January 1838, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alfred Vail first demonstrated publicly crucial elements of their telegraph system, using instruments that Vail had constructed during the previous months. Electrical pulses, transmitted through two miles of wire, caused an electromagnet to ink dots and dashes (grouped to represent letters and words) on a strip of paper. Commercialization began in 1844 when funding became available.
Demonstration of the ALOHA Packet Radio Data Network, 197121° 17' 48.52" N, 157° 48' 59.65" WIn June 1971, the ALOHA packet radio data network began providing inter-island access to computing facilities at the University of Hawaii. ALOHAnet was the first to demonstrate that communication channels could be effectively and efficiently shared on a large scale using simple random access protocols. It led directly to the development of Ethernet and personal wireless communication technologies.
Denison Dam, 194333° 55' 0.00" N, 96° 34' 0.00" WThe Denison Dam was the largest rolled-earth fill dam in the United States when it was constructed from 1939 to 1943.
Detection of Radar Signals Reflected from the Moon, 194640° 11' 5.50" N, 74° 3' 23.47" WOn 10 January 1946, a team of military and civilian personnel at Camp Evans, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, USA, reflected the first radar signals off the Moon using a specially modified SCR-270/1 radar. The signals took 2.5 seconds to travel to the Moon and back to the Earth. This achievement, Project Diana, marked the beginning of radar astronomy and space communications.
Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, 193042° 19' 28.21" N, 83° 2' 24.19" WWhen constructed, the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, a subaqueous single tube highway tunnel, was an exceptional engineering achievement using three distinct tunneling techniques. It was also the first use of arc welding in tunneling history.
Detroit Edison District Heating System42° 20' 5.04" N, 83° 3' 24.25" WIn 1903 officials of the newly formed Detroit Edison Company in Michigan, made the decision to establish the wholly-owned Edison Illuminating Company's Willis Avenue generating station as a district heating source. The exhaust from its steam engines would be used to heat buildings in the neighborhood, to improve thermal efficiency.
Development of 193-nm Projection Photolithography, 1984-199642° 27' 32.62" N, 71° 16' 1.19" WMIT Lincoln Laboratory pioneered the research, development, and demonstration of 193-nm projection lithography. This technology became the dominant high-resolution patterning technique, enabling the continuous performance scaling of integrated circuits for decades. During 1984–1996, Lincoln Laboratory established an international research center with industrial partners and consortia to guide microelectronic chip manufacturing with 193-nm lithography, which paved the way for its widespread commercial adoption.
Development of CDMA for Cellular Communications, 198932° 53' 42.53" N, 117° 11' 51.83" WOn 7 November 1989, Qualcomm publicly demonstrated a digital cellular radio system based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) spread spectrum technology, which increased capacity, improved service quality, and extended battery life. This formed the basis for IS-95 second-generation standards and third-generation broadband standards that were applied to cellular mobile devices worldwide.
Development of Computer Graphics and Visualization Techniques, 1965-197840° 46' 7.87" N, 111° 50' 46.00" WIn 1965, the University of Utah established a Center of Excellence for computer graphics research with Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) funding. In 1968, two professors founded the pioneering graphics hardware company Evans & Sutherland; by 1978, fundamental rendering and visualization techniques disclosed in doctoral dissertations included the Warnock algorithm, Gouraud shading, the Catmull-Rom spline, and the Blinn-Phong reflection model. Alumni-founded companies include Atari, Silicon Graphics, Adobe, Pixar, and Netscape.
Development of Electronic Television, 1924-194134° 43' 31.15" N, 137° 43' 2.95" EHamamatsu, Japan. Professor Kenjiro Takayanagi started his research program in television at Hamamatsu Technical College (now Shizuoka University) in 1924. He transmitted an image of the Japanese character イ(i) on a cathode-ray tube on 25 December 1926 and broadcast video over an electronic television system in 1935. His work, patents, articles, and teaching helped lay the foundation for the rise of Japanese television and related industries to global leadership.
Development of Ferrite Materials and Their Applications, 1930-194535° 36' 24.07" N, 139° 41' 5.24" ETokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. In 1930, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Drs. Yogoro Kato and Takeshi Takei invented ferrite, a magnetic ceramic compound containing oxides of iron and of other metals with properties useful in electronics. TDK Corporation began mass production of ferrite cores in 1937 for use in radio equipment. The electric and electronics industries use ferrites in numerous applications today.
Development of Information Theory, 1939-196742° 21' 42.06" N, 71° 5' 26.02" WThe mathematical principles of Information Theory, laid down by Claude Elwood Shannon over the period 1939-1967, set in motion a revolution in communication system engineering. They quantified the concept of information, established fundamental limits in the representation and reliable transmission of information, and revealed the architecture of systems for approaching them. Today, Information Theory continues to provide the foundation for advances in information collection, storage, distribution, and processing.
Development of VHS, a World Standard for Home Video Recording, 197635° 13' 28.26" N, 139° 42' 21.87" E58-4, Shinmei-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan. Dedication: 11 October 2006. At the Yokohama Plant of Victor Company of Japan, Limited, a team of engineers headed by Shizuo Takano and Yuma Shiraishi developed VHS (Video Home System) format. They looked ahead to the need for home video tape recorders and embodied their idea in unique inventions. The first model JVC HR-3300 was announced on 9 September 1976. Their basic design with subsequent improvement gained wide customer acceptance. VHS became the world standard for home video tape recorders.
Development of the HP-35, the First Handheld Scientific Calculator, 197237° 24' 42.48" N, 122° 8' 52.08" WHewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, CA. The HP-35 was the first handheld calculator to perform transcendental functions (such as trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions). Most contemporary calculators could only perform the four basic operations – addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The HP-35 and subsequent models have replaced the slide rule, used by generations of engineers and scientists. The HP-35 performed all the functions of the slide rule to ten-digit precision over a full two-hundred-decade range.
Digital Micromirror Device33° 3' 49.00" N, 96° 41' 40.73" WThe development of the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) began in 1977 with the forming of a small team at Texas Instruments headed by noted physicist Larry Hornbeck. The Department of Defense had given Texas Instruments a project to create a device that could modulate light. Through years of research and development, Hornbeck came up with an idea to use micromirrors as a sort of on-off switch to modulate digital light pulses.
Directive Short Wave Antenna, 192438° 16' 17.86" N, 140° 51' 32.82" EThe laboratories have been remodelled, so the plaque is on a monument in the center of Katahira Campus, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Dedication: June 1995 - IEEE Tokyo Section. In these laboratories, beginning in 1924, Professor Hidetsugu Yagi and his assistant, Shintaro Uda, designed and constructed a sensitive and highly-directional antenna using closely-coupled parasitic elements. The antenna, which is effective in the higher-frequency ranges, has been important for radar, television, and amateur radio.
Discovery of Radioconduction by Edouard Branly, 189048° 50' 56.46" N, 2° 19' 46.85" EInstitut Catholique de Paris, Paris, France. In this building, Edouard Branly discovered radioconduction, now called the Branly Effect. On 24 November 1890, he observed that an electromagnetic wave changes the ability of metal filings to conduct electricity. Branly used his discovery to make a very sensitive detector called a coherer, improved versions of which became the first practical wireless signal receivers.
Discovery of Superconductivity, 191152° 9' 21.82" N, 4° 29' 25.79" EKamerlingh Onnes Building, Leiden University, Leiden, Nederland. On 8 April 1911, in this building, Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators, Cornelis Dorsman, Gerrit Jan Flim, and Gilles Holst, discovered superconductivity. They observed that the resistance of mercury approached "practically zero" as its temperature was lowered to 3 kelvins. Today, superconductivity makes many electrical technologies possible, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and high-energy particle accelerators.
Dismal Swamp Canal, 1793-180536° 44' 46.50" N, 76° 20' 24.10" WThe Dismal Swamp Canal is the oldest surviving artificial waterway in continuous use in the United States.
Disneyland Monorail System33° 48' 43.30" N, 117° 55' 8.27" WDisney engineers designed the Disneyland monorail system based on the system developed by Axel Wenner-Gren of the Alweg Company in Cologne, West Germany. Wenner-Gren ran his experimental monorail in 1952 on a level track, and when adopted by Disney in 1959, it was designed to simulate the terrain typical of urban transit. At the time, Walt Disney envisioned the monorail as a practical form of public transport for the future, and opened it as a sightseeing attraction in Tomorrowland. It became a true transportation system in 1961 with a 2.5-mile extension and a second platform, and continued to expand throughout Tomorrowland and into Downtown Disney.
Ditch Witch DWP Service-Line Trencher36° 17' 6.04" N, 97° 17' 3.03" WThe Ditch Witch (trencher) Power, or DWP, was the first mechanized, compact service-line trencher developed for laying underground water lines between the street-main and the house. This machine, first produced in 1949, replaced manual digging, thus making installation of running water and indoor plumbing affordable for the common household. The DWP paved the way for the creation of a worldwide trenching-products industry.
Dorton Arena, 195235° 48' 0.00" N, 78° 43' 0.00" WThe Dorton Arena was the first permanent use of a cable-supported roof system in the world
Drake Oil Well41° 36' 40.79" N, 79° 39' 30.16" WIn 1858, the Seneca Oil Company formed with the intent of drilling for oil in the style of Kier's salt-well derricks. Edwin L. Drake, a stockholder, served as the General Agent for this company. His oil well, built in 1859, yielded an average of 1,000 gallons daily for three years. By 1864, Pennsylvania's Oil Creek had become celebrated as the site of the richest oil-producing region on Earth.
Druid Lake Dam, 187139° 18' 0.38" N, 76° 37' 34.88" WWhen completed, the Druid Lake Dam was the first major earthfill dam to be constructed in the United States.
Dublin-Belfast Rail Link, 185554° 35' 49.20" N, 5° 55' 48.00" WThe Dublin-Belfast rail-link provides a link between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and is recognized for the first large-scale use of wrought-iron latticed girders and the first full-scale test of continuous beams.
Duck Creek Aqueduct, 184739° 27' 0.00" N, 85° 8' 0.00" WThe Duck Creek Aqueduct, a 71-foot span, is the oldest wooden covered aqueduct in the country.
Dunlap's Creek Bridge, 183840° 1' 18.00" N, 79° 53' 17.00" WThe Dunlap’s Creek Bridge is the oldest all-metal arch bridge in the United States. It demonstrated the feasibility of using cast iron in bridge construction.
Duquesne Incline40° 26' 23.51" N, 80° 1' 3.55" WThe Duquesne Incline is one of seventeen built and operated in Pittsburgh in the 19th century. Of the seventeen, the Duquesne and the Monongahela (landmark #26) are the only two remaining operating units.
Durango-Silverton Narrow Gauge Br of the D&RGWR, 188237° 17' 51.00" N, 107° 52' 14.00" WThe Durango-Silverton Narrow Gauge Train is one of the last of the narrow gauge railroads, linking the Colorado mining towns of Durango and Silverton and is an example of the important role that civil engineering played in developing the west.
EIMCO Rocker Shovel Loader, Model 12B40° 38' 40.65" N, 111° 29' 46.03" WThe Rocker Shovel Loader 12B, built in 1938, provided a significant boost to underground mining productivity by emulating the movements of the human "mucker," the laborer who removed rubble, or "muck," from underground mines, particularly in and narrow mine tunnels.
Eads Bridge, 187438° 37' 41.00" N, 90° 10' 17.00" WTo found the mid-river piers of the Eads Bridge on solid rock, James B. Eads used the first large pneumatic caissons in the United States. Their sinking represented the deepest subaqueous construction work in the world at the time, and the bridge’s name honors Eads’ ingenuity.
Eads South Pass Navigation Works, 1875-187929° 0' 56.15" N, 89° 10' 15.78" WThe Eads South Pass Navigation Works enabled the entire Mississippi River basin to have direct deep draught marine access to the oceans of the world. Today it is still a classic of hydraulic engineering.
Early Developments in Remote-Control, 190140° 26' 48.59" N, 3° 43' 53.67" WCiudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain. Dedication: 15 March 2007, IEEE Spain Section. In 1901, the Spanish engineer, Leonardo Torres-Quevedo began the development of a system, which he called Telekine, which was able to do "mechanical movements at a distance." The system was a way of testing dirigible balloons of his own creation without risking human lives. In 1902 and 1903 he requested some patents for the system. With the Telekine, Torres-Quevedo laid down modern wireless remote-control operation principles.
East Maui Irrigation System, 1876-192320° 48' 0.00" N, 156° 20' 0.00" WBuilt by private enterprise, the East Maui Irrigation System was a pioneering example of irrigation technology. It consists of 74 miles of tunnels, ditches, inverted siphons, and flumes with a capacity of 455 million gallons per day.
East Wells (Onieda) Street Power Plant43° 2' 27.68" N, 87° 54' 40.96" WFormerly known as the Oneida Street Power Plant for its location on then-Oneida Street (now Wells Street), the East Wells Street Power Plant was built in 1898 to 1900 by The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, which, as the Wisconsin Energy Corporation, eventually became the major supplier of power to eastern Wisconsin.
Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 174748° 50' 0.00" N, 2° 20' 0.00" EFounded in 1747, and still operating, the Ecole Nationale Des Ponts et Chaussees is the oldest civil engineering school in the world.
Eddystone Lighthouse, 1698-188250° 22' 0.00" N, 4° 9' 0.00" WThe Eddystone Lighthouse was the first masonry-tower lighthouse to be built at sea, and its form was universally adopted.
Eddystone Station Unit39° 52' 0.37" N, 75° 18' 0.53" WOperated by the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO), now known as Exelon Corp., Eddystone Station Unit #1 is a 325 MW pulverized-coal-fired plant that pushed the technology of steam-electric generating plants. When built in 1960, engineers sought to make a more efficient plant using higher temperatures and pressures and larger machines. Previous experience at Philo 6 (Zanesville, Ohio, 1957, ASME landmark #228) had demonstrated that supercritical steam plants would work, so engineers worked toward even larger machines and efficiencies. By reducing pressure and temperature conditions slightly, the engineers succeeded while discovering a more economically viable generating plant design.
Edgar Station, Edison Electric Illuminating Co.42° 14' 33.83" N, 70° 57' 54.89" WThe Edgar Station high-pressure topping turbine and boiler set a new record for economy in the mid-1920s by producing electricity at the rate of 1 kilowatt hour per 1 pound of coal, when it was common to burn 5 to 10 pounds. Boston Edison achieved this feat by operating a boiler and turbine unit at 1,200 pounds of steam pressure and exhausting into a 350-pound steam header. This "high-pressure" unit, the only one of its kind in the world, was developed under the supervision of Irving Moultrop.
Edison "Jumbo" Engine-Driver Dynamo42° 18' 11.16" N, 83° 13' 59.19" WThis dynamo, connected directly to a high-speed steam engine, was one of six that produced direct current at Thomas A. Edison's electric power station at 257 Pearl Street in New York City. The Pearl Street Station was the prototype for central station power generation. Edison set out in 1878 to provide an electrical distribution system to bring lighting into the home: His first filament lamp lit on October 21, 1879. With the help of Frances Upton and C.L. Clarke, Edison built his engine-driven dynamo for the 1881 Paris Electrical Exposition, and commercial operation of Pearl Street Station began on September 4, 1882.
Edison Experimental Recording Phonograph40° 47' 1.56" N, 74° 14' 0.79" WIn 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph—the first device able to record and reproduce the recorded sound. His phonograph originally recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder. A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an up-and-down groove in the foil. On December 6, 1877, Thomas Edison famously recorded a verse of Mary Had a Little Lamb "almost perfectly."
Eel River High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station, 197248° 0' 37.81" N, 66° 22' 26.40" WDalhousie Power Station, Eel River, New Brunswick, Canada. Eel River High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station, 1972. Operating since 1972, Eel River, New Brunswick is home to the world's first commercial solid state High Voltage Direct Current converter station. This 320 MW interconnection facility, built by Canadian General Electric and NB Power, incorporates high current silicon solid state thyristors to convert alternating current from Hydro Quebec to direct current and back to alternating, allowing asynchronous, stable power transfers to serve NB Power's customers.
Eiffel 1903 Drop Test Machine and 1912 Wind Tunnel48° 50' 32.57" N, 2° 15' 46.80" EIn 1903, Eiffel built a device to test the drag on various bodies by dropping them along a vertical cable hung from the second level of the tower that bears his name. He built a machine that accurately measured drag during the fall and recorded it on a chart within the machine. He tested about 40 shapes this way over the next three years.
Eiffel Tower, 188948° 51' 23.00" N, 2° 18' 11.00" EWhen completed, the Eiffel Tower was the highest structure in the world and became renowned as a symbol of Paris.
El Camino Real - Eastern Branch, 1500s31° 44' 35.00" N, 93° 5' 42.00" WRunning from Mexico to Louisiana, the El Camino Real-Eastern Branch was a major Spanish pioneer transportation artery that provided support, defense and political stability for early colonists.
El Camino Real - The Royal Road, 1500s22° 36' 29.00" N, 102° 22' 45.00" WThe El Camino Real-Royal Road, a 1,500-mile route, connected Santa Fe and the rest of New Mexico with Mexico City during Spanish Colonial times
Electric Fire Alarm System, 185242° 20' 38.28" N, 71° 5' 27.19" W59 Fenway, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. On 28 April 1852 the first municipal electric fire alarm system using call boxes with automatic signaling to indicate the location of a fire was placed into operation in Boston. Invented by William Channing and Moses Farmer, this system was highly successful in reducing property loss and deaths due to fire and was subsequently adopted throughout the United States and in Canada.
Electric Lighting Of The Kingdom of Hawaii 1886-188821° 18' 24.12" N, 157° 51' 32.04" WIn November 1886, electric lights illuminated Iolani Palace's grounds for King Kalakaua's 50th birthday celebrations. By March 1887, the Palace had 325 incandescent lights installed within its 104 rooms. The king's action promoted economic development and accelerated implementation of electric lighting of the town of Honolulu on 23 March 1888.
Electro-Motive FT Freight-Service Diesel-Electric Locomotive38° 34' 21.87" N, 90° 27' 49.69" WThe lead unit of the four-unit EMD-103 demonstrator locomotive became the prototype of the first mass-produced diesel-electric locomotives used for freight service in the United States. They rapidly replaced the steam locomotive. Called "the diesel that did it" in a February 1960 edition of Trains magazine, it was a revolutionary step for the rail industry.
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, 194639° 57' 10.12" N, 75° 11' 24.17" WPhiladelphia, Pennsylvannia. Dedication: September 1987 - IEEE Philadelphia Section. A major advance in the history of computing occurred at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946 when engineers put the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) into operation. Designed and constructed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering under a U. S. Army contract during World War II, the ENIAC established the practicality of large scale, electronic digital computers and strongly influenced the development of the modern, stored-program, general-purpose computer.
Electronic Quartz Wristwatch, 196935° 42' 47.96" N, 139° 48' 33.35" ESeiko Institute of Horology, Tokyo, Japan. Dedication: 25 November 2004, IEEE Tokyo Section. After ten years of research and development at Suwa Seikosha, a manufacturing company of Seiko Group, a team of engineers headed by Tsuneya Nakamura produced the first quartz wristwatch to be sold to the public. The Seiko Quartz-Astron 35SQ was introduced in Tokyo on December 25, 1969. Crucial elements included a quartz crystal oscillator, a hybrid integrated circuit, and a miniature stepping motor to turn the hands. It was accurate to within five seconds per month.
Electronic Technology for Space Rocket Launches, 1950-196928° 31' 23.93" N, 80° 40' 55.42" WKennedy Space Center, Orsino, Florida. Dedication: February 2001 - IEEE Canaveral Section. The demonstrated success in space flight is the result of electronic technology developed at Cape Canaveral, the J. F. Kennedy Space Center, and other sites, and applied here. A wide variety of advances in radar tracking, data telemetry, instrumentation, space-to-ground communications, on-board guidance, and real-time computation were employed to support the U.S. space program. These and other electronic developments provided infrastructure necessary for the successful landing of men on the moon in July 1969 and their safe return to earth.
Elephant Butte Dam, 191633° 9' 14.29" N, 107° 11' 31.61" WThe Elephant Butte Dam created the largest reservoir in the world at that time and was the first civil engineering water project associated with the international allocation of water.
Ellicott Stone, 179930° 59' 52.11" N, 88° 1' 21.06" WAfter the United States was formed, the government commissioned Andrew Ellicott to establish an International Boundary at the 31st parallel between the new Republic and Spanish West Florida. This “stone” is the key extant monument from the historic survey.
Embudo, New Mexico Stream Guaging station, 188836° 12' 47.00" N, 105° 55' 30.00" WThe stream gauging system at Embudo, New Mexico, the first of its kind undertaken, led to the development of techniques that have been used extensively to collect essential data for water resources projects, land use, and urban planning.
Emergency Warning Code Signal Broadcasting System, 198535° 38' 8.33" N, 139° 36' 56.60" ENHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) began broadcasting emergency warning code signals in 1985. The system embedded signals within AM and FM radio broadcasts that provided reliable and prompt transmission of emergency warning information to the public. During the course of digital TV standardization, the warning codes were integrated into technical standards of international satellite and terrestrial broadcasting.
Erie Canal, 182542° 56' 22.65" N, 74° 17' 10.62" WIn its day, the Erie Canal was the world’s longest canal and America’s greatest engineering feat.
Evinrude Outboard Motor43° 7' 40.49" N, 87° 59' 37.67" WThe outboard motor designed and built by Ole Evinrude (1877-1934) at the Evinrude Motor Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was quickly accepted by the boating public of the United States. His wife, Bess Evinrude, called the prototype a "coffee grinder," but it moved a boat through water better than the motors available in 1907, including foot-powered paddlewheels, gigantic steam powered motors, electric outboards pattered by storage batteries, heavy four-cycle engines, and other bulky and/or unreliable sources of power.
Experimental Breeder Reactor I43° 35' 54.27" N, 112° 51' 31.76" WDuring World War II, scientists and engineers worked feverishly to achieve a controlled nuclear chain reaction as a step toward developing America's first nuclear weapon. After the war, the newly established Atomic Energy Commission assigned some of the nation's nuclear skills and resources to developing peaceful uses of the atom—so the first prototype power reactor built would attempt to prove the theory of fuel breeding.
Experimental Breeder Reactor I, 195143° 31' 57.88" N, 112° 56' 34.08" WUS Highway 20, 60 miles west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A. Dedication: 4 June 2004, IEEE Eastern Idaho Section. At this facility on 20 December 1951 electricity was first generated from the heat produced by a sustained nuclear reaction providing steam to a turbine generator. This event inaugurated the nuclear power industry in the United States. On 4 June 1953 EBR-I provided the first proof of breeding capability, producing one atom of nuclear fuel for each atom burned, and later produced electricity using a plutonium core reactor.
FMC Citrus Juice Extractor28° 2' 48.65" N, 81° 55' 9.74" WAfter producing military vehicles during World War II, FMC returned to the fruit industry in 1947 to address an entirely different type of problem: How to quickly and effectively extract juice from an orange. The FMC Citrus Juice Extractor features a twenty-four head rotary action that simultaneously extracts juice from the interior of the fruit and citrus oil from the peel surface. This extractor revolutionized the juice industry.
FM Police Radio Communication, 194041° 45' 34.60" N, 72° 40' 54.86" WDepartment of Public Safety, State Police, 100 Washington St., Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1987 - IEEE Connecticut Section. A major advance in police radio occurred in 1940 when the Connecticut state police began operating a two-way, frequency modulated (FM) system in Hartford. The statewide system developed by Daniel E. Noble of the University of Connecticut and engineers at the Fred M. Link Company greatly reduced static, the main problem of the amplitude modulated (AM) system. FM mobile radio became standard throughout the country following the success of the Connecticut system.
Fairbanks-Morse Y-VA Engine Diesel26° 42' 19.95" N, 82° 9' 32.53" WThe 1924 75 horsepower type Y, style VA engine at the Useppa Island Historical Society, which was used to power electrical generating machinery, is an outstanding example of early high-compression, cold-start, full-diesel engines developed in the United States. It is a descendant of the first successful diesel engine produced in 1897 by German mechanical engineer Rudolf Diesel.
Fairbanks Exploration Company Gold Dredge No. 864° 56' 15.44" N, 147° 39' 17.91" WLadder dredges came to Alaska in the early 1920s, after the U.S. Smelting, Refining, and Mining Company (USSR&M) brought water to the area via the 90-mile Davidson Ditch. Using water to warm the ground, the ground was thawed at an average 9 inches a day. The gravel was scooped up in buckets, carried up the ladder, and deposited at the top of the dredge for sorting. The gold was trapped on the riffles of the gold tables
Fairmont Water Works39° 57' 57.08" N, 75° 11' 0.60" WAt a time when steam power was finding its first uses in America, Philadelphia opened two steam pumping stations, January 1801, to lift water from the Schuylkill River and distribute it through the city's wooden pipes and mains. Maintenance of this system was time-consuming, expensive, and ineffective, and the steam engines needed vast amounts of coal to run and would frequently break down. They were also considered a fire hazard and a nuisance to the city. It was clear that, by 1811, a new system was needed, and a new water power works was begun on the river near Morris Hill. The Fairmount Water Works opened September 7, 1815, as the first large-scale application of steam pumping to water service in the country.
Ferries & Cliff House Railway37° 47' 41.21" N, 122° 24' 42.17" WThe iconic cable car system, which opened in 1887, contained wheels and pulleys moved by a cable running below the street
Ferries & Cliffhouse Cable Railway Power House37° 47' 41.26" N, 122° 24' 42.39" WThe Ferries & Cliff House Cable Railway opened in 1887 as an amalgamation of the Powell Street Railway and the Park and Cliff House Railway. Its powerhouse at Washington and Mason used a complicated system of conduits and drives to operate both lines and was one of the most complicated cable-car systems to run from a single station. Designed and built by civil engineer Howard C. Holmes (1852-1921), the system was under construction for two years prior to its opening.
Fiber Optic Connectors, 198636° 7' 42.19" N, 140° 5' 22.08" EIn 1986, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT) invented the physical contact connection technology that advanced performance and reliability of fiber optic connectors. NTT developed Single-fiber Coupling (SC) and Multifiber Push-On (MPO) connectors; their compactness and simple push-pull operation were major advantages. Widely adopted by carriers and data centers since 1990, this technology facilitated the construction of systems for near light-speed, digital, global communications.
Fink Deck Truss Bridge, 187037° 24' 13.22" N, 79° 10' 12.74" WThe Fink Deck Truss Bridge is a unique survivor of a truss system widely used between 1854 and 1875. This all cast and wrought iron system was patented by Albert Fink in 1854.
Fink Through Truss Bridge, 185840° 36' 14.00" N, 74° 54' 8.00" WAlthough destroyed in 1978 by a car collision, at the time of its dedication the Fink Through Truss Bridge was possibly the oldest metal truss bridge in the nation.
First 500 MeV Proton Beam from the TRIUMF Cyclotron, 197449° 14' 52.10" N, 123° 13' 46.44" WTRIUMF Meson Facility, 4004 Wesbrook Mall. Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3, Canada. At 3:30 pm on 15 December 1974, the first 500 MeV proton beam was extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron. Since then, TRIUMF has used proton beams from its cyclotron (and secondary beams of pions, muons, neutrons and radioactive ions produced in its experimental halls) to conduct pioneering studies that have advanced nuclear physics, particle physics, molecular and materials science, and nuclear medicine. The plaque will be installed on a wall outside the cyclotron main control room near the site dedication plaque. (The first successful beam extraction was manually controlled from the main console in that room.)
First 735 kV AC Transmission System, 196545° 30' 29.14" N, 73° 33' 44.48" WQuebec, Canada, Dedication: November 2005. Hydro-Quebec's 735,000 volt electric power transmission system was the first in the world to be designed, built and operated at an alternating-current voltage above 700 kV. This development extended the limits of long-distance transmission of electrical energy. On 29 November 1965 the first 735 kV line was inaugurated. Power was transmitted from the Manicouagan-Outardes hydro-electric generating complex to Montreal, a distance of 600 km.
First Atomic Clock, 194838° 56' 31.66" N, 77° 3' 45.04" WThe first atomic clock, developed near this site by Harold Lyons at the National Bureau of Standards, revolutionized timekeeping by using transitions of the ammonia molecule as its source of frequency. Far more accurate than previous clocks, atomic clocks quickly replaced the Earth’s rotational rate as the reference for world time. Atomic clock accuracy made possible many new technologies, including the Global Positioning System (GPS).
First Blind Takeoff, Flight and Landing, 192940° 43' 41.08" N, 73° 35' 50.60" WThe plaque may be viewed at the Cradle of Aviation Museum, 1 Charles Lindberg Blvd, Garden City, NY, U.S.A. On 24 September 1929, the first blind takeoff, flight and landing occurred at Mitchel Field, Garden City, NY in a Consolidated NY-2 biplane piloted by Lt. James Doolittle. Equipped with specially designed radio and aeronautical instrumentation, it represented the cooperative efforts of many organizations, mainly the Guggenheim Fund’s Full Flight Laboratory, U.S. Army Air Corps, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Sperry Gyroscope Company, Kollsman Instrument Company and Radio Frequency Laboratories.
First Breaking of Enigma Code by the Team of Polish Cipher Bureau, 1932-193952° 13' 16.96" N, 21° 0' 52.75" EThe plaque may be viewed at the front entrance of the Institute building, ul. Śniadeckich 8, 00-956 Warszawa (Warsaw). Polish Cipher Bureau mathematicians Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski broke the German Enigma cipher machine codes. Working with engineers from the AVA Radio Manufacturing Company, they built the ‘bomba’ – the first cryptanalytic machine to break Enigma codes. Their work was a foundation of British code breaking efforts which, with later American assistance, helped end World War II.
First Central Station in South Carolina, 188232° 46' 39.76" N, 79° 56' 0.25" W94 Queen Street, Charleston, South Carolina. Dedication: July 1986 - IEEE Coastal South Carolina Section. The United States Electric Illuminating Company started up South Carolina's first central station for incandescent electric lighting in this building in October 1882. This was just one month after Thomas Edison opened his central station on New York City's Pearl Street. In the following years, the pioneering firm of United States Electric was one of Edison's main competitors.
First Computerized Tomography (CT) X-ray Scanner, 197151° 30' 20.02" N, 0° 25' 35.72" WOn 1 October 1971, a team at the EMI Research Laboratories located on this site produced an image of a patient’s brain, using the world’s first clinical X-ray computerized tomography scanner, based on the patented inventions of Godfrey Hounsfield. The practical realization of high-resolution X-ray images of internal structures of the human body marked the beginning of a new era in clinical medicine.
First Concrete Pavement, 189340° 21' 38.00" N, 83° 45' 33.00" WThe first engineering use of Portland cement concrete street pavement in public road construction represented a milestone for civil engineering.
First Demonstration of a Fibre Bragg Grating, 197845° 20' 42.71" N, 75° 52' 49.57" WIn 1978, researchers at the Communications Research Centre Canada were the first to observe photo-induced change of refractive index in glass optical fibres and demonstrate writing permanent refractive index gratings that act as very selective optical filters. Fibre Bragg Gratings of this type are easily integrated into fibre optic systems and have revolutionized the design of optical communications and sensor systems.
First Digitally Processed Image from a Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar, 197849° 10' 31.33" N, 123° 4' 13.51" WIn November 1978, a team from MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) became the first to use a digital processor to reconstruct an image from Seasat-A, the first civilian spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). MDA engineers subsequently developed three of the four most important SAR digital processing algorithms that replaced the optical processing methods used previously.
First Direct Broadcast Satellite Service, 198435° 38' 14.20" N, 139° 36' 30.76" ENHK began the world's first direct broadcast satellite service in May, 1984. This was the culmination of eighteen years of research that included the development of an inexpensive low-noise receiver and investigations of rain attenuation in the 12 GHz band. RRL, NASDA, TSCJ, Toshiba Corporation, General Electric Company, and NASA participated with NHK to make satellite broadcasting to the home a practical reality.
First Distant Speech Transmission in Canada, 187643° 11' 37.83" N, 80° 23' 2.86" W91, Grand River St. N, Paris, Ontario, Canada. The location is now "The River Lilly" store. Dedication: 4 May 2008. On 10 August 1876, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated on this site that the human voice could be transmitted electrically over distance. While family members spoke into a transmitter in Brantford, 13 km away, Bell was able to hear them at a receiver located here. This test convinced Bell that the invention could be used for communication between towns and could compete successfully with the telegraph.
First Exploration and Proof of Liquid Crystals, 188949° 0' 34.25" N, 8° 24' 44.39" EThe first liquid crystal materials were characterized in 1889 by Otto Lehmann in this building. Lehmann recognized the existence of a new state of

matter, “flüssige Kristalle” or liquid crystals, which flows like a liquid but has the optical property of double refraction characteristic of

crystals. Lehmann’s work on these compounds opened the door to further liquid crystal research and eventually displays and other applications.
First External Cardiac Pacemaker, 195043° 39' 37.44" N, 79° 23' 21.94" W112 College Street, Toronto, beside the front entrance of the C. H. Best Institute. In 1950, in Room 64 of the Bantling Institute of the University of Toronto, Drs. Wilfred Bigelow and John Callaghan successfully paced the heart of a dog using an external electronic pacemaker-defibrillator having implanted electrodes. The device was developed by Dr. John Hopps at the National Research Council of Canada. This pioneering work led to the use of cardiac pacemakers in humans and helped establish the importance of electronic devices in medicine.
First Generation and Experimental Proof of Electromagnetic Waves, 1886-188849° 0' 34.25" N, 8° 24' 44.39" EThe plaque may be viewed at the Heinrich Hertz Auditorium, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
First Geographic Information System (GIS), 1962-196845° 26' 32.00" N, 75° 41' 43.00" WThe first Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed by Roger Tomlinson at the Canadian Department of Forestry and Rural Development in Ottawa. GIS used computer technology to collect, digitize, store, analyze, and visualize Canada Land Inventory information. It subsequently revolutionized science, decision-making, and everyday life worldwide by allowing overlay, measurement, and spatial analysis of geographic data to include information about agriculture, wildlife, forestry, recreation, and transportation.
First Hot Isostatic Processing Vessels39° 59' 22.84" N, 83° 1' 14.60" WIn 1955, the Atomic Energy Commission issued a challenge to researchers at Battelle Memorial Institute's Columbus Laboratories in Columbus, Ohio. The challenge was simple: develop a process to bond components of small Zircaloy-clad pin-type nuclear fuel elements while maintaining strict dimensional control.
First Intelligible Voice Transmission over Electric Wire, 187642° 21' 33.76" N, 71° 3' 28.95" WCity Hall Plaza, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dedication: 10 March 2006. The first transmission of intelligible speech over electrical wires took place on March 10, 1876. Inventor Alexander Graham Bell called out to his assistant Thomas Watson, "Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you." This transmission took place in their attic laboratory located in a building near here at 5 Exeter Place.
First Large-Scale Fingerprint ID, 198235° 38' 57.96" N, 139° 44' 53.00" ENEC, formerly known as Nippon Electric Company, introduced the world's first large-scale automated fingerprint identification system (NEC AFIS) equipped with a latent fingerprint matching function in 1982. This was a powerful crime-solving tool capable of matching even fragmented latent fingerprints against a large database, a task that previously had been impossible. It enabled the world's police agencies to expedite searches for suspects, an efficiency that many public-safety experts valued.
First Millimeter-wave Communication Experiments by J.C. Bose, 1894-9622° 34' 31.83" N, 88° 21' 48.65" EMain corridor of the A.J.C. Bose Auditorium in the Main Building of Presidency College, Kolkata, India. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, in 1895, first demonstrated at Presidency College, Calcutta, India, transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves at 60 GHz, over a distance of 23 meters, through two intervening walls by remotely ringing a bell and detonating gunpowder. For his communication system, Bose developed entire millimeter-wave components such as: a spark transmitter, coherer, dielectric lens, polarizer, horn antenna and cylindrical diffraction grating.
First New York Subway, 190440° 42' 46.00" N, 74° 0' 21.00" WNew York City built the first major rapid transit subway system in the United States.
First Operational Use Of Wireless Telegraphy, 1899-190233° 58' 44.44" S, 18° 28' 56.28" ETelkom Museum, Victoria and Albert Waterfront, Cape Town, South Africa. Dedication: September 1999 - IEEE South Africa Section. The first use of wireless telegraphy in the field occurred during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). The British Army experimented with Marconi's system and the British Navy successfully used it for communication among naval vessels in Delagoa Bay, prompting further development of Marconi's wireless telegraph system for practical uses.
First Optical Fiber Laser and Amplifier, 1961-196442° 4' 30.08" N, 72° 1' 36.36" WPlaque may be viewed on the Southbridge, Massachusetts town common across from the old American Optical building and next to the Eyeglass Sculpture, Southbridge, MA, U.S.A. In 1961, Elias Snitzer and colleagues constructed and operated the world's first optical fiber laser in the former American Optical complex at 14 Mechanic Street. Three years later this team demonstrated the first optical fiber amplifier. Fiber lasers that can cut and weld steel have since become powerful industrial tools and fiber amplifiers routinely boost signals in the global optical fiber network allowing messages to cross oceans and continents without interruption.
First Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct, 1907-191334° 18' 46.30" N, 118° 29' 34.76" WUnprecedented in size and scope at the time of its completion, the First Owens River-L.A. Aqueduct system was the prototype for the extensive water supply systems needed to support the major urban complexes of today.
First Practical Field Emission Electron Microscope, 197235° 42' 42.36" N, 139° 28' 12.31" EHitachi developed practical field emission electron source technology in collaboration with Albert Crewe of the University of Chicago, and commercialized the world’s first field emission scanning electron microscope in 1972. This technology enabled stable and reliable ultrahigh resolution imaging with easy operation. Field emission electron microscopes have made invaluable contributions to the progress of science, technology and industry in physics, biology, materials, and semiconductor devices.
First Public Demonstration of Television, 192651° 30' 48.32" N, 0° 7' 52.34" WMembers of the Royal Institution of Great Britain witnessed the world's first public demonstration of live television on 26 January 1926 in this building at 22 Frith Street, London. Inventor and entrepreneur John Logie Baird used the first floor as a workshop during 1924-1926, for various experimental activities, including the development of his television system. The BBC adopted Baird’s system for its first television broadcast service in 1930.
First RISC (Reduced Instruction-Set Computing) Microprocessor 1980-198237° 52' 32.25" N, 122° 15' 31.98" WUC Berkeley students designed and built the first VLSI reduced instruction-set computer in 1981. The simplified instructions of RISC-I reduced the hardware for instruction decode and control, which enabled a flat 32-bit address space, a large set of registers, and pipelined execution. A good match to C programs and the Unix operating system, RISC-I influenced instruction sets widely used today, including those for game consoles, smartphones and tablets.
First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, 196749° 19' 15.18" N, 119° 37' 13.31" WAlgonquin Radio Observatory, Kaleden, B.C., Canada. On the morning of 17 April 1967, radio astronomers used this radiotelescope at DRAO and a second one at the Algonquin Radio Observatory located 3074 km away to make the first successful radio astronomical observations using Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Today, VLBI networks span the globe, extend into space and continue to make significant contributions to both radio astronomy and geodesy.
First Ram-Type Blowout Preventer (BOP)29° 50' 5.93" N, 95° 33' 45.89" WThe ram-type blowout preventer (BOP) allowed the manual closing of a well, saved lives, and prevented surface oil accumulation at drilling sites, quickly becoming an industry standard. In the early days of oilfield operations, there was no way to control the underground pressures encountered during drilling. When an oil or gas reservoir was tapped, wells were allowed to "blow out" until pressure was reduced sufficiently to allow capping. Many inventors attempted to develop a device to control such blowouts. In 1922, oil wildcatter James Smither Abercrombie (1891-1975) and machinist Harry S. Cameron (1872-1928) developed a successful ram-type BOP by using a small number of simple, rugged parts. It was installed on the wellhead, and the rams were closed to seal off the well, allowing full control of the pressure during drilling and production. The original design could withstand pressures up to 3,000 psi, an industry record in 1922. (In comparison, today's BOP can withstand 15,000 psi, working in water depth up to 10,000 feet.)
First Real-Time Speech Communication on Packet Networks, 1974 - 198242° 27' 31.05" N, 71° 15' 48.84" WIn August 1974, the first real-time speech communication over a packet-switched network was demonstrated via ARPANET between MIT Lincoln Laboratory and USC Information Sciences Institute. By 1982, these technologies enabled Internet packet speech and conferencing linking terrestrial, packet radio, and satellite networks. This work in real-time network protocols and speech coding laid the foundation for voice-over-internet-protocol (VoIP) communications and related applications including Internet videoconferencing.
First Robotic Control from Human Brain Signals, 198842° 0' 17.60" N, 21° 24' 30.00" E
First Semiconductor Integrated Circuit (IC), 195832° 55' 29.82" N, 96° 45' 23.89" WTexas Instruments, Dallas, TX. On 12 September 1958, Jack S. Kilby demonstrated the first working integrated circuit to managers at Texas Instruments. This was the first time electronic components were integrated onto a single substrate. This seminal device consisted of a phase shift oscillator circuit on a tiny bar of germanium measuring 7/16” by 1/16” (11.1 mm by 1.6 mm). Today, integrated circuits are the fundamental building blocks of virtually all electronic equipment.
First Studies on Ring Armature for Direct-Current Dynamos, 1860-186343° 43' 15.56" N, 10° 23' 23.24" EA dynamo with a slotted ring armature, described and built at the University of Pisa by Antonio Pacinotti, was a significant step leading to practical electrical machines for direct current. Groups of turns of the closed winding were connected to the bars of a commutator. The machine worked as a motor also.
First Technical Meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 188439° 57' 29.30" N, 75° 10' 21.45" WThe plaque may be viewed at the Franklin Institute, 222 North 20th St., Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. As part of the landmark International Electrical Exhibition organized by the Franklin Institute and held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a predecessor of IEEE, held its first conference on 7-8 October 1884. This meeting was the first formal technical conference on electrical engineering held in the United States.
First Television Broadcast in Western Canada, 1953#CBC Broadcasting Site, Vancouver, Canada49° 21' 13.00" N, 122° 57' 24.00" WOn 16 December 1953, the first television broadcast in Western Canada was transmitted from this site by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's CBUT Channel 2. The engineering experience gained here was instrumental in the subsequent establishment of the more than one thousand public and private television broadcasting sites that serve Western Canada today.
First Television Broadcast in Western Canada, 195349° 21' 49.00" N, 122° 57' 24.00" WOn 16 December 1953, the first television broadcast in Western Canada was transmitted from this site by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's CBUT Channel 2. The engineering experience gained here was instrumental in the subsequent establishment of the more than one thousand public and private television broadcasting sites that serve Western Canada today.
First Transatlantic Reception of a Television Signal via Satellite, 196248° 46' 26.13" N, 3° 31' 2.01" WMusee des Telecoms, Pleumeur-Bodou, France. Dedicated July 2002 - IEEE France Section (Pleumeur-Bodou). On 11 July 1962 this site received the first transatlantic transmission of a TV signal from a twin station in Andover, Maine, USA via the TELSTAR satellite. The success of TELSTAR and the earth stations, the first built for active satellite communications, illustrated the potential of a future world-wide satellite system to provide communications between continents.
First Transatlantic Television Signal via Satellite, 196250° 3' 24.04" N, 5° 11' 7.40" WDoonhilly Downs, Cornwall, England, Dedication: July 2002 - IEEE United Kingdom Republic of Ireland Section. On 11 July 1962 this site transmitted the first live television signal across the Atlantic from Europe to the USA, via TELSTAR. This Satellite Earth Station was designed and built by the British Post Office Engineering Department. Known as 'Arthur' (of "Knights of the Round Table" fame), its open-dish design became a model for satellite television earth stations throughout the world.
First Transatlantic Transmission of a Television Signal via Satellite, 196244° 56' 19.50" N, 70° 45' 0.18" WAndover, Maine, U.S.A. Dedication: July 2002 - IEEE Maine Section. On 11 July 1962 this site transmitted the first transatlantic TV signal to a twin station in Pleumeur-Bodou, France via the TELSTAR satellite. The success of TELSTAR and the earth stations, the first built for active satellite communications, illustrated the potential of a future world-wide satellite system to provide communications between continents.
First Transpacific Reception of a Television (TV) Signal via Satellite, 196336° 41' 50.54" N, 140° 42' 32.23" EIshitaki, Takahagi-city, Ibaraki, Japan. On 23 November 1963, this site received the first transpacific transmission of a TV signal from Mojave earth station in California, U.S.A., via the Relay 1 communications satellite. The Ibaraki earth station used a 20m Cassegrain antenna, the first use of this type of antenna for commercial telecommunications. This event demonstrated the capability and impact of satellite communications and helped open a new era of intercontinental live TV programming relayed via satellite.
First Wearable Cardiac Pacemaker, 1957-195844° 56' 19.50" N, 93° 19' 17.77" WBakken Library and Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. Dedication: October 1999 - IEEE Twin Cities Section. During the winter of 1957-58, Earl E. Bakken developed the first wearable transistorized pacemaker, the request of heart surgeon, Dr. C. Walton Lillehei. As earlier pacemakers were AC-powered, this battery-powered device liberated patients from their power-cord tethers. The wearable pacemaker was a significant step in the evolution to fully-implantable units.
First Wireless Radio Broadcast by Reginald A. Fessenden, 190642° 4' 55.10" N, 70° 38' 27.42" WBlackman’s Point, Brant Rock, in the County of Plymouth Massachusetts. On 24 December 1906, the first radio broadcast for entertainment and music was transmitted from Brant Rock, Massachusetts to the general public. This pioneering broadcast was achieved after years of development work by Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (1866-1932) who built a complete system of wireless transmission and reception using amplitude modulation (AM) of continuous electromagnetic waves. This technology was a revolutionary departure from transmission of dots and dashes widespread at the time.
First Working Laser, 196034° 2' 36.25" N, 118° 41' 45.66" WHughes Laboratories, 3011 Malibu Canyon Rd, Malibu, CA. On this site in May 1960 Theodore Maiman built and operated the first laser. A number of teams around the world were trying to construct this theoretically anticipated device from different materials. Maiman’s was based on a ruby rod optically pumped by a flash lamp. The laser was a transformative technology in the 20th century and continues to enjoy wide application in many fields of human endeavor.
Firth of Forth Railway Bridge, 189056° 0' 0.00" N, 3° 23' 0.00" WFor 27 years the Firth of Forth Railway Bridge held the world’s record for span (521 meters). The overall length of the bridge is 2,529 meters.
Five Stone Arch Bridges, 1830 - 186043° 6' 53.00" N, 71° 53' 42.00" WThe five New Hampshire stone arch bridges constitute the largest extant cluster of dry-laid stone arch bridges within the U.S.
Fleming Valve, 190451° 31' 22.92" N, 0° 7' 53.79" WUniversity College, London, England. Dedication: 1 July 2004, IEEE UKRI Section. Beginning in the 1880s Professor John Ambrose Fleming of University College London investigated the Edison effect, electrical conduction within a glass bulb from an incandescent filament to a metal plate. In 1904 he constructed such a bulb and used it to rectify high frequency oscillations and thus detect wireless signals. The same year Fleming patented the device, later known as the Fleming valve.
Flight of Five Locks, 191543° 19' 0.00" N, 74° 8' 0.00" WWhen opened, the Flight of Five Locks represented the greatest series of high lift locks in the shortest distance of any canal in the United State.
Folsom Hydroelectric Power System, 189538° 40' 50.00" N, 121° 10' 32.00" WThe Folsom Hydroelectric Power System was the second system in the U.S. to provide long–distance, high voltage, three-phase transmission for significant municipal and industrial multi-purpose power use. (The first was Mill Creek No. 1, near Redlands, CA, which was completed two years earlier, but the original generators no longer exist)
Folsom Power House38° 42' 44.54" N, 121° 10' 28.66" WThe historic Folsom Power House #l marks one of the first successful uses of hydroelectric power in the world and the first successful transmission of power long distance (twenty-two miles to Sacramento).
Folsom Powerhouse, 189538° 33' 51.13" N, 121° 44' 11.88" WFolsom was one of the earliest electrical plants to generate three-phase alternating current, and the first using three-phase 60 hertz. On 13 July 1895, General Electric generators began transmitting electricity 22 miles to Sacramento at 11000 volts, powering businesses, streetcars, and California's capitol. The plant demonstrated advantages of three-phase, 60 hertz long-distance transmission, which became standard, and promoted nationwide development of affordable hydropower.
Fort Peck Dam, 194048° 0' 0.00" N, 106° 26' 0.00" WThe Fort Peck Dam was more than five times larger than the largest dam in the world at the time, with its crest extending four miles.
Forth & Clyde Canal, 1768-179055° 55' 47.00" N, 4° 28' 56.00" WThe Forth & Clyde Canal is recognized as the world’s first civil engineering designed and constructed public-works project, a sea-to-sea ship canal constructed with no natural waterways included on its route.
Frankford Avenue Bridge, 169740° 2' 36.69" N, 75° 1' 13.99" WThe Frankford Avenue Bridge is the first known stone arch built in the United States and probably the oldest bridge in the country.
French Transatlantic Telegraph Cable of 189841° 47' 16.21" N, 69° 59' 14.98" WThe submarine telegraph cable known as Le Direct provided communication between Europe and North America without intermediate relaying. In a remarkable feat of oceanic engineering, the cable was laid in the deepest waters of the Atlantic Ocean between Brest, France, and Orleans, Massachusetts. When completed in 1898 by La Compagnie Francaise des Cables Telegraphiques, it spanned 3174 nautical miles (5878 km), making it the longest and heaviest cable in service.
Fresno Scraper38° 4' 49.08" N, 121° 16' 20.40" WThe Fresno scraper—which could scrape and move a load of soil and then discharge it at a controlled depth—established the basis for the modern earthmoving scraper in 1883. It replaced the hand shoveling of earth into horse carts, thereby quadrupling the productivity of manual labor.
Fritz Engineering Laboratory, 191040° 36' 0.00" N, 75° 23' 0.00" WWhen constructed, the Fritz Engineering Laboratory at Lehigh University was the largest and best-equipped university structural laboratory in the United States, serving as a prototype for subsequent university and research laboratories.
Fusion-Welded Test Boiler Drum35° 2' 26.94" N, 85° 19' 11.43" WPapers published by A. J. Moses, presented to the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors in June 1930, contributed to a new ASME Code for the use of welding for boiler drum construction, which was adopted in June 1931. The test drum had surpassed design calculations proposed for the Code, which estimated the safe working pressure to be 517 pounds per square inch gage. The drum had been tested to destruction on May 2, 1930, deforming under hydraulic pressures after reaching 3,250 pounds per square inch gage. Combustion Engineering Inc. shipped a drum, believed to be the first unit built to ASME Code weld rules, to Fisher Body Division of General Motors on June 22, 1931.
GE's Ultra High Pressure Apparatus for the Production of Diamonds42° 48' 42.62" N, 73° 56' 1.54" WIn 1941, General Electric (GE) made an agreement with Norton and Carborundum to develop diamond synthesis. And while these companies were able to heat carbon to about 3,000 C under a pressure of 3.5 gigapascals (510,000 psi) for a few seconds, World War II soon interrupted the project. But it was resumed at 1951 at GE's Schenectady laboratories with a high-pressure diamond group consisting of Francis P. Bundy, H.M. Strong, and Tracy Hall, among others.
Galveston Seawall and Grade Raising Project, 1904 & 191129° 17' 0.00" N, 94° 47' 0.00" WUsing pioneering materials and methods, civil engineers designed and built a concrete seawall on Galveston Island and raised the island’s elevation to prevent future natural disasters such as the 1900 hurricane in which 6,000 people were lost.
Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems,197535° 38' 16.49" N, 139° 42' 54.77" EThe plaque may be viewed at the entrance to Meiden Research and Development Center, Meidensha Corporation, 2-8-1 Osaki, Shinagawa-hu, Tokyo, Japan. Meidensha Corporation developed MOSA and its mass production system by innovating on Panasonic Corporation’s ZnO varistor basic patent. MOSA dramatically raised performance levels against multiple lightning strikes and contamination, and led to UHV protective device development. This technology contributed to improving the safety and reliability of electric power systems and to establishing international standards.
Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel40° 47' 33.55" N, 77° 51' 56.98" WThe Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel is a unique experimental facility for hydrodynamic research and testing. The 48-inch (1.2-meter) diameter water tunnel enables the research staff to conduct basic and applied investigations in the fields of cavitation, hydroacoustics, turbulence, transition, hydrodynamic drag, and hydraulic and subsonic turbomachinery. Instrumentation and testing methods have been developed to study noise, vibration, vehicle dynamics, and the interaction between the propulsor and vehicle body.
Geared Locomotives of Heisler, Shay, Climax37° 2' 25.56" N, 122° 3' 45.06" WRoaring Camp Railroad—a narrow gauge tourist railroad that runs up Bear Mountain from Felton, California—is home to three of the oldest and most authentically preserved narrow gauge steam engines still providing regular passenger service in the United States.
George Eastman House: Technology Collection43° 9' 9.64" N, 77° 34' 47.76" WFounded in 1947 as an independent nonprofit institution, George Eastman House is the world's oldest photography museum and one of the leading international film archives. The museum holds unparalleled collections—encompassing several million objects—in the fields of photography, cinema, photographic technology, and photographically illustrated books, and it is a leader in film preservation and photograph conservation. Eastman House is located in Rochester, New York, on George Eastman's National Historic Landmark estate.
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering33° 46' 39.17" N, 84° 24' 4.78" WBetween its opening in 1888 and the mid-1920s, Georgia Tech took a leading role in transforming mechanical engineering education from a shop-based, vocational program to a professional one built on rigorous academic and analytical methods.
George Washington Bridge, 193140° 51' 0.00" N, 73° 57' 0.00" WThe George Washington Bridge, a 3,500-foot center span suspension bridge, was virtually double the span of its largest predecessor.
Georgetown Steam Hydro Generating Plant, 190039° 42' 23.47" N, 105° 41' 52.51" WGeorgetown, Colorado, on South Clear Creek at east end of 6th Street. Dedication: July 1999 - IEEE Denver Section. Electric generating plants, through their high-voltage lines, provided critical power to the isolated mines in this region. Georgetown, completed in 1900, was unusual in employing both steam and water power. Its owner, United Light and Power Company, was a pioneer in using three-phase, 60-Hertz alternating current and in being interconnected with other utilities.
Georgetown Steam Plant47° 32' 34.19" N, 122° 18' 58.69" WThe Georgetown Steam Plant was built in the early 1900s when Seattle's inexpensive hydroelectric power attracted manufacturers. Much of the power produced at this plant operated Seattle's streetcars. It marks the beginning of the end of the reciprocating steam engine's domination in the growing field of electrical energy generation for lighting and power.
Germany’s First Broadcast Transmission from the Radio Station Königs Wusterhausen, 192052° 18' 15.64" N, 13° 37' 14.57" EIn early 1920, in this building, technicians of the Königs Wusterhausen radio station together with employees from the Telegraphentechnisches Reichsamt, began experiments broadcasting voice and music using an arc transmitter. By late 1920, tests had become successful enough to transmit an instrumental concert on 22 December -- the so-called Christmas concert. This transmission is regarded as the birth of statutorily regulated broadcasting in Germany.
Geysers Unit 138° 47' 26.00" N, 122° 45' 21.00" WThe largest geothermal field in the world, known as The Geysers, is located in the Mayacamas Mountains, approximately 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco. Geysers Unit 1, the first commercial geothermal electric generating station in North America, was a rebuilt kilowatt-size General Electric generator installed by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company engineers in 1960 [1] [2]See ASME website for more information
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, 199419° 5' 48.17" N, 74° 2' 59.84" EGMRT, consisting of thirty antennas of 45 m diameter each, spanning 25 km near Pune, India, is one of the largest and most sensitive low frequency (110–1460 MHz) radio telescopes in the world. It pioneered new techniques in antenna design, receiver systems, and signal transport over optical fibre. GMRT has produced important discoveries in domains such as pulsars, supernovae, galaxies, quasars, and cosmology, greatly enhancing our understanding of the Universe.
Giessbach Funicular46° 44' 6.19" N, 8° 1' 23.81" EDesigned by Carl Roman Abt and built in 1879, the Giessbach Funicular was the first single-track cable car for use on steep inclines, employing a short passing track at the half-way point that allowed the two cars to pass each other. The passing track used turnouts with no moving parts—also known as "Abt switches"—for safe and reliable operation. Wheels with outside flanges on one car and inside flanges on the other guided the cars through the turnout and around one another. The mid-way turnout allowed for the system's single-track construction, which reduced the size of the track structure and made the Giessbach Funicular more economical than earlier funiculars that operated on two tracks. The chassis for the Abt passing loop were installed in 1891 and are still in use today.
Ginaca Pineapple Processing Machine21° 20' 26.98" N, 157° 54' 2.46" WCommercial pineapple production began in Hawaii about 1890. Fruit was hand-peeled and sliced to match can sizes for export. In 1911, James D. Dole hired Henry G. Ginaca to design a machine to automate the process. As fruit dropped through the Ginaca machine, a cylinder was cut to the appropriate diameter, trimmed top and bottom, and cored. This machine more than tripled production, making pineapple Hawaii's second largest crop. In the faster Ginaca machines now used around the world, the principle remains unchanged.
Going -To-The-Sun Road, 193248° 41' 42.00" N, 113° 49' 0.84" WWhen completed, the Going-to-the-Sun Road was the first major trans-mountain scenic highway in the United States.
Golden Gate Bridge, 193737° 47' 0.00" N, 122° 28' 0.00" WThe Golden Gate Bridge, a world-renowned bridge, was the longest single span (4,200 feet) in the world at the time of construction.
Goldfields Water Supply, 1895-190331° 57' 24.00" S, 116° 9' 54.00" EThe Goldfields Water Supply scheme was the world’s longest fresh water pipeline when built and the first to be fabricated from steel.
Goodyear Airdock, 192941° 1' 55.00" N, 81° 28' 15.00" WThe Goodyear Airdock, a unique structure with a volume of 55,000,000 cubic feet, was at the time the largest building in the world in terms of uninterrupted space.
Gota Canal, 1810-183258° 29' 53.77" N, 16° 10' 23.95" EThe Gota Canal, a transnational canal, has 58 locks and 65 bridge spans along the 190 kilometer “Blue Ribbon” waterway.
Gotland High Voltage Direct Current Link, 195457° 35' 15.78" N, 18° 11' 40.61" EThe Gotland HVDC Link was the world’s first commercial HVDC transmission link using the first submarine HVDC cable. It connected the Island of Gotland to mainland Sweden. The 96 km-long cable used mass-impregnated technology. The Swedish manufacturer ASEA produced the link for Vattenfall, the state-owned utility. The project used mercury-arc valves for the 20 MW/100 kV HVDC converters, developed by an ASEA-Vattenfall team led by Dr. Uno Lamm.
Grand Central Terminal, 191340° 45' 10.00" N, 73° 58' 38.00" WConstructed under challenging conditions with no interruption of existing train service, Grand Central Terminal was a triumph of innovative engineering in the design of urban transportation centers. Its novel, two-level station, made possible by electric traction, streamlined both train and passenger movement by separating long-haul and suburban traffic and employing an extensive system of pedestrian ramps throughout the facility.
Grand Central Terminal Electrification, 1906-191340° 45' 9.81" N, 73° 58' 38.03" WGrand Central Terminal, in continuous use since 1913, was the first large-scale railroad electrification project, a development that enabled it to become a major railroad terminal. The design of the Terminal included several notable achievements in the field of electric traction such as innovative designs of electric locomotives, multiple unit (MU) control of electric rolling stock and the pioneering use of underrunning third rail.
Grand Coulee Dam, 194147° 28' 0.00" N, 119° 0' 0.00" WThe Grand Coulee Dam, a concrete gravity dam, is the largest concrete structure and hydroelectric facility in the United States.
Granite Railway, 182642° 14' 43.00" N, 71° 2' 14.00" WThe Granite railway, a unique project that first demonstrated the engineering advantages of rail transport in America, introduced many technical features such as switches, the turntable and the double-truck railway car.
Graue Mill41° 49' 11.90" N, 87° 55' 39.65" WDesigned and built by Fred Graue, a German immigrant, together with William Asche, the Old Graue Mill began operating around 1852 and served the village of Brush Hill (Hinsdale) until World War I. Its undershot waterwheel, wooden gearing system, belt power transmission, bucket elevators, and related bolters and sifters were representative of an ancient technology that began with Roman engineer Vitruvius.
Gravimetric Coal Feeder41° 25' 10.54" N, 81° 20' 21.48" WIn the 1950s, Arthur J. Stock (1900-1986) successfully combined the weighing and control of material flow into a single device, now known as the gravimetric feeder. The first installation was placed in continuous operation at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Station in 1957.
Gravitational-Wave Antenna, 1972-198946° 27' 18.57" N, 119° 24' 34.88" WInitially developed from 1972 to 1989, the Gravitational-Wave Antenna enabled detection of ripples in spacetime propagating at the speed of light, as predicted by Albert Einstein's 1916 Theory of General Relativity. Construction of Hanford's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) commenced in 1994. In 2015, LIGO antennas, located here and in Louisiana, first detected gravitational waves produced 1.3 billion years ago from two merging black holes.
Gravitational-Wave Antenna, 1972-198943° 37' 52.40" N, 10° 30' 14.48" EInitially developed from 1972 to 1989, the Gravitational-Wave Antenna enabled detection of ripples in spacetime propagating at the speed of light, as predicted by Albert Einstein's 1916 Theory of General Relativity. Construction of the Virgo Gravitational-Wave Observatory commenced in 1997. In 2017, Virgo and two antennas located in the U.S.A. launched the era of Multi-Messenger Astronomy with the coordinated detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger.
Gravitational-Wave Antenna, 1972-198930° 33' 47.48" N, 90° 46' 27.19" WInitially developed from 1972 to 1989, the Gravitational-Wave Antenna enabled detection of ripples in spacetime propagating at the speed of light, as predicted by Albert Einstein's 1916 Theory of General Relativity. Construction of Livingston's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) commenced in 1995. In 2015, LIGO antennas, located here and in Washington state, first detected gravitational waves produced 1.3 billion years ago from two merging black holes.
Great Falls Raceway & Power System, 1792-186440° 54' 58.28" N, 74° 10' 53.75" WThe Great Falls Raceway & Power System represents the oldest American integrated waterpower, industrial development, and urban planning system.
Great Falls Raceway and Power System40° 54' 52.23" N, 74° 10' 46.81" WThe raceway and power system, constructed from 1792 to 1864, was the first major water power system in the United States. The project, conceived by Alexander Hamilton in 1791 through his Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures (SUM) and designed by Peter Colt and Pierre Charles L'Enfant, engineer-planner of the Capitol, was designed to harness the Passaic River at Great Falls and create America's first planned industrial city.
Great Northern 2313 – Montana Western 31 Gas-Electric Rail Motorcar43° 27' 37.30" N, 89° 52' 27.58" WGreat Northern 2313, later Montana Western 31, is the oldest surviving Electro-Motive Co. (EMC) gas-electric rail motorcar, which reduced operating costs by 50 percent over the steam-locomotive trains it replaced. This 32-ton car from 1925 features a Winton gasoline engine and General Electric generator and traction motors. The early EMC cars made the first major use of Hermann Lemp's control system, which controlled and balanced the electrical and mechanical parts of the power train with a single lever. His first patent for this was in 1914, but it was the third patent (#1,589,182) of June 15, 1926, when he achieved an all-electrical solution. Lemp's control saw widespread use in diesel-electric locomotives for over 50 years. The same principles are used today in the control software for diesel-electric locomotives with DC-traction motors.
Great Western Railway, 184151° 31' 2.28" N, 0° 7' 2.64" WThe Great Western Railway was the first major civil engineering work of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, an engineering genius and innovator.
Greens Bayou Generator Plant29° 49' 17.81" N, 95° 13' 9.70" WOn April 21, 1949, a completely outdoor turbine-generator was placed into commercial operation at the Greens Bayou electric power plant—the first fully outdoor unit to operate in the United States. The demand for unprecedented quantities of electricity after World War II had pressed utilities to provide additional power quickly. The outdoor design, unlike the traditional large turbine hall, significantly reduced the cost per kilowatt to build the plant and made maintenance easier and less expensive. To remove protective housings, engineers dealt with issues such as the freezing of water-based systems, weather exposure, corrosion, and ease of maintenance access to sealed components.
Grumman Lunar Module, 1962-197240° 45' 5.79" N, 73° 30' 6.64" WNorthrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, 600 Grumman Road West, Bethpage, New York, U.S.A. The Grumman Lunar Module was the first vehicle to land man on an extraterrestrial body, the Moon. Because it was designed to fly solely in space, its design, construction and testing continuously pushed the technology envelope for lightweight metals and unique electrical and electronic systems resulting in one of the most important and successful engineering achievements of mankind.
Grumman Wildcat "Sto-Wing" Wing-Folding Mechanism42° 13' 38.64" N, 85° 33' 24.22" WThe Wildcat's innovative "Sto-Wing" mechanism, developed in 1942 on the XF4F-4 prototype by Leroy (Roy) Grumman (1895-1982), a founder of Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, was crucial to the U.S. Navy's success during World War II.
Guayabo Ceremonial Center, 300 BC - AD 14009° 58' 0.00" N, 83° 41' 0.00" WThe pre-Columbian civilization of Costa Rica built the Guayabo Ceremonial Center with care and skill. The roadways, retaining walls, underground channels, water supply, and flood control and drainage facilities represent remarkable civil engineering achievements.
Gunnison Tunnel, 190938° 29' 36.00" N, 107° 43' 17.00" WThe Gunnison Tunnel was the longest irrigation tunnel in America and was the key to the first major trans-mountain irrigation system in the United States.
HEMT, 197935° 26' 36.26" N, 139° 18' 50.12" EThe HEMT was the first transistor to incorporate an interface between two semiconductor materials with different energy gaps. HEMTs proved superior to previous transistor technologies because of their high mobility channel carriers, resulting in high speed and high frequency performance. They have been widely used in radio telescopes, satellite broadcasting receivers and cellular base stations, becoming a fundamental technology supporting the information and communication society.
Hacienda La Esperanza Sugar Mill Steam Engine18° 28' 8.20" N, 66° 31' 22.45" WThe La Esperanza sugar mill steam engine is one of the few remaining American links to the pioneer beam engines of the English inventors Thomas Newcomen (1712) and James Watt (1769). The engine was built in 1861 in Cold Spring, New York, by the West Point Foundry. The general arrangement and details, including the Gothic embellishment, are typical of machinery of the period. The straight-line motion of the piston rod is accommodated to the arc of the moving beam end by a parallel motion. Watt regarded this ingenious linkage as the invention of which he was most proud.
Hagia Sophia, 532-53741° 0' 30.77" N, 28° 58' 47.78" EBuilt under Emperor Justinian’s direction from 532-537 and named the Church of the Holy Wisdom, Hagia Sophia’s dome is still among the largest in the world.
Handheld Digital Camera, 197543° 11' 53.94" N, 77° 37' 51.23" WA self-contained portable digital camera was invented at an Eastman Kodak Company laboratory. It used movie camera optics, a charge-coupled device as an electronic light sensor, a temporary buffer of random-access memory, and image storage on a digital cassette. Subsequent commercial digital cameras using flash memory storage revolutionized how images are captured, processed, and shared, creating opportunities in commerce, education, and global communications.
Hanford B Reactor46° 37' 51.75" N, 119° 38' 45.85" WThe Hanford B-Reactor was the first full-scale plutonium production reactor to be placed in operation. Its success made possible the subsequent development of atomic energy. Much of the reactor core, cooling system, shielding, and auxiliary systems were designed by mechanical engineers.
Hanford B Reactor, 194446° 37' 49.00" N, 119° 38' 51.00" WDesigned and built as a part of the Manhattan Project during World War II, the Hanford B Reactor was the world’s first full scale nuclear production facility.
Harris-Corliss Steam Engine33° 46' 18.19" N, 84° 24' 1.16" WThis 350-horsepower Corliss type steam engine is an example of a typical late nineteenth century steam engine. The essential feature of Corliss type engines is the valves that admit steam to and exhaust it from the cylinder. The Corliss valve gear made the engine extremely efficient in steam consumption and was the most efficient system for controlling low to medium speed engines.
Hart Parr Tractor43° 3' 46.47" N, 92° 40' 44.21" WThe first commercially successful farm tractor in the world powered by an internal-combustion engine was invented and built by Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr from 1907 to 1918 in Charles City, Iowa, as their Model 3, following two prototype versions. Major accomplishments included an oil-cooled engine, the valve in the head principle with overhead cam, the magneto-ignition system, the plow gear, the vaporizing carburetor with water injection, and forced-fed lubrication.
Harvard Mark 1 Computer, 1944 - 195942° 22' 34.84" N, 71° 6' 59.78" WThe Mark I computer was a general-purpose electro-mechanical computer that could execute long computations automatically. It was conceived by Harvard University's Dr. Howard Aiken, and built by International Business Machines Corporation in New York. The machine used mechanical punch-card tabulating equipment. Considered the first large-scale electro-mechanical computer, it was a leap forward in modern computing.
High-Temperature Superconductivity, 198729° 43' 23.47" N, 95° 20' 47.17" WThe plaque may be viewed at Science and Research Building 1, University of Houston Closest street address: 3577 Cullen Blvd., Houston, TX, U.S.A. On this site in 1987, yttrium-barium-copper-oxide, YBa2Cu3O7, the first material to exhibit superconductivity at temperatures above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77k), was discovered. This ushered in an era of accelerated superconductor materials science and engineering research worldwide, and led to advanced applications of superconductivity in energy, medicine, communications, and transportation.
High Bridge, 187737° 49' 1.00" N, 84° 43' 13.00" WKnown as the first major cantilever bridge in the United States, the High Bridge represents the highest (275-feet) and longest cantilever bridge in the world at that time.
Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump-Turbine35° 9' 5.25" N, 84° 10' 40.13" WThe Hiwassee dam and power plant on the Hiwassee River near Murphy, North Carolina, was built by TVA between 1936 to 1940 as a flood control and electrical generating facility. The initial power installation consisted of a single conventional Francis turbine driving a generator with a rating of 57,600 kW, placed in service in May 1940.
Hohokam Canal System, 600 - 1450 AD33° 26' 0.00" N, 111° 59' 0.00" EThe Hohokam canal system is a significant pre-Columbian Native American example of modification of the environment for beneficial use by society.
Holland Tunnel, 192740° 51' 0.00" N, 73° 57' 0.00" WThe Holland Tunnel, a twin-tube subaqueous highway tunnel with its unprecedented length of 8,500 feet, was a bold step forward in navigable waterway crossings.
Holland Tunnel Ventilation System40° 43' 34.97" N, 74° 0' 42.81" WIn the Holland Tunnel's transverse-flow system, fresh air is drawn from the outside through one of four ventilation buildings and blown by fans into a fresh air duct located under each tunnel roadway. The air enters the tunnel proper through narrow slots just above the curb, spaced 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.5 m) apart. Exhaust fans (also located in the ventilation buildings) pull the exhaust-laden air through openings in the ceiling into an exhaust duct located above the ceiling slab, and discharges it into the open air through the roof of one of the ventilation buildings.
Holly District Heating System43° 10' 15.12" N, 78° 41' 41.15" WThe Holly Manufacturing Company was founded by Birdsill Holly in 1859 in Lockport, N.Y., to produce sewing machines, cistern pumps, and rotary pumps. After designing Lockport's Fire Protection and Water System (ASME landmark #121), Holly began to address how best to heat buildings by steam—and after experimenting with steam heat in his own home, he formed the Holly Steam Combination Company in 1877.
Holly Fire Protection and Water System43° 10' 15.12" N, 78° 41' 41.15" WThe Holly Manufacturing Company was founded by Birdsill Holly in 1859 in Lockport, N.Y., to produce sewing machines, cistern pumps, and rotary pumps. That year, it entered into an agreement with the Lockport Hydraulic Company to construct a race on the south side of the Erie Canal to be used for water power, and in 1861, the Holly Manufacturing Company began construction of a five story building to be used as a foundry and boiler building located between the canal and the hydraulic race.
Holt Caterpillar Tractor37° 57' 38.20" N, 121° 18' 50.16" WNamed after Benjamin Holt (1849-1920), the Holt Manufacturing Company of Stockton pioneered the first continuous track gasoline-powered haulers, or caterpillar tractors, influencing designs worldwide.
Holyoke Water Power System42° 12' 18.72" N, 72° 36' 25.80" WIn 1850, the city of Holyoke—a system of dams, canals, mills, streets, and boarding houses created by a group of Boston inventors—was incorporated. Its dam and canals, built between 1847 and 1892, provided work for numerous immigrants, and during and after the Civil War, the demand for paper stock stimulated the growth of twenty-three paper mills, producing 150 tons of paper a day. By 1877, Holyoke was a major industrial center known as the Paper City.
Hoosac Tunnel, 187642° 40' 30.00" N, 73° 2' 43.00" WWhen completed, the Hoosac Tunnel was the largest and longest transportation tunnel in the Western Hemisphere.
Hoover Dam, 193536° 0' 56.00" N, 114° 44' 16.00" WThe Hoover Dam, a 726-foot high-arch gravity structure, was the greatest constructed project at that time and remains one of the highest concrete dams in the Western Hemisphere.
Horseshoe Curve-Pennsylvania RR, 185440° 29' 51.50" N, 78° 29' 3.00" WThe Horseshoe Curve of the Pennsylvania Railroad was 549 meters across and 805 meters long with a 1.8 percent grade, which eliminated the Portage Railroad’s 10 incline planes and greatly encouraged east-west trade crossing the Allegheny Mountains.
Houston Ship Channel, 191429° 42' 30.00" N, 95° 0' 18.00" WUnder continuous development since the original construction, the Houston Ship Channel is directly linked to hundreds of transportation facilities, industrial plants, and other enterprises that use the channel to ship products to markets throughout the world.
Howard Hughes Flying Boat, HK-145° 12' 15.47" N, 123° 8' 43.62" WBetter known as the "Spruce Goose," the Howard Hughes Flying Boat was designed and built by Hughes Aircraft Co., to be the largest wood-constructed and the largest wingspan airplane ever built. As Hughes perfected his craft, he added significantly to what is known in areas of large-lift capability and power-boost systems.
Hudson and Manhattan RR Tunnel, 190840° 42' 43.20" N, 74° 0' 43.20" WThe Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Tunnel was the first railroad tunnel under a major river in the country and introduced a shield-system of subaqueous tunneling to the United States.
Huey P. Long Bridge, 193529° 56' 39.00" N, 90° 10' 8.00" WThe Huey P. Long Bridge was the first bridge to span the Mississippi River at New Orleans. The dual-track railroad portion, with its total length of 22,995 feet, was the longest, high-level railroad bridge in the world at the time.
Hughes Glomar Explorer40° 0' 0.00" N, 180° 0' 0.00" EThe Hughes Glomar Explorer was designed to complete the secret mission of lifting a 2,000-ton Soviet submarine 17,000 feet from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The Soviet Golf-II class submarine K-129 had sunk in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii in April 1968 and the recovery mission—termed the "Jennifer Project"—launched in July 1974.
Hughes Two-Cone Drill Bit30° 10' 25.68" N, 95° 27' 48.07" WPrior to 1909, the traditional fishtail bit used for drilling oil scraped the rock and quickly dulled in service. At that time, Howard Robard Hughes, Sr., had experienced success in his early oil-drilling ventures, but had quickly become frustrated by the slow rate of penetration in harder formations, in which the fishtail bit simply could not achieve sufficient drilling progress. Around 1906, Hughes began to conduct experiments on a rock bit designed to replace the fishtail bit. The resulting Hughes Two-Cone Drill Bit's revolutionary rolling action crushed hard-rock formations with twin cone-shaped, hardened steel bits, each with 166 cutting edges, revolving on bronze bearings shaped to provide a large surface with reduced friction.
Hulett Ore Unloaders41° 29' 43.76" N, 81° 43' 19.02" WThe Hulett ore unloaders were highly efficient materials handling machines unique to the Great Lakes, invented by Clevelander George H. Hulett (1846-1923). The first, steam-powered, with a 10-ton-capacity grab bucket, went into service at Conneaut, Ohio, in 1899. It could unload an ore boat at the rate of 275 tons an hour.
Human Rescue Enabled by Space Technology, 198245° 27' 30.75" N, 75° 38' 46.56" WOn 9 September 1982 an aircraft crashed in the mountains of British Columbia. A Canadian ground station in Ottawa located the aircraft using the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite system. Search and rescue teams were dispatched and all on board were rescued. Since the first incident, many tens of thousands of lives have been saved around the world using this technology.
Hwaseong Fortress, 179637° 17' 19.00" N, 127° 0' 51.00" EThe rapid construction of the Hwaseong Fortress, using paid labor, symbolizes the cultural and technological renaissance under King Jeongjo.
Hydraulic-Powered Inclined Plane System of the Morris Canal, 1824-183640° 54' 36.97" N, 74° 46' 14.58" WThe Hydraulic-Powered Inclined Plane system was the key civil engineering feature that permitted the successful completion of the Morris Canal project in 1831. The inclined planes were essentially short railways that allowed the canal boats to change as much as 100 feet in elevation in 15 minutes.
Hydraulics Laboratory at the University of Iowa, 191941° 39' 0.00" N, 91° 32' 0.00" WThe University of Iowa Hydraulics Laboratory is the oldest such university-based facility in the U.S. that has continuously focused on research and education in hydraulic engineering.
Hydromatic Propeller41° 56' 49.50" N, 72° 41' 27.63" WRapid development of aircraft design in the 1930s required many related innovations, including propeller design. The hydromatic propeller by Hamilton Standard marked a significant advance over the counterweight-type, controllable pitch propeller. The first test flight of the prototype took place in 1938, with a public demonstration by a United Air Lines DC-3 over New York City on April 6, 1938. It played a distinguished role in allied combat aircraft in World War II, and its continuing development has incorporated many features used on later aircraft, including turboprop planes.
IBM 350 RAMAC Disk File37° 14' 59.61" N, 121° 48' 6.45" WThe IBM 350 RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) disk drive storage development led to the breakthrough of online computer systems by providing the first storage device with random access to large volumes of data. Making information directly available for computer processing on demand meant that no longer would processors stand idle while searches were made through reels of magnetic tape or data was punched into cards and sorted for processing. After its introduction on September 4, 1956, the IBM 350 became the primary computer bulk-storage medium.
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 1960 - 198441° 12' 58.29" N, 73° 48' 21.61" WWatson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY. In its first quarter century, the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center produced numerous seminal advances having sustained worldwide impact in electrical engineering and computing. Semiconductor device innovations include dynamic random access memory (DRAM), superlattice crystals, and field effect transistor (FET) scaling laws. Computing innovations include reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architecture, integer programming, amorphous magnetic films for optical storage technology, and thin-film magnetic recording heads.
IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, 198537° 52' 32.25" N, 122° 15' 31.98" WIn 1978, faculty and students at U.C. Berkeley drafted what became IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic. Inspired by ongoing collaboration with Intel, the proposal revolutionized numerical computing. Its carefully crafted arithmetic and standard data types promoted unprecedented software reliability and portability. By 1980, microprocessor companies were already implementing the proposal. Once approved in 1985, IEEE 754 was widely adopted as the standard for robust numerical computing.
Icing Research Tunnel, NASA Lewis Research Center41° 25' 10.95" N, 81° 51' 10.38" WWind tunnels have been a part of aviation research since the days of Wilbur and Orville Wright. The Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center was designed and built in 1944 by a group of engineers with wind tunnel design experience at NACA's Langley and Ames Laboratories. Although at least two icing tunnels existed prior to the IRT (at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and B.F. Goodrich), they were much smaller, as the technology to create a larger icing wind tunnel that could operate year round simply did not exist in the early 1940s. The IRT designers and contractors had to create new systems.
Idols Station, Fries Manufacturing & Power Company35° 58' 30.49" N, 80° 23' 53.31" WIdol's Hydro Station, as developed and placed in operation by The Fries Manufacturing and Power Company on April 18, 1898, was typical of small-scale, low-head first generation hydroelectric stations of that day. It was the first commercial hydroelectric generating station in North Carolina using long distance (13¼ miles) transmission of alternating current power at 10,000 volts. It provided power for textile and fertilizer mills, an electric railway system, electric street lighting, and wood and metal working shops in the towns of Winston and Salem, N.C.
Ifugao Rice Terraces, 100 BC16° 54' 38.00" N, 121° 3' 15.00" EDating from 100 BC, the Ifugao Rice Terraces are the oldest and most extensive use of terraces in the world.
Inception of the ARPANET, 196937° 27' 33.25" N, 122° 10' 26.94" WStanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA. SRI was one of the first two nodes, with the University of California at Los Angeles, on the ARPANET, the first digital global network based on packet switching and demand access. The first documented ARPANET connection was from UCLA to SRI on 29 October 1969 at 10:30 p.m. The ARPANET’s technology and deployment laid the foundation for the development of the Internet.
Ingalls Building, 190339° 6' 1.00" N, 84° 30' 45.00" WThe Ingalls Building was the first reinforced concrete skyscraper in the world.
Interactive Video Games, 196642° 45' 50.68" N, 71° 27' 29.36" WThe "Brown Box" console, developed at Sanders Associates - later BAE Systems - between 1966 and 1968, was the first interactive video game system to use an ordinary home television set. This groundbreaking device and the production-engineered version Magnavox Odyssey game system (1972) spawned the commercialization of interactive console video games, which became a multi-billion dollar industry.
Interborough Rapid Transit System, Original Line40° 41' 25.63" N, 73° 59' 18.73" WThe Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was awarded the rights to build the railway line, and ground was broken on March 24, 1900. The original subway, which opened October 27, 1904, ran 9.1 miles from City Hall in downtown Manhattan to 145th Street and Broadway in Harlem. The fare was a nickel. Extensions to the Bronx opened in 1905 and to Brooklyn in 1908, completing the first subway.
International Boundary Marker, 185531° 44' 22.00" N, 106° 29' 13.00" WBoundary Marker No. 1, located between Dona Ana County, New Mexico (near El Paso, Texas), and Juarez, Mexico, not only represents an international boundary but is also a monument to the professional skills of the American surveyors who were called upon to locate it in 1855.
International Standardization of G3 Facsimile, 1980#KDDI R&D Laboratories Inc., Kamifukuoka-city, Saitama Japan35° 51' 42.22" N, 139° 38' 43.74" EThis site commemorates the creation of the Modified READ two-dimensional coding for G3 facsimile developed through the careful collaboration of NTT and KDDI. Strong Japanese leadership with intense international discussion, testing, and cooperation produced the International Telecommunications Union G3 recommendation in 1980. This innovative and efficient standard enabled the worldwide commercial success of facsimile
International Standardization of G3 Facsimile, 198035° 16' 52.83" N, 139° 40' 19.92" EThis site commemorates the creation of the Modified READ two-dimensional coding for G3 facsimile developed through the careful collaboration of NTT and KDDI. Strong Japanese leadership with intense international discussion, testing, and cooperation produced the International Telecommunications Union G3 recommendation in 1980. This innovative and efficient standard enabled the worldwide commercial success of facsimile
Introduction of the Apple II Computer: 1977-197837° 19' 54.10" N, 122° 1' 48.79" WThe Apple II spurred software and hardware suppliers to help create the worldwide personal computing industry. It was the first low-cost computer to offer quick start-up, pre-addressed standard expansion slots, processor RAM-based bit-mapped NTSC color graphics and random access storage in a handsome compact package. It had an economy of design with a BASIC interpreter and assembler in ROM as well as gaming and graphics features.
Invention of Holography, 194751° 29' 55.56" N, 0° 10' 28.28" WThe plaque may be viewed on or in the building of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, England, UK. In 1947 Dennis Gabor conceived the idea of wavefront reconstruction for improving the performance of the electron microscope. This became the basis for the invention of optical holography for three-dimensional imaging but implementation required coherent light sources and had to await the emergence of the laser some years later. Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize for his invention in 1971.
Invention of Public-key Cryptography, 1969 - 197551° 54' 4.41" N, 2° 4' 40.50" WGCHQ, Cheltenham, UK. At Great Britain's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), by 1975 James Ellis had proved that a symmetric secret-key system is unnecessary and Clifford Cocks with Malcolm Williamson showed how such 'public-key cryptography' could be achieved. Until then it was believed that secure communication was impossible without exchange of a secret key, with key distribution a major impediment. With these discoveries the essential principles were known but were kept secret until 1997.
Invention of Sonar, 1915-191848° 50' 28.58" N, 2° 20' 42.05" EFrom 1915 to 1918, Paul Langevin demonstrated the feasibility of using piezoelectric quartz crystals to both transmit and receive pulses of ultrasound and thereby detect submerged submarines at ranges up to 1300 metres. The system, later called sonar, validated Constantin Chilowsky's proposal to use ultrasound for this purpose. The technology was used successfully during World War II, and led to other applications including depth sounding and medical echography.
Invention of Stereo Sound Reproduction, 193151° 31' 55.72" N, 0° 10' 40.51" WAlan Dower Blumlein filed a patent for a two-channel audio system called “stereo” on 14 December 1931. It included a "shuffling" circuit to preserve directional sound, an orthogonal “Blumlein Pair” of velocity microphones, the recording of two orthogonal channels in a single groove, stereo disc-cutting head, and hybrid transformer to mix directional signals. Blumlein brought his equipment to Abbey Road Studios in 1934 and recorded the London Philharmonic Orchestra.
Invention of a Temperature-Insensitive Quartz Oscillation Plate, 193335° 36' 24.75" N, 139° 41' 5.29" EIn April 1933, Issac Koga of the Tokyo Institute of Technology reported cutting angles that produced quartz crystal plates having a zero temperature coefficient of frequency. These angles, 54⁰ 45’ and 137⁰ 59’, he named the R1 and R2 cuts. Temperature-insensitive quartz crystal was used at first for radio transmitters and later for clocks, and has proven indispensable to all radio communication systems and much of information electronics.
Invention of the First Transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 194740° 41' 2.95" N, 74° 24' 4.23" WBell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ. At this site, in Building 1, Room 1E455, from 17 November to 23 December 1947, Walter H. Brattain and John A. Bardeen -- under the direction of William B. Shockley -- discovered the transistor effect, and developed and demonstrated a point-contact germanium transistor. This led directly to developments in solid-state devices that revolutionized the electronics industry and changed the way people around the world lived, learned, worked, and played.
Inverter-Driven Air Conditioner, 1980-198135° 8' 52.45" N, 138° 39' 53.06" EToshiba developed and mass-produced the world’s first split-type air conditioners with inverter-driven compressors for commercial and residential applications in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Compact and robust inverters using power electronics technologies allowed variable-speed control of the compressors for optimized air-conditioning operations, with significantly improved comfort and energy efficiency. These innovations led to widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world.
Iron Bridge, 177952° 37' 38.08" N, 2° 29' 7.92" WThe Iron Bridge, crossing the River Severn, is recognized as the first iron bridge in the world.
Iron Building of the U.S. Army Arsenal, 185942° 43' 0.00" N, 73° 42' 30.00" WBuilt entirely of cast iron and wrought iron elements, the Iron Building of the US Arsenal is believed to be the oldest all-metal building in the United States.
Jackson Ferry Shot Tower36° 52' 12.17" N, 80° 52' 13.12" WThe Jackson Ferry Shot Tower—where small lead projectiles were produced by "dropping" them in a free fall—is the only one of its kind in Wythe County and is one of only three such remaining antiquities in the nation.
Jacobs Engine Brake Retarder41° 51' 11.92" N, 72° 41' 57.83" WInvented in 1957, the Jacobs Engine Brake Compression Retarder, or "Jake Brake," permits large trucks to descend long, steep grades at a controlled speed by turning a diesel engine into an air compressor.
Jeep Model MB41° 41' 14.16" N, 83° 33' 41.10" WThe prototype four-cylinder "Quad" was designed in 1940-41 by Delmar Roos. Between 1941 and 1945, more than 637,000 Jeep vehicles were produced by the Willys-Overland Company (now the Chrysler Corporation) and the Ford Motor Company (under license). The basic MB design, the first model produced in quantity, led to a number of adaptations, including amphibious (called "Seeps," or seagoing Jeeps) and airborne versions, ambulances (dubbed "Janes" and capable of carrying three stretchers each), tractors, and half-tracks.
John A. Roebling Bridge, 186639° 5' 32.03" N, 84° 30' 34.45" WThe John A. Roebling Bridge, a suspension bridge with a main span of 1,057 feet, was the greatest structure of its kind in the world and was the prototype for the Brooklyn Bridge, which followed 16 years later.
John Penn & Sons Oscillating Steam Engine51° 3' 7.48" N, 13° 44' 34.72" EThe oscillating steam engine, built by John Penn & Sons, is located aboard the famed paddle steamer Diesbar, the second oldest of a fleet of nine paddle steamers in Dresden. What makes the Diesbar unique is its coal fueled engine and single deck design. The John Penn and Sons engine that runs the steamer is the oldest operational marine steam engine in the world. It has been in operation for over 175 years.
Johnstown Incline40° 19' 30.82" N, 78° 54' 58.53" WThe Johnstown incline is one of several similar inclines built in western Pennsylvania during the late 19th century. It was designed by Samuel Diescher (1839-1915) after the great flood of 1889, to provide an efficient means of transportation between Westmont and the Conemaugh Valley.
Joining of the Rails -Transcontinental RR, 186941° 37' 7.00" N, 112° 32' 51.00" WOn May 10, 1869, two railroads joined their rails to form the Transcontinental Railroad. The 1,776 miles over the mountains and deserts of the continent marked a turning point in American history by signaling the opening of the West and the emergence of a unified nation.
Joshua Hendy Iron Works37° 22' 39.06" N, 122° 1' 30.01" WThe Joshua Hendy Iron Works exemplified the adaptability required for industrial survival in a dynamic technical environment. It was a major western producer of mechanical equipment used in mining (especially large hydraulic machines), ship propulsion, irrigation, power generation, optical telescope mounts, and nuclear research.
Kamehameha V Post Office Building, 187121° 18' 0.00" N, 157° 52' 0.00" WThe Kamehameha V Post Office building is the oldest public building in the United States to incorporate structural elements of reinforced Portland cement concrete.
Kansas City Park and Boulevard System, 191539° 5' 59.00" N, 94° 34' 42.00" WThe Kansas City Park & Boulevard System, a pioneer project, was among the first to integrate the aesthetics of landscape architecture with the practicality of city planning, stimulating other metropolitan areas to undertake similar projects.
Kaplan Turbine40° 7' 2.15" N, 76° 46' 41.52" WEarly 20th century technological development led the country to a new era of industrialization. Within the Susquehanna Valley of Pennsylvania new manufacturing facilities were under construction. The Conewago Falls, near the sixteen foot descent of the Susquehanna River, was chosen as the site of the newly-incorporated York Haven Water and Power Company.
Kavanagh Building, 193534° 36' 0.00" S, 58° 24' 0.00" WThe Kavanagh Building, 31-stories high and complete with central air conditioning and advanced technology, was one of the first reinforced concrete skyscrapers in the world when opened.
Keage Power Station: The Japan’s First Commercial Hydroelectric Plant, 1890-189735° 0' 36.72" N, 135° 47' 18.50" EKeage Power Station achieved Japan’s first commercial hydroelectric generation using water intake from the Lake Biwa Canal. Construction of the station began in 1890, and was completed in 1897 with a total capacity of 1,760 kW, pioneering the start-up of power generation. A second canal revitalized the station in 1936 with a capacity of 5,700 kW, contributing to Japan’s technological modernization.
Kentucky Dam, 194437° 0' 47.00" N, 88° 16' 9.00" WThe Kentucky Dam, at mile 22.4 on the Tennessee River, is the key structure in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system and continues to play an important role in the reduction of flood crests on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
Keokuk Dam & Power Plant Project, 191340° 23' 56.00" N, 91° 21' 44.00" WAt the time, the Keokuk Dam & Power Plant project incorporated the longest monolithic concrete dam in the world and was a pioneering effort in large-scale, low-head hydroelectric power.
Kew Bridge Cornish Beam Engines51° 29' 20.17" N, 0° 17' 26.36" WThe London Museum of Water and Steam is home to five beam engines, original to the site, which represent the progressive development of the Cornish-cycle steam engine for waterworks service from 1820 to 1869. The Cornish engine was developed to pump water from mines in the early 19th century and some of the finest examples were built for waterworks, like those at Kew Bridge. Cornish engines do not have rotating parts, such as a flywheel, but rather are controlled by piston movement and the opening and closing of valves. In simple terms, steam depresses the piston and raises the plunger and weight box, and on the return stroke, the plunger descends under gravity, displacing water into the main. During the period represented at the Kew Bridge museum, cylinder diameter increased from 65 to 100 inches.
King's Road, 177530° 24' 6.84" N, 81° 45' 54.36" WThe principal overland transportation link between the former British Colony of St. Augustine and the 13 Colonies, the King’s Road was originally 126 miles long. It was a remarkable engineering feat, passing through the swampy flatlands of coastal Florida and over rivers and streams.
Kingsbury Thrust Bearing39° 50' 20.89" N, 76° 19' 9.54" WWhen he was a student in 1888, Albert Kingsbury (1862-1944) first developed the principle of what would become the Kingsbury thrust bearing, in which the load is carried by a wedge-shaped oil film formed between the shaft thrust-collar and a series of stationary pivoted pads or segments, resulting in an extremely low coefficient of friction and negligible bearing wear.
Kinne Water Turbine Collection43° 58' 24.42" N, 75° 54' 46.92" WThe Kinne Collection of Water Turbines, owned by the Jefferson County Historical Society and displayed at their museum in Watertown, is believed to be the largest collection of its kind in the world. Assembled by engineer Clarence E. Kinne (1869-1950) between 1907 and 1937, the collection represents American turbine development from a time well before the invention of the "true" turbine to the evolution of the inward-flow reaction turbine used in more modern hydroelectric plants.
Kinzua Railway Viaduct, 188241° 45' 40.00" N, 78° 35' 19.00" WConstructed in only 102 days, the Kinzua Railway Viaduct was by far the highest (302 feet) and the longest (2,053 feet) viaduct in the world at that time.
Knight Foundry and Machine Shop38° 23' 36.88" N, 120° 47' 59.95" WHistoric Knight Foundry, in Sutter Creek, California, is believed to be the only remaining water-powered foundry and machine shop in the United States. The foundry was established in 1873 by Samuel N. Knight (1838-1913), a former ship's carpenter, was one of several inventors experimenting with impulse turbines to exploit the area's abundant high-head water power for driving hoists, ore stamps, and other mining machinery. He patented an efficient water wheel that came to dominate the field prior to the introduction of the Pelton turbine in the mid-1880s. Knight turbines drive some of the machinery of the works.
Krka-Šibenik Electric Power System, 189543° 48' 16.92" N, 15° 57' 47.88" EThe plaques (English and Croatian) may be viewed at the Jaruga I power plant. On 28 August 1895 electricity generated at this location was transmitted to the city of Šibenik, where six power transformers supplied a large number of street lamps. This early system of power generation, transmission and distribution was one of the first complete multiphase alternating current systems in the world and it remained in operation until World War I.
Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, 1956-6336° 33' 59.18" N, 137° 39' 43.67" EKansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Unazuki-machi, Kurobe-shi, Toyama, Japan. Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., completed the innovative Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, including the subterranean power station and Kurobe Dam, in 1963. The 275kV long-distance transmission system delivered the generated electric power to the Kansai region and solved serious power shortages, contributing to industrial development and enhancing living standards for the population.
Lacey V. Murrow Bridge and Mount Baker Ridge Tunnels, 194047° 35' 25.00" N, 122° 17' 55.00" WWhen completed in 1940, the Lacey V Murrow Bridge & Mt Baker Ridge Tunnels constituted the world’s first reinforced concrete floating bridge – the largest floating structure ever built – and the largest diameter soft-earth tunnels.
Lake Moeris Quarry Road, 2500 - 2100 B.C.29° 40' 0.00" N, 30° 39' 0.00" EThe Lake Moeris Quarry Road is recognized as the oldest surviving paved road in the world. Dating from the Old Kingdom period in Egypt, it transported basalt blocks from the quarry to a quay on the shores of ancient Lake Moeris.
Lake Pontchartrain Causeway bridge, 195630° 11' 59.00" N, 90° 7' 22.00" WIn building the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge, which took just fourteen months, assembly-line, mass-production methods were utilized for the first time in the construction of a bridge.
Lake Washington Ship Canal & Hiram M Chittenden Locks, 191747° 39' 56.00" N, 122° 23' 45.00" WThe Hiram M. Chittenden Locks, the largest and most heavily used locks on the West Coast, incorporated unique, parallel dual-sized lock chambers for water conservation and preventive measures to reduce salt water intrusion into Lake Washington.
Landing of the Transatlantic Cable, 186647° 52' 14.33" N, 53° 21' 53.59" WCable Museum, Heart's Content, Newfoundland, Canada. Dedication: June 1985 - IEEE Newfoundland-Labrador Section. A permanent electrical communications link between the old world and the new was initiated at this site with the landing of a transatlantic cable on July 27, 1866. This achievement altered for all time personal, commercial, and political relations between peoples on the two sides of the ocean. Five more cables between Heart's Content and Valentia, Ireland were completed between 1866 and 1894. This station continued in operation until 1965.
Largest Private (dc) Generating Plant in the U.S.A., 192940° 45' 7.89" N, 73° 59' 36.47" WHotel New Yorker, 8th Avenue and 34th st. New York, New York. The Direct Current (dc) generating plant installed at the New Yorker Hotel in 1929, capable of supplying electric power sufficient for a city of 35,000 people, was the largest private generating plant in the U.S.A. Steam engines drove electric generators, with exhaust steam used for heating and other facilities. The installation used more than two hundred dc motors, and was controlled from a seven-foot (two-meter) high, sixty-foot (eighteen-meter) long switchboard.
Lawrence Experimental Station, 188642° 42' 25.00" N, 71° 9' 49.00" WThe Lawrence Experiment Station was a pioneer engineering laboratory dedicated to research on the treatment of water supply, sewage and industrial waste and has been recognized nationally and internationally for contributions to the environmental engineering field.
LeTourneau "Mountain Mover" Scraper32° 28' 0.86" N, 94° 43' 48.01" WIn June 1922, LeTourneau developed his "Mountain Mover" with a telescoping bowl. He incorporated a floor behind the cutting edge taken from his previous designs, and employed welding instead of riveting to save weight. Although only one "Mountain Mover" ever existed, all later LeTourneau scraper designs drew upon its innovative concepts. The original Mountain Mover, modified over the years, is an example of the innovative and pioneering mechanical engineering concepts developed by R.G. LeTourneau. This predecessor to modern equipment played a large role in opening up lands to farming and helped lead to the rapid and cost-effective construction of roads, highways and airports for decades after its introduction.
Leavitt-Riedler Pumping Engine42° 19' 54.19" N, 71° 9' 19.98" WThe Chestnut Hill High-Service Pumping Station of the Boston Water Works Corporation featured an unusual triple-expansion, three-crank rocker engine, which in its day was a high-capacity unit that provided outstanding performance. Designed by Erasmus Darwin Leavitt, Jr. (1836-1916), Engine No. 3 was installed in 1894 to the high-service pumping facility on the south side of the Chestnut Hill Reservoir in Brighton—a necessary measure as demand increased as towns adjacent to old Boston were annexed into the city, creating a considerable number of elevated areas to which water had to be raised.
Lempel-Ziv Data Compression Algorithm, 197732° 48' 0.16" N, 34° 59' 59.83" EIsrael Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. Dedication: September 2004, IEEE Israel Section. The data compression algorithm developed at this site in 1977 by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv became a basis for enabling data transmission via the internet in an efficient way. It contributed significantly in making the internet a global communications medium.
Line Spectrum Pair (LSP) for high-compression speech coding, 197535° 43' 12.54" N, 139° 33' 43.69" EThe plaque may be viewed in the reception hall NTT Musashino R&D center  9-11, Midori-cho 3-Chome Musashino-Shi, Tokyo 180-8585 Japan. Line Spectrum Pair, invented at NTT in 1975, is an important technology for speech synthesis and coding. A speech synthesizer chip was designed based on Line Spectrum Pair in 1980. In the 1990s, this technology was adopted in almost all international speech coding standards as an essential component and has contributed to the enhancement of digital speech communication over mobile channels and the Internet worldwide.
Link C-3 Flight Trainer42° 5' 38.47" N, 75° 55' 7.44" WDuring the 1920s, Edwin A. Link was employed in his father's organ building and repair business. He obtained his pilot's license in 1927 and became convinced that a mechanical device could be built as an inexpensive method to teach basic piloting. Link received three patents on his flight trainer (No. 1,825,462, March 12, 1930; No. 2,244,464, June 3, 1941; and No. 2,358,016, Sept. 12, 1944).
Liquid Crystal Display, 196840° 19' 54.07" N, 74° 37' 53.89" WDavid Sarnoff Library, 201 Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: 30 September 06. Between 1964 and 1968, at the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey, a team of engineers and scientists led by George H. Heilmeier with Louis A. Zanoni and Lucian A. Barton, devised a method for electronic control of light reflected from liquid crystals and demonstrated the first liquid crystal display. Their work launched a global industry that now produces millions of LCDs annually for watches, calculators, flat-panel displays in televisions, computers and instruments.
Ljungstrom Air Preheater59° 19' 57.10" N, 18° 7' 7.72" EThe Ljungstrom air preheater is a regenerative heat exchanger, invented in the 1920s and soon used throughout the world. Dr. Fredrik Ljungstrom, then technical director at Aktiebolaget Ljunstrom Angturbin (ALA), invented it for preheating combustion air in boiler plants, but the use has expanded to include energy recovery in combination with the removal of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.
Lombard Steam Log Hauler46° 0' 4.67" N, 68° 27' 12.84" WLumbering in Maine, which began along the coast with cutting pine for masts for the Kings Navy, was limited to the suitable timber growing near enough to the water to permit its transportation by oxen to water on which it could be floated to the ship—so the type of tree was limited to those that would float. As a result of these limitations, there were at the turn of the century uncounted thousands of acres of fine maple, white and yellow birch, beech, and ash, which, with the equipment available, could not be gotten to any market.
Long-Range Shortwave Voice Transmissions from Byrd's Antarctic Expedition, 193442° 1' 42.01" N, 91° 38' 19.27" WRockwell Collins, 400 Collins Rd, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.A. Dedication: February 2001 - IEEE Cedar Rapids Section. Beginning 3 February 1934, Vice Admiral Richard E. Byrd's Antarctic Expedition transmitted news releases to New York via short-wave radio voice equipment. From New York, the US nationwide CBS network broadcast the news releases to the public. Previous expeditions had been limited to dot-dash telegraphy, but innovative equipment from the newly formed Collins Radio Company made this long-range voice transmission feasible.
Lookout Mountain Incline Railway35° 0' 21.68" N, 85° 20' 36.79" WMore than 75,000 tourists a year were visiting Lookout Mountain when the Civil War interceded. Tourism was not enthusiastically revived again until the 1880s when, in bitter competition for the tourist trade, a narrow-gage incline was built in 1886 to reach the site of a new luxury hotel. In competition with this incline, another incline was built, called the Broad Gauge Railroad, by June 1889, which covered 15 miles from the downtown Union Railroad up to the top of the mountain, a trip of over an hour. But financial problems plagued the Broad Gauge—and, in 1895, John T. Crass formed the Lookout Mountain Incline Railway Company, which built a short, fast incline up the steepest part of the mountain. Its success closed down the competitors by 1900, and continues uninterrupted today.
Loran, 1940 - 194642° 21' 42.06" N, 71° 5' 26.02" WThe rapid development of Loran -- long range navigation -- under wartime conditions at MIT’s Radiation Lab was not only a significant engineering feat but also transformed navigation, providing the world’s first near-real-time positioning information. Beginning in June 1942, the United States Coast Guard helped develop, install and operate Loran until 2010.
Louisville Waterworks, 1857-191238° 16' 50.00" N, 85° 42' 5.00" WWhen constructed, the Louisville Waterworks demonstrated the practicality of rapid sand filtration on a municipal scale, and was a major milestone in American sanitary engineering.
Louisville and Portland Canal Locks & Dam, 183038° 16' 18.12" N, 85° 46' 45.84" WThe original Louisville & Portland Canal and Locks constructed at this site were responsible for permanently changing navigation on the Ohio River. These projects improved the transportation of people and goods towards St. Louis, New Orleans and points west and played an important role in the settlement and growth of the nation.
Lowell Power Canal System and Pawtucket Gatehouse42° 38' 33.97" N, 71° 18' 48.74" WIn 1792, shipbuilders and merchants from Newburyport, Massachusetts, incorporated as the Proprietors of Locks and Canals on Merrimack River. This was one of the nation's earliest corporations. It immediately began work on the Pawtucket Canal, which was completed in 1796. This canal bypassed Pawtucket Falls and increased the flow of timber and agricultural products from New Hampshire to the sea—but shipbuilding soon waned, and was replaced by textile mills.
Lowell Waterpower System, 1823-188042° 37' 0.00" N, 71° 21' 0.00" WThe Lowell Waterpower System was a pioneer water development scheme consisting of a network of power canals with a highly sophisticated controlled and measured distribution system.
MIT Radiation Laboratory, 1940-194542° 22' 28.09" N, 71° 6' 20.73" WOriginal Radiation Lab, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dedication: October 1990 - IEEE Boston Section. The MIT Radiation Laboratory, operated on this site between 1940 and 1945, advanced the allied war effort by making fundamental contributions to the design and deployment of microwave radar systems. Used on land, sea, and in the air, in many adaptations, radar was a decisive factor in the outcome of the conflict. The laboratory's 3900 employees made lasting contributions to microwave theory and technology, operational radar, systems engineering, long-range navigation, and control equipment.
MPD7720DSP, 198035° 34' 21.16" N, 139° 39' 54.56" EIn 1980, NEC (formerly Nippon Electric Company) developed here the first commercially available, programmable digital signal processor chip, the μPD7720. Its novel bus structure, 250-nsec instruction cycle, and 16-bit multiplier enabled fast finite impulse response filtering and provided true real-time processing for complex systems. It accelerated the adoption of digital signal processing in communications and broadcasting.
MPEG Multimedia Integrated Circuits, 1984-199345° 12' 12.00" N, 5° 41' 45.00" EBeginning in 1984, Thomson Semiconducteurs (now STMicroelectronics) developed multimedia integrated circuits, which accelerated Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) standards. By 1993, MPEG-2 integrated decoders -- including innovative discrete cosine transform (developed jointly with ENST, now Telecom ParisTech), bitstream decompression, on-the-fly motion compensation, and display unit -- were announced in one silicon die: the STi3500. Subsequent MPEG-2 worldwide adoption made compressed full-motion video and audio inexpensive and available for everyday use.
MTI Portable Satellite Communication Terminals, 1987-199524° 46' 50.23" N, 120° 59' 47.98" EMicroelectronics Technology Incorporation (MTI) pioneered the development of transportable satellite communication terminals suitable for use in extreme environments. Offering global voice, telex, and data connectivity in a remarkably compact form factor, their technology helped rescuers bring aid to disaster zones, reporters communicate news from war zones, and expeditions explore remote mountains and deserts.
Machu Picchu, AD 1450-AD 154013° 9' 48.00" S, 72° 32' 44.00" WMachu Picchu was a masterpiece of site selection, city planning, and design and construction of trails, buildings, a water supply canal with many fountains, and agricultural terraces. The infrastructure illustrates the advanced civil, hydraulic, and geotechnical engineering capabilities of the Inca people.
Mackinac Bridge, 195745° 48' 59.76" N, 84° 43' 39.72" WRepresenting a new level of aerodynamic stability in suspension bridges for its time, the Mackinac Bridge was the first suspension bridge to incorporate specific design features to manage the forces imposed on it by winds.
Magma Copper Mine Air Conditioning System33° 17' 57.18" N, 111° 5' 57.01" WThe Magma Copper Company Mine was notoriously hot, with a temperature increase of approximately 1½°F per 100 feet of depth and a rock temperature on the 2000-foot level of 109°F. At the time, the practice for cooling the mine had been to open up a level and let it stand for several years to cool off with ventilating fans; the 3200-foot level required about three years of cooling before it could be developed with any degree of efficiency. In early 1935, a crosscut on the 4000-foot level revealed a rock temperature of 140°F—and an evident need for artificial means of cooling and air conditioning the lower levels of the mine.
Maine Turnpike, 194743° 40' 0.00" N, 70° 20' 0.00" WThe first superhighway in New England and the second modern toll highway in the United States, the Maine Turnpike was the first major modern highway to be built without any state or federal funding.
Mainline Electrification of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 189539° 17' 7.44" N, 76° 38' 5.30" W901 West Pratt St, Baltimore, MD, USA. On 27 June 1895, at the nearby Howard Street Tunnel, the B&O demonstrated the first electrified main line railroad, and commercial operation began four days later. The electrification involved designing, engineering, and constructing electric locomotives far more powerful than any then existing and creating innovative electric power generation and distribution facilities. This pioneering achievement became a prototype for later main line railroad electrification.
Manchester University "Baby" Computer and its Derivatives, 1948-195153° 27' 59.27" N, 2° 14' 5.36" WAt this site on 21 June 1948 the “Baby” became the first computer to execute a program stored in addressable read-write electronic memory. “Baby” validated Williams-Kilburn Tube random-access memories, later widely used, and led to the 1949 Manchester Mark I which pioneered index registers. In February 1951, Ferranti Ltd's commercial derivative became the first electronic computer marketed as a standard product delivered to a customer.
Manhattan Bridge, 190940° 45' 0.00" N, 73° 57' 0.00" WConsidered to be the first modern suspension bridge, the Manhattan Bridge was the earliest to use slender "two dimensional" steel towers with shallow stiffening trusses. The Manhattan Bridge was the world's third longest from 1909 to 1924.
Manitou & Pike's Peak Cog Railway38° 51' 21.85" N, 104° 55' 52.60" WThe Manitou & Pike's Peak Railway, the Cog Road, is the highest railway in the United States and the highest rack railway in the world. Built by the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works under Wilhelm Hildebrand, it has been in continuous (seasonal) operation since 1891.The railway has transported more than three million passengers to Pike's Peak—and without a single passenger casualty.
Manufacture of Transistors, 195140° 37' 22.05" N, 75° 27' 3.73" WAT&T Technologies, 555 Union Blvd, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Dedication: April 1989 - IEEE Lehigh Valley Section. The commercial manufacture of transistors began here in October 1951. Smaller, more efficient, and more reliable than the vacuum tubes they replaced, transistors revolutionized the electronics industry.
Map-Based Automotive Navigation System, 198136° 31' 36.57" N, 140° 13' 36.17" EThe world’s first map-based automotive navigation system, ‘Honda Electro Gyrocator’, was released in 1981. This system was based on inertial navigation technology using mileage and gyro sensors. It pioneered the on-board display of the destination path of a moving vehicle on overlaying transparent road-map sheets, and contributed to the advancement of automotive navigation systems.
Marconi's Early Experiments in Wireless Telegraphy, 189544° 25' 52.67" N, 11° 16' 1.88" EVilla Griffone, Via Celestini, 1, 40037 Sasso Marconi, Bologna, Italy. In this garden, after the experiments carried out between 1894 and 1895 in the “Silkworm Room” in the attic of Villa Griffone, Guglielmo Marconi connected a grounded antenna to its transmitter. With this apparatus the young inventor was able to transmit radiotelegraphic signals beyond a physical obstacle, the Celestini hill, at a distance of about two kilometres. The experiment heralded the birth of the era of wireless communication.
Marine-Type Triple-Expansion, Engine-Driven Dynamo42° 18' 11.16" N, 83° 13' 59.19" WThe marine-type triple-expansion engine-driven dynamo, which began operation on December 15, 1891, for the New York Edison Illuminating Company, represents the beginning of large-scale electric power generation in the United States. The generator was designed by chief engineer John Van Vleck, David Joy (known in England for his valve gear), and S. F. Prest.
Marlette Lake Water System, 1873-188739° 18' 37.00" N, 119° 38' 58.00" WThe Marlette Lake Water System was the first American system developed to overcome mountainous topography. Its inverted siphon, sustaining a head of over 1,700 feet, was the greatest in the world—more than double the next highest
Marshall Building, 190643° 2' 1.00" N, 87° 54' 32.00" WThe Marshall Building’s structure is the oldest extant example of the “mushroom” flat-slab system developed by reinforced concrete construction pioneer Claude A.P. Turner. The technique transformed the design and construction of reinforced concrete floors worldwide.
Mason-Dixon Line, 1763-176739° 43' 18.19" N, 80° 7' 19.34" WThe world famous Mason-Dixon Line established the highest standards for engineered surveys in its delineation of the boundary lines between Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia.
Maxwell's Equations, 1860-1871#Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland55° 1' 57.00" N, 3° 56' 43.05" WCastle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.
Maxwell's Equations, 1860-187151° 30' 43.24" N, 0° 6' 59.84" WKing's Building, Strand Campus, King's College London, London WC2R 2lS, England. Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.
McKinley Climatic Laboratory30° 28' 34.44" N, 86° 30' 29.65" WDesigned and constructed in the early 1940s, the McKinley Climatic Laboratory had an unequalled capacity to simulate a wide range of climatic conditions from arctic cold to jungle moisture. Data from tests of some three hundred different aircraft and over two thousand items of equipment has provided information vital to the performance, safety, and reliability of aircraft operating in extremes of weather.
McNeill Street Pumping Station, 188732° 31' 2.61" N, 93° 45' 25.17" WThe McNeill Street Pumping Station is a self-contained lesson in the history of municipal water system development. From high-volume pumping technology to water filtering and disinfection, the pumping station helped introduce or refine key technologies that were central to the evolution of America’s urban water supply.
Menai Suspension Bridge, 182653° 13' 12.50" N, 4° 9' 47.25" WThe Menai Suspension Bridge was a major structure on the road connecting London with Holyhead and by sea to Ireland. The bridge had the world’s longest span, which greatly advanced suspension bridge development
Mercury Spacecraft MA-6, 196238° 44' 58.98" N, 90° 20' 50.06" WBoeing Company Building 100, Prologue Hall, St. Louis, MO. Col. John Glenn piloted the Mercury Friendship 7 spacecraft in the first United States human orbital flight on 20 February 1962. Electrical and electronic systems invented by McDonnell engineers, including IRE members, made his and future spaceflights possible. Among the key contributions were navigation and control instruments, autopilot, rate stabilization and control, and fly-by-wire (FBW) systems.
Merrill Wheel-Balancing System, 194539° 44' 29.99" N, 105° 5' 1.40" W7800 W 16th Avenue, Lakewood, Colorado, U.S.A. (Building and plaque no longer there). Dedication:September 1999 - IEEE Denver Section. (IEEE Milestone and ASME Landmark). In 1945, Marcellus Merrill first implemented an electronic dynamic wheel-balancing system. Previously, all mechanical methods were static in nature and required removing the wheels from the vehicle. Merrill's innovative balancing system came to be widely used internationally. Elements of the dynamic balancing systems are still used today, primarily for industrial and automotive production applications.
Merrill Wheel Balancing System39° 40' 25.08" N, 105° 0' 37.95" WMarcellus Merrill first implemented an electronic dynamic wheel-balancing system in 1945. Prior to the development of this system, automobile wheels had to be removed from the vehicle for static balancing (without rotating). Mr. Merrill came up with the idea of balancing the tire and wheel while they were still mounted on the car. To do this, with the wheel jacked off the ground he would spin the tire and wheel at high speed, and then analyze the resultant vibrations as the wheel coasted to lower speeds. The vibrations were monitored by an electronic pickup, which sat on the floor and was attached to the bumper of the car by a magnet on the end of a probe. The signal was used to trigger a stroboscopic light which made the wheel appear to stand still. This light identified the point at which the balance weight should be added. The signal also helped to establish the amount of weight to be added to effect a proper balance. If the wheel to be balanced were a front wheel, it was spun by a "spinner" which consisted of an electric motor with a large flat pulley which was pressed against the wheel. If a rear wheel were to be balanced, only one rear wheel was jacked up and it was spun with the automobile's engine.
Meter-Type Gas Odorizer32° 56' 40.71" N, 96° 49' 31.55" WThe meter-type gas odorizer was developed in 1937, just a few months after 294 school children and adults died in a natural gas explosion in a New London, Texas, school on March 18, 1937. The Texas legislature responded by requiring natural gas to be odorized so that leaks would be apparent. By the end of World War II, natural gas had established a reputation as a safe fuel largely because of odorizers.
Miami Conservancy District , 1918 - 192239° 45' 34.00" N, 84° 11' 30.00" WThe Miami Conservancy District project was the first regionally coordinated flood control system in the United States that employed retention reservoirs for controlled release of floodwaters. Since its completion, the protected Miami Valley has not been damaged by flooding.
Michigan-Lake Superior Power Hydroelectric Plant46° 29' 50.75" N, 84° 19' 55.67" WWhen Francis H. Clergue and Hans von Schon designed the Sault Ste. Marie Hydro-Plant, it was to be the largest in the world in terms of the volume of water passing through its penstocks, with a power house designed to contain more turbines and more generators than any contemporary plant. At the time, only the then-recently completed Niagara Falls Power House No. 1 matched the capacity of the Sault Ste. Marie Plant.
Middlesex Canal, 1803-185342° 35' 27.60" N, 71° 17' 3.12" WThe Middlesex Canal is one of the oldest man-made waterways in the United States. The canal served as a model for the later Erie Canal.
Milam High-Rise Air Conditioned Building29° 25' 39.80" N, 98° 29' 34.64" WThe Milam Building was the first high-rise air-conditioned office building in the United States. The air-conditioning design team was led by Willis H. Carrier, founder of the Carrier Engineering Corporation, in cooperation with architect George Willis, engineer M.L Diver, and contractor L.T. Wright and Company. The system provided 300 tons of refrigeration capacity with chilled water piped to air-handling fans serving all floors. The original unit has been updated and modernized since its installation.
Mill Creek No. 1 Hydroelectric Plant, 189334° 5' 16.36" N, 117° 2' 22.20" WNear Redlands in San Bernardino County, California, U.S.A. Dedication February 1997 - IEEE Foothills Section. (ASCE California Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE). Built by the Redlands Electric Light and Power Company, the Mill Creek hydroelectric generating plant began operating on 7 September 1893. This powerhouse was foremost in the use of three-phase alternating current power for commercial application and was influential in the widespread adoption of three-phase power throughout the United States.
Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewage Treatment Plant, 1919 - 192543° 1' 4.44" N, 87° 53' 54.96" WThe Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewage Treatment Plant is America’s earliest large-scale activated sludge type municipal sewage treatment plant – a major improvement on contemporary methods.
Milwaukee River Flushing Station43° 1' 55.07" N, 87° 54' 52.62" WEdwin Reynolds (1831-1909) designed a screw pump for the Milwaukee River Flushing Station that successfully poured more than 500 million gallons of water every 24 hours from Lake Michigan into the Milwaukee River by means of an underground tunnel. The water pump was built by the Edward P. Allis company and, at the time of its installation, was the largest in the world.
Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, 1855-186042° 14' 30.00" N, 70° 48' 15.00" WThe Minot’s Ledge Lighthouse successfully served mariners for over 116 years. It was internationally recognized as an outstanding achievement in the civil engineering design and construction of structures that can resist open-sea wave forces.
Missouri River Bridges, 1920 - 192743° 49' 0.00" N, 99° 20' 0.00" WThese Missouri River bridges were the first bridges to be built to provide permanent crossings for automobile traffic and thereby improve inter- and intra-state commerce.
Mode S Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, 1969-199542° 27' 32.62" N, 71° 16' 1.19" WIn 1969, MIT Lincoln Laboratory began developing the Mode S selective secondary surveillance radar beacon system to enable safe air traffic control in busy, spectrum-congested airspace. This technology made more efficient use of the radio spectrum than previous systems. By 1995, the Mode S techniques and transmission codes became the worldwide standard for air traffic control radars.
Model T42° 18' 11.16" N, 83° 13' 59.19" WWhen Ford Motor Company introduced its new Model T on October 1, 1908, it kicked off vast changes throughout American society. The assembly line became the century's characteristic production mode, eventually applied to everything from phonographs to hamburgers. High-wage, low-skilled factory jobs accelerated both immigration from overseas and the movement of Americans from the farms to the cities and into an ever-expanding middle class. And the creation of huge numbers of low-skilled workers also gave rise in the 1930s to industrial unionism as a potent social and political force.
Moffat Tunnel, 192739° 54' 8.00" N, 105° 38' 46.00" WThe 6.2 mile Moffat Tunnel in the Rocky Mountains was not only the largest railroad tunnel in the Western Hemisphere when completed, but it also demonstrated new tunnel construction techniques and the innovative concept of using its pilot bore later as a permanent aqueduct.
Monochrome-Compatible Electronic Color Television, 1946-195340° 19' 54.07" N, 74° 37' 53.89" WPrinceton, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: November 2001, IEEE Princeton/Central New Jersey Section. On this site between 1946 and 1950 the research staff of RCA Laboratories invented the world's first electronic, monochrome-compatible, color television system. They worked with other engineers in the industry for three years to develop a national analog standard based on this system, which lasted until the transition to digital broadcasting.
Monongahela Incline40° 25' 55.00" N, 80° 0' 20.00" WAs a practical conveyance during the horse-and-buggy era, the Monongahela Incline was one of seventeen built and operated in Pittsburgh in the 19th century. Of the seventeen, the Monongahela and the Duquesne (landmark #27) are the only two remaining operating units.
Montgomery Bell's Tunnel, 181836° 8' 48.60" N, 87° 7' 19.40" WAs the earliest known rock tunnel of significant size in the United States, the Montgomery Bell’s Tunnel served as a guide to early American civil engineers and thus can be said to be the precursor to later American tunneling accomplishments.
Montgomery Glider37° 30' 45.75" N, 122° 15' 10.91" WIn 1883, at his family's ranch at Fruitland in Otay Valley, California, John Montgomery (1858 - 1911) observed the natural airfoil shape of birds' wings and incorporated that shape into the development of the Montgomery glider—the first heavier-than-air-human-carrying aircraft to achieve controlled piloted flight. He designed a parabolic wing section with more curvature toward the front of the wing, giving it a gull-like wing shape and high lift. Montgomery also created the glider's stabilizing and control surfaces at the rear of the fuselage. On his first successful flight, August 28, 1883, John Montgomery soared at about 600 feet.
Moore's Law, 196537° 24' 11.86" N, 122° 6' 40.13" WGordon E. Moore, co-founder of Fairchild and Intel, began his work in silicon microelectronics at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1956. His 1965 prediction at Fairchild Semiconductor, subsequently known as "Moore’s Law,” that the number of components on an integrated circuit will increase exponentially with time while cost per function decreases, guided the industry's contributions to advances in electronics and computing for more than fifty years.
Morison's Memphis Bridge, 189235° 7' 43.00" N, 90° 4' 35.00" WThe Memphis Bridge, a cantilever truss designed by George S. Morison, was built entirely of the then-newly developed basic open hearth steel. When completed, its 790-foot main span was the longest railroad truss in North America.
Mormon Tabernacle, 186740° 46' 13.44" N, 111° 53' 34.80" WWith 150-foot wooden lattice arches, the design and construction of the roof of the Mormon Tabernacle was an engineering challenge. Stone and lumber building materials were obtained from surrounding mountains since metal building components from the industrialized East were not available.
Morris Canal (Reaction) Turbine40° 41' 41.53" N, 75° 8' 10.67" WThe Morris Canal was designed to link the coal-rich Pennsylvania Lehigh Valley with the manufacturing towns of eastern New Jersey and New York, linking the Passaic and the Delaware rivers—but the 109.26 miles of canal through the Highlands, the Appalachian range, and the Kittatiny mountains required extensive locks and incline planes.
Moseley Wrought Iron Arch Bridge, 186442° 40' 8.60" N, 71° 7' 21.20" WDesigned and patented in 1857 by Thomas Moseley, the Wrought Iron Arch Bridge incorporated for the first time in the United States the use of riveted wrought iron plates for the bridge’s triangular-shaped top chord.
Mount Fuji Radar System, 196435° 41' 12.74" N, 139° 45' 22.91" EMount Fuji, Shizouka Prefecture, Japan. Dedication: March 2000, IEEE Nagoya Section. The plaque is in a display case at the Meterological Museum, 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. Completed in 1964 as the highest weather radar in the world in the pre-satellite era, the Mount Fuji Radar System almost immediately warned of a major storm over 800 km away. In addition to advancing the technology of weather radar, it pioneered aspects of remote-control and low-maintenance of complex electronic systems. The radar was planned by the Japan Meteorological Agency and constructed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.
Mount Washington Cog Railway44° 16' 11.05" N, 71° 21' 3.47" WMount Washington, rising 6,288 feet above sea level in the mountainous north country of New Hampshire, is the highest peak in the Northeast. The world's first cog railway ascends almost 3,600 feet along a western spur of the mountain between Burt and Ammonoosuc Ravines from the Marshfield Base Station.
Mount Washington Cog Railway, 186944° 16' 26.00" N, 71° 19' 53.00" WWhen completed, the Mt. Washington Cog Railway was the first mountain climbing railway in the world. Its cog rail system allows the railway to overcome grades exceeding 37 percent.
Mount Wilson Observatory, 100-Inch Hooker Telescope34° 13' 31.03" N, 118° 3' 26.23" WThe Mount Wilson Observatory was founded in 1904 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, a private foundation for scientific research supported largely from endowments provided by Andrew Carnegie. Within a few years, the Observatory became the world center of research in the new science of astrophysics, or the application of principles of physics to astronomical objects beyond the sun.
Mr. Charlie Oil Drilling Rig29° 41' 30.88" N, 91° 12' 29.78" WDesigned by Alden "Doc" Laborde, Mr. Charlie is the first offshore drilling rig that was fully transportable, submersible, and self-sufficient, allowing it to drill more than 200 oil and gas wells along the Gulf Coast between 1954 and 1986.
Mullan Road, 186046° 46' 8.30" N, 118° 12' 22.60" WThe Mullan Road was surveyed between 1853 and 1854 and constructed between 1858 and 1862. It was the first major engineered highway in the Pacific Northwest.
Multi-Zone Automatic Temperature Control System43° 2' 13.32" N, 87° 54' 16.16" WWarren S. Johnson came up with the idea for automatic temperature control while teaching at Normal School in Whitewater, Wisconsin in the 1880s. Originally, janitors would have to enter each classroom to determine if it was too hot or cold and then adjust the dampers in the basement accordingly. Johnson sought a way to end, or at least minimize, the classroom interruptions of the janitors and increase the comfort level of the students. The Automatic Temperature Control System would do just that.
Multiple Technologies on a Chip, 198545° 34' 15.84" N, 9° 21' 47.08" ESGS (now STMicroelectronics) pioneered the super-integrated silicon-gate process combining Bipolar, CMOS, and DMOS (BCD) transistors in single chips for complex, power-demanding applications. The first BCD super-integrated circuit, named L6202, was capable of controlling up to 60V-5A at 300 kHz. Subsequent automotive, computer, and industrial applications extensively adopted this process technology, which enabled chip designers flexibly and reliably to combine power, analog, and digital signal processing.
Muskingum River Navigation System, 184139° 57' 0.00" N, 82° 2' 0.00" WThe Muskingum River Navigation System, one of the United States’ first complete slackwater navigation systems for steam powered vessels, played a key role in economic development of the Greater Ohio River Valley. The project survives as the most intact system of large hand-operated locks in the United States.
N.S. Savannah39° 15' 35.97" N, 76° 33' 20.36" WOn April 25, 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced plans for a nuclear powered merchant ship. The ship was designed by George G. Sharp, Inc. of New York and was built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation of Camden, New Jersey. The Babcock and Wilcox Company as prime contractor for the power plant designed and built the 74 maximum power thermal megawatt pressurized water reactor.
NAIC/Arecibo Radiotelescope, 196318° 20' 39.93" N, 66° 45' 11.32" WArecibo Observatory, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Dedication: November 2001 - IEEE Puerto Rico & Caribbean Section. The Arecibo Observatory, the world's largest radiotelescope, was dedicated in 1963. Its design and implementation led to advances in the electrical engineering areas of antenna design, signal processing, and electronic instrumentation, and in the mechanical engineering areas of antenna suspension and drive systems. The drive system positions all active parts of the antenna with millimeter precision, regardless of temperature changes, enabling the telescope to maintain an accurate focus. Its subsequent operation led to advances in the scientific fields of radioastronomy, planetary studies, and space and atmospheric sciences.
Nassawango Iron Furnace38° 12' 14.86" N, 75° 28' 14.22" WThe Nassawango iron furnace, built in 1828, was one of hundreds of furnaces that thrived and failed in the 19th century. The Maryland Iron Company (incorporated 1828) built this furnace along the Nassawango Creek roughly four miles northwest of the Pocomoke River to produce pig iron by the cold-blast process. In 1836-1837, the furnace changed ownership several times, until Thomas Spence of Worcester County purchased it and began producing pig iron at a rate of 700 tons a year. Spence is credited with the installation of the hot-blast stove in 1835. Iron was produced at Nassawango until 1847, when labor shortages and poor market conditions forced Spence to shut down the furnace. Lying idle and becoming overgrown, the furnace property was eventually donated in 1962 to the Worcester County Historical Society.
National Road, 1811-183938° 58' 5.00" N, 89° 6' 7.00" WThe National Road was the precursor of today’s federal interstate system and represented the highest standards of road design and construction of the time.
National Soil Dynamics Laboratory32° 35' 49.16" N, 85° 29' 25.16" WThe National Soil Dynamics Laboratory was the world's first full-size laboratory for controlled studies of the relationships between tillage tools and traction equipment, and various types of soils. Conceived by Mark L. Nichols and John W. Randolph, the facility incorporates their work begun in 1922 to establish soil dynamics as field of study. Research performed here has influenced the design of almost all modern agricultural equipment. Built in 1935 for research related to cotton production, the laboratory soon expanded its traction and transport research to include all types of machinery and the effects of machinery design on soil compaction, conservation, and plant growth.
Navajo Bridge, 192936° 49' 2.00" N, 111° 37' 53.00" WAt the time of its construction, the Navajo Bridge was the highest steel arch bridge in the United States, and for the next 66 years it served as the only crossing of the Colorado River for 600 miles.
Naval Drydocks at Boston and Norfolk, 183436° 49' 14.00" N, 76° 17' 35.00" WThe Charlestown Naval Dry Dock, Boston, Massachusetts and the Gosport Naval Dry Dock, Norfolk, Virginia, are two of the earliest major structures of their type in the United States and served the U.S. Navy well for over a century
Nelson River HVDC Transmission System, 197254° 13' 6.34" N, 97° 36' 47.15" WWinnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Dedication: 3 June 2005, IEEE Winnipeg Section. On 17 June 1972, the Nelson River High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system began delivery of electric power. It used the highest operating voltage to deliver the largest amount of power from a remote site to a city. The bipolar scheme gave superior line reliability and the innovative use of the controls added significantly to the overall system capabilities. Finally, the scheme used the largest mercury arc valves ever developed for such an application.
Neuchâtel Gas Turbine47° 26' 8.06" N, 8° 12' 52.21" EThe first successful electric power-generating machine to go into commercial operation was designed and constructed by A. B. Brown Boveri in Baden, Switzerland, and installed in 1939 in the municipal power station in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
New Castle Ice Harbor, 179539° 40' 0.00" N, 75° 34' 0.00" WBecause of the peril of ice crushing the wooden hulls of ships using the Philadelphia area harbors, a special protected harbor, the New Castle Ice Harbor, was authorized by the state of Delaware, and three piers were built. These innovative harbor structures were prototypes for others.
New England Wireless and Steam Museum41° 37' 27.40" N, 71° 30' 46.90" WThe New England Wireless and Steam Museum, established in 1964, contains the finest collection of Rhode Island engines, including one of the few known surviving engines built at the Corliss Works. There are several huge, complex engines and both vertical and horizontal engines in working order. These engines drove such facilities as wood-working shops, printing presses, pumps, and electric generators. There are also hot air and steam launch engines, models, a triple expansion marine engine, Stanley Steamer engines, a Colt Arms engine, and the oldest surviving Terry turbine.
Newark Airport, 192840° 41' 33.00" N, 74° 10' 7.00" WThe Newark Airport, a pioneering major airport with its 1,600-foot runway, was one of the first hard surfaced runways to be constructed at any municipal airport in the United States and, as such, it served as prototype for today’s modern airport runways.
Newcomen Engine50° 21' 8.06" N, 3° 34' 42.46" WIn 1712, Thomas Newcomen and his assistant John Calley built the first "Newcomen engine," or "fire engine," which employed a vacuum created by condensing steam from a pressure just above atmospheric. The Newcomen Memorial Engine, preserved in Dartmouth, is a small 22-inch diameter cylinder engine that is a direct descendant of Newcomen's first machine.
Newell Shredder33° 40' 9.03" N, 84° 25' 58.41" WThe shredder machine designed by Alton S. Newell in 1969 efficiently reduced automobile bodies into scrap metal for recycling. An automobile's body was fed into the shredder at a controlled rate, and rotating hammers, driven by a 500-hp motor, shredded it into small pieces that were easily shipped. The process took about 10 minutes a car and used less energy than other shredding and crushing machines.
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), Electrical Pioneer (Special Citation)44° 48' 59.50" N, 20° 27' 49.28" EBelgrade, Yugoslavia, Dedication: October 2006, IEEE Serbia Section. On the 150th anniversary of his birth, the IEEE is pleased to recognize the seminal work of Nikola Tesla in the field of electrical engineering. Among his many accomplishments, those that stand out are his innovative contributions to the applications of polyphase current to electric power systems, his pioneering work with electromagnetic waves, and his experiments with very high voltages. The Tesla Museum in Beograd is to be commended for its successful efforts to preserve artifacts and documents related to Tesla and to make them accessible to scholars throughout the world.
Nobeyama 45-m Telescope, 198235° 40' 30.72" N, 139° 32' 16.44" EIn 1982, the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in collaboration with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation completed the 45-m telescope as the world’s largest antenna for millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The 45-m telescope's innovative engineering contributed to the progress of radio astronomy by enabling high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations. Notable discoveries included new interstellar molecules and a black hole.
Norfolk & Western37° 16' 22.53" N, 79° 56' 45.21" WThe 611 is the sole survivor of fourteen class "J" steam locomotives designed by Norfolk and Western (N&W) Railway mechanical engineers in 1940. These locomotives were built in the N&W Roanoke, Virginia shops between 1941 and 1950.
Noria al-Muhammadiyya35° 8' 6.77" N, 36° 45' 12.25" EAlthough Hama is home to seventeen norias—that is, water wheels that raise water from a stream or river and discharge it at a higher elevation—the Noria al-Muhammadiyya, built in 1361 CE, is the most famous due to its unique size and longevity. At 21 meters (69 feet) in diameter, the Noria al-Muhammadiyya greatly outsizes the typical waterwheel size of 2 to 3 meters (7 to 9 feet) and is among the largest water wheels ever constructed. And despite its more than six centuries of age, the Noria al-Muhammadiyya is still in service today thanks to its 1977 restoration.
Norris Dam, 193636° 13' 35.03" N, 84° 5' 12.87" WThe Norris Dam was the first of a series of dams designed and built to put the vast water resources of the Tennessee River System to work for the people of the region. The completion of the dam was a significant step in turning the destructive power of the Tennessee River into a resource for economic and social progress.
North Island Main Trunk Railway, 190841° 17' 20.00" S, 174° 46' 38.00" EBuilt under challenging conditions and over difficult terrain, the North Island Main Trunk Railway linked Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand, permitting overland travel and development of the hinterland.
Northampton Street Bridge, 189640° 42' 0.00" N, 75° 12' 0.00" WThe Northampton Street Bridge is the sole existing through-type cantilever eyebar bridge in the United States to serve only highway traffic.
Northern Pacific High Line Bridge No. 64, 190846° 56' 20.00" N, 97° 59' 41.00" WThe Northern Pacific High Line Bridge No. 64, a steel viaduct across the Sheyenne River Valley, allowed the railroad to avoid steep grades. At 3886 feet (1184 meters) long and 155 feet (47 meters) high, the structure is an excellent example of this bridge type.
Northern Pacific Railroad Snow Plow46° 46' 51.85" N, 92° 6' 15.03" WManufactured by Cooke Locomotive & Machine Works of Paterson in 1887, the Northern Pacific Rotary Snow Plow #2 is the oldest surviving rotary snowplow in the world. Rotary snow plows provided a more effective and reliable means of removing snow from rail lines. These devices were instrumental in keeping freight and passenger rail systems in operation in the harshest of winters.
Object-Oriented Programming, 1961-196759° 56' 37.03" N, 10° 43' 5.98" EOle-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard created the Simula programming languages in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computer Center. They introduced a new way of modeling and simulating complex tasks. Object-oriented programming is now dominant in systems development. It is an integral part of computer science curricula, as are languages built on object-oriented programming concepts, such as Smalltalk, C++, Java, and Python.
Ohio Canal System, 1825-184541° 22' 55.00" N, 81° 38' 27.00" WThe engineering of the Ohio Canal System, a complex system of canals, bridges and dams totaling over 1,015 miles in length, produced the largest manmade lake in the world at the time, and was one of the greatest civil engineering feats of the early 1800s.
Old Cape Henry Lighthouse, 179236° 55' 32.00" N, 76° 0' 30.00" WThe Old Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first construction project authorized by the first Congress and set the stage for all subsequent public works projects of the federal government.
Old Mill in Nantucket41° 16' 38.47" N, 70° 6' 4.77" WThe Old Mill, a smock type of windmill, is believed to be the oldest operating windmill in the United States. Most of its parts are original. This mill is the sole survivor of four that once stood along the range of hills west of the town of Nantucket. The long spar and wheel rotate the top of the mill and turn the sails into the wind.
Old Wisla Bridge, 185754° 6' 0.00" N, 18° 43' 0.00" EThe Old Wisla Bridge is the first example of a long span lattice-truss bridge on the European mainland.
One-Way Police Radio Communication, 192842° 20' 8.52" N, 83° 2' 34.81" W1300 Beaubien, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. Dedicated May 1987 - IEEE Southeastern Michigan Section. At this site on April 7, 1928 the Detroit Police Department commenced regular one-way radio communication with its patrol cars. Developed by personnel of the department's radio bureau, the system was the product of seven years of experimentation under the direction of police commissioner, William P. Rutledge. Their work proved the practicality of land-mobile radio for police work and led to its adoption throughout the country.
Opana Radar Site, 194121° 42' 15.54" N, 157° 59' 54.49" WKuhuku, Hawaii, U.S.A. Dedication: February 2000 - IEEE Hawaii Section. On December 7, 1941, an SCR-270b radar located at this site tracked incoming Japanese aircraft for over 30 minutes until they were obscured by the island ground clutter. This was the first wartime use of radar by the United States military, and led to its successful application throughout the theater.
Ottmar Mergenthaler's Square Base Linotype Machine33° 50' 32.59" N, 118° 16' 56.16" WOttmar Mergenthaler started to develop the Square Base Linotype in 1882 in Baltimore. The linotype, unlike Gutenberg's printing press, did not use moveable type. Instead, it functioned like a typewriter: the operator sat at a keyboard of 90 characters and typed copy.
Outdoor large-scale color display system, 198032° 45' 44.62" N, 129° 51' 53.39" EMitsubishi Electric developed the world's first large-scale emissive color video display system and installed it at Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles, California in 1980. It achieved bright, efficient, high-quality moving images using matrix-addressed cathode-ray tubes (CRT) as pixels. With increased dimensions and resolution, the system has entertained and informed millions of people in sports facilities and public spaces worldwide.
Owens AR Bottle Machine41° 31' 42.69" N, 83° 38' 51.84" WBefore mechanization, glass workers were blowing molten glass into metal molds. Increasing demand for bottles stimulated many attempts at automated bottle machines in Europe and the United States. Michael J. Owens (1859-1923) devised the first commercially successful, fully automatic bottle-making machine in 1903, financed by Edward D. Libbey (1854-1925) and executed with the aid of engineers William Boch, C. William Schwenzfeier, and Richard LaFrance.
PACECO Container Crane37° 46' 41.99" N, 122° 15' 29.44" WIn 1956, the Pan-Atlantic Steamship Company developed the idea of shipping goods in intermodal containers—truck vans that detach from their carriage or chassis for stacking on ships or rail cars. This containerization concept drastically reduced the labor costs as well as the time required to unload and reload the trucks at either end of the route and reduced the number of ship-to-shore lifts for each truck load from as many as 20 small lifts to only two heavy lifts.
Paddle Streamer Uri47° 2' 52.15" N, 8° 18' 55.87" EA new engine design for inland steamers, known as the diagonal compound engine, was introduced during the late nineteenth century, and the paddle steamer Uri is powered by the oldest surviving example (1901). These engines feature crossheads—joints between the piston rods and the main rods to the crankshaft—and non-oscillating cylinders. By eliminating the leak-prone trunion bearings and steals, steam pressure could be raised—to 9 atmospheres on the Uri—increasing the efficiency of the power plant considerably. The diagonal engine can also be compounded. The Uri's engine has cylinder diameters of 720 mm and 1050 mm, with a stroke of 1300 mm and a production of 650 HP. This basic design was repeated for engines up to 1450 HP on numerous lake and river steamers in central Europe.
Paige Compositor41° 46' 1.57" N, 72° 42' 5.21" WDesigned to replace the human typesetter of a printing press with a mechanical arm, the Paige Compositor was the first to simultaneously set, justify, and distribute foundry type from a common case using only one operator. Working out of a shop in Colt's Armory, James W. Paige invented this compositor in 1877 by combining his gravity typesetter with a Thompson distributor. It has 18,000 parts and numerous bearings, cams, and springs and could average 12,000 ems an hour.
Panama Canal, 1904-19149° 4' 48.00" N, 79° 40' 48.00" WOriginally undertaken by the French and then redesigned and constructed by American engineers, the Panama Canal is one of the greatest sea-to-sea lock canals of all time.
Panama Canal Electrical and Control Installations, 19148° 56' 3.31" N, 79° 33' 55.41" WPanama Canal, Southern End, Panama. Dedication: 4 April 2003 - IEEE Panama Section. The Panama Canal project included one of the largest and most important electrical installations in the world early in the 20th century. The use of 1022 electric motors with an installed capacity of 28,290 horsepower largely replaced the steam and water powered equipment then in common use. Reliability and safety were also engineered into the innovative electrical control system, enabling remote lock operation from a central location.
Parkes Radiotelescope, 196932° 59' 54.25" S, 148° 15' 48.56" EParkes radiotelescope and Honeysuckle Creek stations in Australia received voice and video signals from the Apollo 11 moonwalk, which were redistributed to millions of viewers. Parkes' televised images were superior to other ground stations, and NASA used them for much of the broadcast. One of the first to use the newly developed corrugated feed horn, Parkes became the model for the NASA Deep Space Network large aperture antennas.
Pearl Street Station, 188240° 44' 2.89" N, 73° 59' 19.09" WConEd Building, 4 Irving Place, New York, NY, U.S.A. Thomas Alva Edison established the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York, now Consolidated Edison, to commercialize his 1879 incandescent lamp invention. On 4 September 1882, Edison’s direct current (dc) generating station at 257 Pearl Street, began supplying electricity to customers in the First District, a one-quarter square mile (0.65 square km) area. This installation was the forerunner of all central electric generating stations.
Peavy-Haglin Concrete Grain Elevator, 190044° 56' 33.00" N, 93° 20' 43.00" WWhen completed, the Peavey-Haglin Concrete Grain Elevator was the first circular concrete grain elevator constructed in North America and the prototype of those ubiquitous structures that hold the country’s wheat harvest.
Pegasus 3 Engine BS 91651° 31' 25.08" N, 2° 33' 48.08" WThe Pegasus 3 is the earliest surviving example of the prototype engine for vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) jets, namely the Royal Air Force's Harriers and US Marine Corps' AV-8Bs. Owned by the Rolls- Royce Heritage Trust (a company-sponsored history and preservation society), the landmark engine is an early developmental model of the Pegasus 3 engine, the first to fly with sufficient thrust to prove the vectored-thrust concept for V/STOL jet aircraft, in 1960.
Pelton Impulse Water Wheel, 187839° 27' 7.00" N, 121° 2' 55.00" WThe Pelton Impulse Water Wheel was the site of the first highly efficient and successful impulse water wheel, made possible by the development and first-time use of the split bucket. This method was the key to tapping the vast waterpower of the American West.
Pelton Waterwheel Collection39° 12' 31.39" N, 121° 4' 11.59" WIn 1880—when water was an under-used resource, and before electricity was economically practical as a motive power—Lester A. Pelton (1831-1908) patented the "splitter principle" that made the Pelton water wheel so historic. He built the first Pelton turbine in Camptonville in 1878 and, shortly thereafter, perfected the wheel at the foundry in nearby Nevada City. In San Francisco, he founded the Pelton Water Wheel Company in 1888.
Penn. RR GG1 Electric Locomotive39° 58' 57.00" N, 76° 9' 37.08" WThe GG1, designed in 1934, required two frames, each nearly forty feet long, which held three driver axle assemblies and a two-axle pilot truck. Driver axles fit into roller bearing boxes that could move vertically in pedestal jaws in the frame. Although none of these features were unique to the GG1, they were combined into a design that resulted in one of the best riding locomotives ever built, with firm stability at high speed and light wear to the track.
Pennsylvania Tunpike (Old Section), 194040° 14' 0.00" N, 77° 9' 0.00" WWhen completed, the original section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike was the greatest single highway project in the history of the United States. It was the prototype of the modern American high-speed, limited access superhighway that became a world standard for long distance highway travel.
Perpendicular Magnetic Recording, 197738° 15' 12.45" N, 140° 52' 24.08" EIn 1977, Professor Shunichi Iwasaki led his Tohoku University team in developing a magnetic recording system with a pole head writing on a cobalt-alloy, thin-film perpendicular medium having a soft magnetic underlayer. This medium and configuration enabled data recording densities beyond those possible with longitudinal recording. Since 2005, perpendicular magnetic recording has played a crucial role in the continued growth of magnetic storage device capacity.
Peterborough Hydraulic (Canal) Lift Lock44° 18' 25.00" N, 78° 18' 5.34" WLocated on the Trent Canal in the city of Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, the Peterborough Lift Lock boasts the highest hydraulic boat lifts in the world, transferring boats between two water levels in a single 19.8 m (65 ft.) lift. When it opened on July 9, 1904, conventional locks usually only had a 2 m (7 ft.) rise. The Peterborough Hydraulic Lift was designed in place of conventional locks, which would have lengthened the time considerably to transverse a gradual drop.
Petra, 400 B.C. - 400 A.D.30° 19' 43.00" N, 35° 26' 31.00" EEven though Petra was built in a hostile and barren desert, it was able to support from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants because of the water supply, drainage, and flood control infrastructure developed by the Nabateans.
Philadelphia City Hall, 190139° 57' 8.09" N, 75° 9' 50.02" WPhiladelphia City Hall was the world's tallest occupied structure and the nation's largest municipal government building when completed. Its load-bearing masonry construction is unique for a building of this size.
Philadelphia Municipal Water Supply, 1799 - 180139° 57' 56.00" N, 75° 10' 51.00" WThe Philadelphia Municipal Water Supply system was the first major municipal water works in the United States to employ steam powered pumping methods.
Philo 6 Steam-Electric Generating Unit29° 50' 5.93" N, 95° 33' 45.89" WPhilo Unit 6 (1957) was the world's first supercritical-pressure steam-electric generating unit to operate commercially. The mechanical engineering innovations represented by Philo 6 significantly advanced the thermal efficiency of power generation, thereby greatly reducing its production cost. Its performance proved that introduction of higher steam pressure and higher steam temperature to power generation—combined with use of a double-reheat cycle—could produce new levels of thermal efficiency, approaching 40 percent. At that time, the national average thermal efficiency of all fossil-fueled power plants was 29.9 percent. Experience gained from the engineering, design, construction, and operation of Philo 6 provided a firm engineering basis for many larger, efficient generating units that were to follow.
Pierce-Donachy Ventricular Assist Device40° 15' 50.57" N, 76° 40' 36.04" WThe Pierce-Donachy Ventricular Assist Device was the first extremely smooth, surgically implantable, seam-free pulsatile blood pump to receive widespread clinical use. After its invention in 1977, it was responsible for saving numerous lives. When used as a bridge to transplant, the pump has a success rate greater than 90 percent. There has never been a device-failure-related fatality of any of these patients.
Piezoelectric Oscillator, 1921-192341° 33' 12.12" N, 71° 39' 27.36" WIn 1921, research at Wesleyan led to development of the first circuit to control frequencies based on a quartz crystal resonator. This technique was later applied in standards of frequency as a filter and for coupling between circuits. Piezoelectric quartz oscillators advanced ultrasonics, sonar, radar, and myriads of other electronic applications. They appeared in everyday life through their use in quartz wristwatches.
Pilatusbahn46° 58' 45.30" N, 8° 15' 19.85" EThe Pilatusbahn—the steepest rack railway in the world—has operated successfully since its opening in 1889 over a route of 4.62 kilometers (2.87 miles) between Alpnachstad on Lake Lucerne and Pilatus Kulm, rising 6,791 feet (2,070 meters) above sea level. This results in a gradient of 48%, or a rise of nearly one meter in two meters of run on the steepest sections of the line, which amounts to about a quarter of its length.
Pin-Ticketing Machine39° 38' 17.69" N, 84° 14' 23.89" WThe pin-ticketing machine was the first successful machine for mechanizing the identification and price marking of retail merchandise. At a single stroke of the operating handle, the machine formed a tag from a roll of stock, imprinted it with price and other information, formed a wire staple, and stapled the tag to the merchandise. This means for dispensing with handmade and written tags amounted to a minor revolution in the then-rapidly expanding retail industry.
Pinawa Hydroelectric Power Project, 190649° 51' 20.91" N, 97° 9' 15.17" WManitoba Electrical Museum and Education Centre, 680 Harrow St, Winnipeg, MB R3M. On 9 June 1906 the Winnipeg Electric Railway Co. transmitted electric power from the Pinawa generating station on the Winnipeg River to the city of Winnipeg at 60,000 volts. It was the first year-round hydroelectric plant in Manitoba and one of the first to be developed in such a cold climate anywhere in the world.
Pioneer Oil Refinery California Star Oil Works34° 22' 10.41" N, 118° 31' 21.00" WAfter an unsuccessful attempt at refining in Lyons, the refinery at Andrews Station (Newhall) was built by the California Star Oil Works, a predecessor of the Standard Oil Company. The Pioneer Refinery became the first successful commercial refinery in the West, producing mostly lucrative kerosenes in two grades, "Lustre" and "Prime White." Other products included small amounts of benzene—a 300 degree fire-test safety illuminating oil for use on ships, railroads, factories, and mines—as well as a light lubricating oil (24 degree gravity) for machinery and a heavy lubricant (19 degree gravity) for saw mills, quartz mills, and railroad journal boxers.
Pioneer Zephyr41° 47' 26.03" N, 87° 34' 59.01" WIn the late 1920s, the automobile had cut railroad passenger service by more than half. The debut of the Pioneer Zephyr in 1934 heralded a comeback, touring the country and being seen by some two million people in 222 cities.
Pioneering Work on Electronic Calculators, 1964-197334° 36' 10.71" N, 135° 51' 32.31" ESharp Memorial Hall, Tenri Factory, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Dedication: December 2005. A Sharp Corporation project team designed and produced several families of electronic calculators on the basis of all-transistor (1964), bipolar and MOS integrated circuit (1967), MOS Large Scale Integration (1969) and CMOS-LSI/Liquid Crystal Display (1973). The integration of CMOS-LSI and LCD devices onto a single glass substrate yielded battery-powered calculators. These achievements made possible the widespread personal use of hand-held calculators.
Pioneering Work on the Quartz Electronic Wristwatch, 1962-196746° 59' 59.46" N, 6° 57' 12.20" EObservatoire Cantonal de Neuchâtel, Rue de l'Observatoire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Dedication: 28 September 2002, IEEE Switzerland Section. A key milestone in development of the quartz electronic wristwatch in Switzerland was the creation in 1962 of the Centre Electronique Horloger of Neuchâtel. The Centre produced the first prototypes incorporating dedicated integrated circuits that set new timekeeping performance records at the International Chronometric Competition held at this observatory in 1967. Since then quartz watches, with hundreds of millions of units produced, became an extremely successful electronic system.
Pit-Cast Jib Crane33° 31' 14.74" N, 86° 47' 28.56" WJib cranes were used to lift molten iron to pit-like molds where it was cast into pipe (the "pit-cast" method). When the American Cast Iron Pipe Company constructed its plant facilities at Birmingham, Alabama, in 1905-06, six jib cranes were installed. These cranes were purchased from the Alliance Machine Company and the Cleveland Crane and Car Co., Ohio, and were among the first to employ electric motors to power this type of equipment. ACIPCO used D.C. electric motors to mechanize the hoisting, booming, and swing actions of these jib cranes. The brakes, however, that controlled those actions were originally mechanical. Later, air brakes were installed, and still later electric brakes were used.
Pitney-Bowes Model M Postage Meter41° 4' 15.18" N, 73° 32' 54.85" WThe world's first commercial postage meter—the Model M—was designed and developed in Stamford between 1901 and 1920 by inventor Arthur Pitney and entrepreneur Walter H. Bowes, with the assistance of Walter H. Wheeler, Jr. The Model M formed the cornerstone of the Pitney Bowes metered mail concept, which was officially recognized by the U.S. Postal Service and was introduced on November 16, 1920.
Point of Beginning, U.S. Public Lands, 178540° 38' 0.00" N, 79° 30' 0.00" WThe Point of Beginning survey, an original undertaking, was completed under extremely trying conditions and with primitive instruments and techniques. It resulted in the “seven ranges” of Ohio, which provided the basis for similar frameworks for the disbursement of public lands in 30 other states.
Polymer Self-Regulating Heat-Tracing Cable, 197237° 29' 5.74" N, 122° 12' 38.35" WIn 1972, Raychem Corporation patented and began producing the first commercially successful electric self-regulating heat-tracing cable. The conductive polymer in this cable revolutionized the temperature maintenance of process piping, which has had major applications in refineries and chemical plants, and made freeze protection of water pipes simple and energy efficient. By 2008, the firm had manufactured and sold one billion feet of this cable.
Ponte Maria Pia Bridge, 187741° 8' 0.00" N, 8° 36' 0.00" WWhen opened, the Ponte Maria Pia Bridge was the longest iron arch bridge in the world, with a 160-meter-long parabolic arch.
Popov's Contribution to the Development of Wireless Communication, 189559° 56' 36.14" N, 30° 22' 42.86" ESt. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Professor Popov str. 5, St. Petersburg, Russia. IEEE Russia (Northwest) Section, Dedication: May 2005. On 7 May 1895, A. S. Popov demonstrated the possibility of transmitting and receiving short, continuous signals over a distance up to 64 meters by means of electromagnetic waves with the help of a special portable device responding to electrical oscillation which was a significant contribution to the development of wireless communication.
Port Washington Power Plant43° 2' 13.34" N, 87° 54' 49.83" WThe Port Washington Power Plant of the Wisconsin Electric Company was the most thermally efficient steam power plant in the world for many years following its opening in 1935. Its design reflected the cumulative experience of the utility's engineers in burning pulverized coal at the Oneida Street Plant (ASME landmark #42) and the Lakeside Station in Milwaukee.
Portland Head Light, 179043° 37' 23.00" N, 70° 12' 28.00" WThe Portland Headlight was the first lighthouse completed and put into service by the United States federal government under the Lighthouse Act of 1789.
Portland Observatory, 180743° 39' 55.00" N, 70° 14' 54.00" WAs one of the earliest marine signal stations in the United States, the Portland Observatory is unique in its engineering design and construction, contributing to the prosperity of Portland Harbor as a vital center of maritime commerce during the "Golden Age of Sail."
Portsmouth-Kittery Naval Shipbuilding Activity43° 4' 49.33" N, 70° 44' 23.64" WThe shipyard at Portsmouth was the first U.S. naval shipyard—not only did shipbuilding for the British Royal Navy in Portsmouth-Kittery begin in 1690, but colonists took the port from the British the very day after Paul Revere's ride to Portsmouth in mid-December 1774. The fort's capture was the first organized military step against the Mother Country, and colonists soon began a fully integrated operation for U.S. warships, which became the Portsmouth-Kittery Naval Shipbuilding Activity.
Potowmack Canal and Locks, 1785-182838° 59' 22.00" N, 77° 14' 55.00" WThe Potowmack Canals and Locks are a part of the first extensive system of canal and river navigation works undertaken in the United States.
Poughkeepsie-Highland Bridge, 188941° 42' 0.00" N, 73° 56' 0.00" WThe Poughkeepsie-Highland Bridge is the oldest surviving steel cantilever bridge in the world and, when built, had the longest truss and cantilever spans.
Poulsen-Arc Radio Transmitter, 190255° 40' 34.63" N, 12° 34' 9.41" ELyngby Radio, Northern Copenhagen, Denmark. Dedication: May 1994 - IEEE Denmark Section. Valdemar Poulsen, a Danish engineer, invented an arc converter as a generator of continuous-wave radio signals in 1902. Beginning in 1904, Poulsen used the arc for experimental radio transmission from Lyngby to various receiving sites in Denmark and Great Britain. Poulsen-arc transmitters were used internationally until they were superseded by vacuum-tube transmitters.
Power System of Boston's Rapid Transit, 188942° 21' 23.32" N, 71° 3' 45.03" WDedication: 10 November 2004, IEEE Boston Section. Ten Park Plaza, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Boston was the first city to build electric traction for a large-scale rapid transit system. The engineering challenge to design and construct safe, economically viable, and reliable electric power for Boston's rapid transit was met by the West End Street Railway Company, beginning in 1889. The company's pioneering efforts provided an important impetus to the adoption of mass transit systems nationwide.
Pratt Institute Power Plant40° 41' 30.56" N, 73° 57' 48.85" WVictorian industrialist Charles Pratt purchased the Brooklyn property that would later house the Pratt Institute in 1885. The first two buildings for his school—which he had designed on the standard mill construction of the period so that, should the school fail financially, he would still have a usable commercial property—were planned to have steam heat, both gas and electric lighting, and an elevator. But while the first registration for classes was held on October 3, 1887, neither boilers nor generators were yet in operation. The boilers were lit for the first time on November 22, and the generating plant finally went "on steam" on January 4, 1888, finally supplying classrooms with reliable electric light.
Prehistoric Mesa Verde Reservoirs, 750 A.D. - 1180 A.D.37° 11' 2.00" N, 108° 29' 19.00" WMesa Verde's industrious Ancestral Puebloans designed, constructed, and maintained Morefield, Box Elder, Far View, and Sagebrush Reservoirs for domestic water-storage between A.D. 750 and 1180.
Public Demonstration of Online Systems and Personal Computing, 196837° 27' 27.38" N, 122° 10' 35.90" WCommonly termed the "Mother of All Demos," Douglas Engelbart and his team demonstrated their oNLine System (NLS) at the San Francisco Civic Auditorium on 9 December 1968. Connected via microwave link to the host computer and other remote users at SRI in Menlo Park, the demonstration showcased many fundamental technologies that would become ubiquitous, including collaborative online editing, hypertext, video conferencing, word processing, spell checking, revision control, and the mouse.
Pullman Sleeping Car Glengyle33° 8' 56.15" N, 96° 49' 50.72" WThe Glengyle is the earliest known survivor of the fleet of heavyweight, all-steel sleepers built by Pullman Company. The design was introduced in 1907 as a marked improvement over the wooden version then in use. Some 10,000 were built, in various configurations, the last in 1931. The Glengyle is original in its interior and most of its components.
Q-R-S Marking Piano41° 22' 35.94" N, 79° 42' 23.58" WThe Q-R-S marking piano, invented by Melville Clark (1850-1918) in 1912, was one of the first machines to produce master rolls for player pianos by recording actual performances. The marking piano made it possible to capture live performances—including those of Igor Stravinsky, George Gershwin, and Duke Ellington—and thus preserve keyboard artistry of many artists, incidentally documenting the history of pre-radio 20th century American popular music.
QR (Quick Response) Code, 199434° 59' 43.92" N, 137° 0' 32.36" EDENSO developed two-dimensional QR Code technology, inexpensive machine-readable optical labels that improved on barcoding by conveying larger amounts of data more quickly. Worldwide businesses soon adopted QR Codes to improve manufacturing, logistics, and management. Camera-equipped mobile phones brought QR Codes into advertising, design, and widespread applications such as electronic payments, giving consumers efficient new ways to access digital information.
Quebec Bridge, 191746° 45' 0.00" N, 71° 17' 0.00" WAt the time of construction, the Quebec Bridge was the longest span (549 meters) cantilever bridge in the world.
Queensboro Bridge, 190940° 45' 0.00" N, 73° 57' 0.00" WThe Queensboro Bridge was the longest cantilever span in North America (1,182 feet) from 1909 until the Quebec Bridge opened in 1917 and the longest in the United States until 1930
Quincy Mining Company No. 2 Mine Hoist47° 8' 13.78" N, 88° 34' 28.62" WThe largest steam-powered mine hoist in the world served the two incline skipways of Quincy Mine Shaft No. 2, almost 9,300 feet long. Copper in most mines in the Michigan copper district was found in lodes averaging from 6 to 12 feet thick. Such lodes at the Quincy mine dipped into the ground at about 45 degrees, for a distance of more than two miles along the lode and a depth of over 9,100 feet on the incline, a vertical depth of more than a mile below the shaft opening.
RAMAC, 195637° 21' 9.82" N, 121° 56' 17.44" WSanta Clara University, Bannan Engineering Center, Room 323, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. Dedication: 26 May 2005, IEEE Santa Clara Valley Section. Developed by IBM in San Jose, California at 99 Notre Dame Street from 1952 until 1956, the Random Access Method of Accounting and Control (RAMAC) was the first computer system conceived around a radically new magnetic disk storage device. The extremely large capacity, rapid access, and low cost of magnetic disk storage revolutionized computer architecture, performance, and applications.
RCA Central, 192140° 53' 48.05" N, 72° 56' 43.55" WOn 5 November 1921, the world’s most powerful transoceanic radio facility at the time, RCA Radio Central, was inaugurated. Located at Rocky Point and Riverhead, New York, its Alexanderson 220 kW, 18.3 kHz transmitters and Beverage long-wire receiving antennas provided reliable worldwide radio communications. In succeeding years, RCA's research laboratory also developed diversity radio reception, rhombic and folded-dipole antennas, the first transoceanic single side-band channels, and commercial facsimile service.
R L-10 Rocket Engine38° 53' 17.44" N, 77° 1' 11.68" WThe Pratt & Whitney Aircraft RL-10, which served as the power plant for NASA's upper-stage Centaur space launch vehicle, was the first rocket engine to use high-energy liquid hydrogen as a fuel. It was the technological pathfinder in hydrogen rocketry and led to the development of larger engines that made the 1969 lunar landing possible.
Radar Predecessor, 190450° 56' 27.60" N, 6° 57' 46.00" EOn 17 May 1904, near this site, Christian Hülsmeyer demonstrated his Telemobiloskop: a spark gap transmitter, simple parabolic antennas, detector, and an indicator. It was designed to ring a bell when a barge passed the system at a range of several hundred meters. He patented this device in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A. This was the world's first operable device to detect radio reflections, a predecessor of radar.
Radio City Music Hall Hydraulically Actuated Stage40° 45' 35.86" N, 73° 58' 48.03" WThe precision "choreographed" staging of Radio City Music Hall offers size and versatility unlike any other. Built in 1932 by Peter Clark, its innovative elevator system is a forerunner of other stage designs (including the Metropolitan Opera House) as well as aircraft carrier systems built in World War II. These elevators can handle people, animals, props, and scenery at variable speeds, delivering them to the stage or above and also dropping out of sight in front to reappear again in the back, just as effectively.
Railroad Ticketing Examining System, 1965-197134° 41' 59.21" N, 135° 28' 10.49" EDedication: 27 November 2007, IEEE Kansai Section. Pioneering ticket examining machines, designed to speed commuter railroad use substantially, were first installed in 1965, based on work by a joint research team of Osaka University and Kintetsu Corporation. Following this work, an improved version -- based on joint work by Omron, Kintetsu, and Hankyu corporations using punched cards and magnetic cards -- was first deployed in 1967 and at nineteen stations in 1971.
Raman Effect, 192822° 29' 56.00" N, 88° 22' 7.20" EPlaque may be viewed at the main entrance gate of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Raja Subodh Mullick Road, Kolkata, 700032, INDIA. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Nobel-laureate (Physics-1930), assisted by K S Krishnan at IACS, Calcutta, India, discovered on 28 February 1928, that when a beam of coloured light entered a liquid, a fraction of the light scattered was of a different colour, dependent on material property. This radiation effect of molecular scattering of light bears his name as ‘Raman Effect’, from which many applications in photonic communications and spectroscopy evolved.
Rationalization of Units, 1901-190241° 53' 21.07" N, 12° 29' 53.73" EGiovanni Giorgi proposed rationalizing the equations of electromagnetism. His proposal added an electrical unit to the three mechanical units of measurement (meter, kilogram, second). While he was a professor at the University of Rome, the International Electrotechnical Commission adopted a version of Giorgi’s system. His ideas formed the basis of the universally adopted International System (SI) of units, currently used in all fields of science and engineering.
Reception of Transatlantic Radio Signals, 190147° 34' 18.66" N, 52° 41' 20.99" WSignal Hill, Newfoundland. Dedication: October 1985 - IEEE Newfoundland-Labrador Section. At Signal Hill on December 12, 1901, Guglielmo Marconi and his assistant, George Kemp, confirmed the reception of the first transatlantic radio signals. With a telephone receiver and a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, they heard Morse code for the letter "S" transmitted from Poldhu, Cornwall. Their experiments showed that radio signals extended far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communication in the twentieth century.
Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility, 194321° 22' 26.55" N, 157° 53' 37.88" WBuried under 100 feet of volcanic rock, the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility, a complex of 20 fuel tanks, was innovatively designed and constructed. This system provided fuel for United States forces during the latter half of World War II and for the 50 years that followed.
Reed Gold Mine Ten-Stamp Mill35° 17' 7.75" N, 80° 27' 59.27" WThe Reed Gold Mine Ten-Stamp Mill, built by the Mecklenburg Iron Works of Charlotte, North Carolina, is a typical mill of the late nineteenth century. Built in 1830, the mill's working parts were made of cast iron; it resembled a large mortar and pestle. Two groups of five 750-pound stamps with 5- to 7-inch lift rose and fell thirty-five times a minute to yield a finely crushed ore.
Refrigeration Research Museum42° 31' 57.03" N, 83° 47' 24.67" WHome to one of the world’s most comprehensive collection of restored refrigerators, freezer and ice boxes – some dating back to the early 1900s.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 182442° 43' 48.00" N, 73° 40' 39.00" WRensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, was the first college in the United States to award the degree of Civil Engineer.
Reuleaux Collection of Kinematic Mechanisms at Cornell University42° 26' 40.73" N, 76° 28' 57.23" WKinematics is the study of geometry of motion. Franz Reuleaux (1829-1905) designed the models in the kinematic mechanism collection at Cornell as teaching aids for invention, showing the kinematic design of machines. The iron and brass mechanisms in the collection represent the fundamental components of complex machines and were conceived as elements of a basic "language of invention." Reuleaux's theories helped standardize machine design in the late 19th century, and Cornell's collection was acquired by Andrew Dickson White as part of his reform of engineering education. Today, the models are still used in the teaching of machine design and synthesis, robotics, dynamics, architectural drawing, and mathematics.
Reversal of the Chicago River, 1892 - 190041° 53' 11.00" N, 87° 38' 15.00" WCompleted in 1900, the reversal of the Chicago River, a major civil engineering innovation, required imaginative planning and ingenious construction. The result was a multi-purpose project that significantly benefited the development of America’s heartland.
Reversible Waterwheel & Man Engine51° 42' 47.31" N, 10° 30' 57.96" ETwo features of past technology are preserved and displayed at Germany's historic silver mine "Grube Samson"—the Samson Mine—opened in the later Middle Ages. The reversible overshot waterwheel of the ore hoist is probably the only survivor of its kind, and even more unique is the man-engine with an even larger overshot waterwheel that in the nineteenth century moved the miners between the surface and the working levels, sparing them the extraordinary exertion of climbing hundreds of meters of ladders.
Reynolds-Corliss Pumping Engine30° 19' 39.46" N, 81° 39' 27.16" WBetween 1914 and 1917, Jacksonville undertook a water supply improvement program. The Reynolds-Corliss Pumping Engine, developed by American engineering pioneer Edwin Reynolds in Milwaukee, was installed in 1917 in the Jacksonville Main Street water pumping plant alongside an Epping-Carpenter pump that was scrapped and removed in 1956.
Rheinfelden Hydroelectric Power Plant, 1898 - 201047° 33' 58.09" N, 7° 48' 6.64" EThe plaque may be viewed at the Rheinfelden exhibition pavilion, Kanalstrasse D, 79618, Rheinfelden, Germany. The original Rheinfelden plant was an outstanding achievement in Europe's early large-scale generation of hydroelectric power. It was important for its 17,000 horsepower (12,500 kilowatt) output, for pioneering three-phase alternating current later adopted around the world, and using 50-Hertz frequency which afterwards became standard in most countries. Gradually, Rheinfelden entered into joint operation with other stations, from which the interconnected network of continental Europe evolved.
Richmond Union Passenger Railway, 188837° 32' 55.37" N, 77° 25' 57.92" WNorth 5th St., between Marshall and Leigh, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A. Richmond, VA Dedicated February 1992 - IEEE Richmond Section. In February 1888, the electric street railway system designed by Frank Julian Sprague for the Richmond Union Passenger Railway began operating in Richmond, Virginia. Sprague's Richmond system became the lasting prototype for electric street railways because of its large-scale practicality and operating superiority. This system, which combined Sprague's engineering innovations with other proven technical features, helped shape urban growth worldwide.
Rincón del Bonete, 194532° 50' 0.65" S, 56° 25' 23.54" WThe plaque may be viewed on the outside wall near the entrance to the Rincón del Bonete Powerhouse, which is still in operation. The plaque will be affixed to an outside wall, where the frequent public/student touristic/educational tours make a stop.) In December, 1945, much-needed hydroelectric power began flowing from here to other parts of Uruguay. World War II had interrupted the work begun by a German consortium, but Uruguayan engineers reformulated and completed the project using United States-supplied equipment. The large artificial lake spurred further Rio Negro electrification, availability of abundant, clean hydroelectricity was a turning point in Uruguay's development, quality of life, and engineering profession.
Ringwood Manor Iron Complex41° 8' 20.45" N, 74° 15' 17.91" WThe Ringwood Manor Iron Complex was a prominent property in the early development of the U.S. iron industry. The Ogdens of Newark, New Jersey, built the Ringwood Company's first blast furnace in 1742. The second furnace, built in 1762, has two stones that remain on display today.
River des Peres Sewage & Drainage Works, 1924 - 193138° 37' 0.00" N, 90° 16' 0.00" WThe River des Peres Sewage & Drainage Works, a 13-mile system of sanitary trunk sewers and drainage channels, was the largest undertaking of its kind when completed between 1924 and 1931.
Robbins & Lawrence Machine Shop43° 28' 29.20" N, 72° 23' 22.40" WThe 1846 Robbins & Lawrence Machine Shop, which now houses the American Precision Museum (National Engineering Landmark #119), was founded by gun-making mechanic Richard S. Lawrence and businessman Samuel E. Robbins. The building is a classic example of mid-19th century factory architecture, constructed of handmade brick with interior timber framing. The adjacent Mill Brook provided the water power to run the machinery, diverted to a mill race and water wheel in the basement.
Rockville Stone Arch Bridge, 190240° 20' 0.24" N, 76° 54' 37.08" WWhen opened, the Rockville Stone Arch Bridge represented the zenith of American stone arch construction. This span is one of the longest (3,820 feet) and widest (52 feet) multiple stone arch bridges in the world.
Rocky River Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant41° 43' 53.91" N, 72° 37' 25.26" WThe Connecticut Light & Power Company pioneered the use of pumped storage in the United States at the Rocky River Plant, first operated in 1929.
Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydraulic Plant, 192941° 35' 0.00" N, 73° 24' 0.00" WThe Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Plant was the first major pumped storage hydroelectric project in the United States.
Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct, 184841° 28' 57.00" N, 74° 59' 4.00" WThe Delaware Aqueduct was John A. Roebling’s earliest. Still-standing, this suspension bridge is perhaps the oldest existing cable suspension bridge in the world that retains its original principal elements. It was completely restored by the National Park Service in 1983.
Roebling 80-Ton Wire Rope Machine40° 7' 7.22" N, 74° 46' 23.88" WThe only remaining Roebling machine was designed by Charles G. Roebling (1849-1918), engineer and president of the Trenton-based Roebling Company from 1876 to 1918. Built in 1893, it was the largest wire-rope closing machine in its time. The machine twisted six strands around a central core rope. These seven combined in the machine's forming die to produce a finished rope, a process known as closing. The machine was built to produce 1.5-inch rope for cable railways; 80 tons could be loaded at a single spinning, which provided 30,000 feet of unspliced cable at a batch. Roebling's was a vertical machine, standing 64 feet, requiring the machine and building to be built as a unit.
Rogue River Bridge, 193142° 26' 0.00" N, 124° 25' 0.00" WThe Rogue River Bridge, a seven-span arch bridge, was the first major structure in America to use the concept of the pre-stressed concrete arch.
Roosa Master Diesel Fuel-Injection Pump41° 49' 7.33" N, 72° 38' 58.56" WThe Hartford Machine Screw Company was founded in 1876 by Christopher Spencer for the production of fasteners on the Hartford automatic screw machine. The company began to produce airplane parts in the 1920s, in 1947, Vernon Roosa's 1941 invention of the rotary distributor-type diesel fuel injection pump came to the company's attention. At that time, Roosa was in New York City repairing and maintaining diesel-electric generator sets; in June 1947, Roosa and development engineer Ernest J. Wilson Willson went to Hartford to develop the concept for the pump, and by 1952 they had landed its first contract.
Rotating-Arm Model-Test Facility40° 44' 42.28" N, 74° 1' 38.30" WBuilt at the Stevens Institute of Technology thanks to the pioneering efforts of Professor Kenneth S.M. Davidson (1898-1958), the Davidson Laboratory Rotating-Arm Model-Test Facility was the first in the world to conduct experiments for obtaining comprehensive measurements of those forces and moments necessary to define the maneuverability and control of surface ships, submersibles, and airships.
Rotating Fields and Early Induction Motors, 1885-188845° 4' 3.61" N, 7° 39' 22.95" EGalileo Ferraris, professor at the Italian Industrial Museum (now Polytechnic) of Turin, conceived and demonstrated the principle of the rotating magnetic field. Ferraris' field, produced by two stationary coils with perpendicular axes, was driven by alternating currents phase-shifted by 90 degrees. Ferraris also constructed prototypes of two-phase AC motors. Rotating fields, polyphase currents, and their application to induction motors had a fundamental role in the electrification of the world.
Royal Colonial Boundary of 1665, 1728-182136° 36' 0.00" N, 83° 40' 32.00" WWith personal courage, dedication, and technical innovation in the art and science of cadastral and geodetic survey practice, the survey of the Royal Colonial Boundary, located in what is now Cumberland Gap National Park, Kentucky, reached the Mississippi River in 1819.
Rumely Companies' Agricultural Products41° 36' 38.15" N, 86° 43' 30.35" WBeginning with the 1853 blacksmith shop of German immigrant Meinrad Rumely (1823-1904), this successive family of firms invented and produced a line of agricultural equipment that played a vital role in the evolution of farming, from the muscle of humans and animals to the power of the steam and ultimately to the internal-combustion engine.
SCR/Thyristor, 195743° 5' 3.55" N, 76° 52' 33.08" WGeneral Electric introduced the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), a three-terminal p-n-p-n device, in 1957. The gas-filled tubes used previously were difficult to operate and unreliable. The symmetrical alternating current switch (TRIAC), the gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), and the large integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT) evolved from the SCR. Its development revolutionized efficient control of electric energy and electrical machines.
SHAKEY: The World’s First Mobile Intelligent Robot, 197237° 27' 17.34" N, 122° 10' 19.32" WStanford Research Institute's Artificial Intelligence Center developed the world’s first mobile intelligent robot, SHAKEY. It could perceive its surroundings, infer implicit facts from explicit ones, create plans, recover from errors in plan execution, and communicate using ordinary English. SHAKEY's software architecture, computer vision, and methods for navigation and planning proved seminal in robotics and in the design of web servers, automobiles, factories, video games, and Mars rovers.
SPARC RISC Architecture, 198737° 23' 32.98" N, 121° 57' 21.64" WSun Microsystems introduced SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) RISC (Reduced Instruction-Set Computing) in 1987. Building upon UC Berkeley RISC and Sun compiler and operating system developments, SPARC architecture was highly adaptable to evolving semiconductor, software, and system technology and user needs. The architecture delivered the highest performance, scalable workstations and servers, for engineering, business, Internet, and cloud computing applications.
SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), 1969-197037° 52' 31.24" N, 122° 15' 28.71" WCory Hall, University of California, Berkeley. SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) was created at UC Berkeley as a class project in 1969-1970. It evolved to become the worldwide standard integrated circuit simulator. SPICE has been used to train many students in the intricacies of circuit simulation. SPICE and its descendants have become essential tools employed by virtually all integrated circuit designers.
SS Badger Carferry43° 56' 57.08" N, 86° 27' 1.07" WNow a rare mode of transportation, the S.S. Badger ferries car-passengers between Ludington, Michigan, and Manitowoc, Wisconsin. The two 3,500-hp steeple compound Unaflow steam engines powering the S.S. Badger represent one of the last types of reciprocating marine steam engines. Built by the Skinner Engine Company, most Unaflow engines are single expansion. These feature tandem high- and low-pressure cylinders separated by a common head. The Badger's four Foster-Wheeler Type D marine boilers, which supply 470-psig steam to the engines, are among the last coal-fired marine boilers built.
SS Great Britain51° 26' 57.16" N, 2° 36' 30.88" WThe innovative SS Great Britain, launched in 1843, was the first iron-hulled, screw-propelled ship to cross any ocean. At 3270 gross register tons and an overall length of 322 feet, the SS Great Britain was the largest ship in the world at the time of its launch.
SS Jeremiah O'Brien37° 48' 40.35" N, 122° 25' 6.79" WThe SS Jeremiah O'Brien, an emergency cargo vessel of the type EC2-S-C1 (better known as Liberty Ships), is one of two operative survivors of 2,751 ships produced by 18 U.S. shipyards between March 1941 and November 1945, the largest fleet of single class ever built. The design stressed minimum cost, rapidity of construction, and simplicity of operation, and the O'Brien's original design and configuration have not been altered.
Salginatobel Bridge, 193046° 58' 54.55" N, 9° 43' 3.81" EDesigned by Robert Maillart, the Salginatobel Bridge represents a major innovation of structural type – the three-hinged, hollow-bow arch of reinforced concrete – using a new method of staged-arch construction.
Salvá's Electric Telegraph, 180441° 23' 3.01" N, 2° 10' 14.52" EOn 22 February 1804, Francisco Salvá Campillo reported to the Barcelona Royal Academy of Sciences, in Spain, a new kind of electric telegraph. He proposed a new method of telegraphy by combining the generation of an electric current using the recently-invented voltaic pile with detection by water electrolysis. Salvá’s report described the elements required and how they should be arranged to convey information at a distance.
San Antonio River Walk & Flood Control system, 1929 - 194129° 25' 0.00" N, 98° 30' 0.00" WThe San Antonio River Walk & Flood Control system has proven extremely successful in controlling San Antonio’s devastating urban flooding problem. In addition, the engineering design pioneered the sensitive and effective blending of architectural, historical, environmental and urban development needs.
San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, 193637° 49' 0.00" N, 122° 22' 0.00" WThe San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge was the longest crossing over water and most costly bridge of its time. Construction was possible due to the use of compressed-air flotation caissons.
San Jacinto Monument, 193929° 45' 0.00" N, 95° 5' 0.00" WThe San Jacinto Monument was the world’s tallest free-standing concrete tower at the time of construction. The precise monitoring of foundation settlement provided data for testing Dr. Karl Terzaghi’s consolidation theory, a fundamental component of soil mechanics.
Saturn V Rocket - Alabama34° 38' 56.32" N, 86° 40' 8.12" WIn 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960.
Saturn V Rocket - Florida28° 34' 22.24" N, 80° 38' 56.41" WIn 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960.
Saturn V Rocket - Texas29° 33' 10.41" N, 95° 5' 36.20" WIn 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced the United States' intention to send a man to the moon. When the decision to undertake a manned lunar landing effort was made, there was no rocket in the country even approaching the needed capability. On January 10, 1962, the National

Aeronautics and Space Administration announced that it would develop a new rocket, much larger than any previously attempted. It would be based on the F-1 rocket engine, the development of which had been underway since 1958, and on the hydrogen-fueled J-2 engine, upon which work had begun in 1960.
Saugus Ironworks42° 28' 4.71" N, 71° 0' 32.01" WThe Saugus Ironworks, built in 1647, was the first successful commercial ironworks in North America and, built just 25 years after the Pilgrims landed, was an impressive technological achievement for an early colony. Migration to the colonies had slowed in the 1630s, bringing fewer supply ships from Europe, and the British government offered incentives to develop manufacturing in the colonies and take advantage of New England's vast resources. Skilled ironworkers were recruited to start the Hammersmith community, as it was then called, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Sault Ste. Marie Hydroelectric Power complex, 190246° 29' 50.75" N, 84° 19' 55.67" WWhen completed, the Sault Ste. Marie Hydroelectric Power Complex was the largest low-head facility in the United States, with a canal that carried 30,000 cubic feet per second.
Second Street Bridge, 188642° 31' 32.88" N, 85° 50' 54.24" WThe Second Street Bridge—a 225-foot span, Whipple double intersection through truss—represented the culmination of an era during which cast iron was replaced by the far more reliable wrought iron as an engineering material.
Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) 1951-195842° 27' 31.05" N, 71° 15' 48.84" WLincoln Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA. In 1951 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology undertook the development of an air defense system for the United States. The centerpiece of this defense system was a large digital computer originally developed at MIT. The MIT Lincoln Laboratory was formed to carry out the initial development of this system and the first of some 23 SAGE control centers was completed in 1958. SAGE was the forerunner of today’s digital computer networks.
Semiconductor Laser, 196242° 49' 52.32" N, 73° 52' 46.92" WIn the autumn of 1962, General Electric’s Schenectady and Syracuse facilities, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory each independently reported the first demonstrations of the semiconductor laser. Smaller than a grain of rice, powered using direct current injection, and available at wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet to the infrared, the semiconductor laser became ubiquitous in modern communications, data storage, and precision measurement systems.
Semiconductor Planar Process and Integrated Circuit, 195937° 25' 24.59" N, 122° 6' 15.57" WFairchild Semiconductor Offices, Palo Alto, CA. The 1959 invention of the Planar Process by Jean A. Hoerni and the Integrated Circuit (IC) based on planar technology by Robert N. Noyce catapulted the semiconductor industry into the silicon IC era. This pair of pioneering inventions led to the present IC industry, which today supplies a wide and growing variety of advanced semiconductor products used throughout the world.
Seventh Street Improvement Arches, 188444° 57' 26.00" N, 93° 4' 35.00" WThe Seventh Street Improvement Arches celebrates the engineering application of mathematics to improve living conditions. It is currently one of the only documented examples of helicoidal arch construction in the United States.
Sewall's Bridge, 176143° 9' 48.00" N, 70° 38' 55.00" WBuilt over the York River, Sewall’s Bridge was the first pile structure for general highway traffic constructed in accordance with an engineering plan based upon a site survey.
Shannon Hydroelectric Scheme, 192952° 42' 20.00" N, 8° 36' 46.00" WBy international standards, the Shannon Hydroelectric Scheme for the electrification of the Irish Free State was one of the largest civil engineering projects at the time it was built
Shannon Scheme for the Electrification of the Irish Free State, 192952° 39' 49.89" N, 8° 37' 36.38" WArdnacrusha Power Station, Ardnacrusha, County Limerick, Ireland. Dedicated 29 July 2002. IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section. (IEEE Milestone and ASCE International Historic Engineering Landmark). The Shannon Scheme was officially opened at Parteen Weir on 22 July 1929. One of the largest engineering projects of its day, it was successfully executed by Siemens to harness the Shannon River. It subsequently served as a model for large-scale electrification projects worldwide. Operated by the Electricity Board of Ireland, it had an immediate impact on the social, economic and industrial development of Ireland and continues to supply significant power beyond the end of the 20th century.
Sharp 14-inch Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) for TV, 198834° 37' 18.02" N, 135° 49' 4.27" EThe plaque may be viewed at the Sharp Technology Innovation Museum, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567 Japan. Sharp demonstrated a fourteen-inch TFT-LCD for TV in 1988 when the display size of the mass-produced TFT-LCD was three inches. The high display quality in Cathode Ray Tube size convinced other electronic companies to join the infant TFT-LCD industry aimed at emerging full-color portable PCs. Two decades later, TFT-LCDs replaced CRTs, making the vision of RCA's LCD group in the 1960s a reality.
Shilling's Pioneering Contribution to Practical Telegraphy, 1828-183759° 56' 2.44" N, 30° 18' 7.67" ECentral Museum of Communications, St. Petersburg, Russia. In this building, Shilling`s original electromagnetic telegraph is exhibited. P. L. Shilling, a Russian scientist, successfully transmitted messages over different distances by means of an electric current’s effect on a magnetic needle, using two signs and a telegraph dictionary for transferring letters and digits. Shilling's demonstrations in St. Petersburg and abroad provided an impetus to scientists in different countries and influenced the invention of more advanced electromagnetic telegraphs.
Shippingport Nuclear Power Station40° 37' 16.00" N, 80° 26' 7.00" WThe first commercial central electric-generating station in the United States to use nuclear energy was the Shippingport Atomic Power Station of the Department of Energy and the Duquesne Light Company. In a dramatic high-tech display, ground was broken in 1954 during dedication ceremonies by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who also opened it on May 26, 1958, as part of his "Atoms for Peace" program. Shippingport is located on the Ohio River about 25 miles from Pittsburgh. The reactor plant was designed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in cooperation with the Division of Naval Reactors of the Atomic Energy Commission.
Sholes & Glidden "Type Writer"43° 2' 26.50" N, 87° 55' 16.89" WDesigned in 1873 by Christopher Latham Sholes (1819-1890), with Carlos Glidden, Samuel Soulé, and Mathias Schwalbach, the Sholes & Glidden "Type Writer" was the first commercially successful device that rapidly printed alphanumeric characters on paper in any order.
Shoshone Transmission Line, 190939° 32' 45.67" N, 107° 19' 25.07" WShoshone Hydroelectric Plant near Glenwood Springs, Colorado, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1991 - IEEE Denver Section. July 17, 1909, the Shoshone Transmission Line began service carrying power, generated by the Shoshone Hydroelectric Generating Station, to Denver. The Line operated at 90 kV, was 153.4 miles long, and crossed the Continental Divide three times reaching an altitude of 13,500 feet. Its design and construction represented an outstanding electrical engineering accomplishment due to its length, the mountainous country over which it was constructed, and the unusually severe weather conditions under which it operated.
Siegfried Marcus Car48° 11' 27.37" N, 16° 19' 5.05" ESiegfried Marcus (1833-1898) is responsible for creating the oldest extant automobile known worldwide, an experimental vehicle resembling today's modern car. Built circa 1875, the car is believed to be the first vehicle powered by a four-cycle engine and the first to use gasoline as a fuel, featuring the first carburetor for a gasoline engine and the first magneto ignition. This vehicle, still operable, is now on display at the Vienna Technical Museum.
Sikorsky VS-300 Helicopter42° 18' 11.30" N, 83° 13' 59.19" WIgor I. Sikorsky's VS-300 was America's first practical helicopter. It was also the first successful helicopter in the world to pioneer the now-familiar single main rotor with torque-compensating tail rotor design. This has been the standard configuration used by most of the world's helicopter manufacturers ever since.
Single-element Unidirectional Microphone - Shure Unidyne, 193942° 0' 44.68" N, 87° 46' 21.70" WThe plaque may be viewed at 5800 W. Touhy Ave, Niles, IL, U.S.A. In 1939, Shure Incorporated introduced the Unidyne microphone. Using the Uniphase acoustical system, the patented Unidyne was the first microphone to provide directional characteristics using a single dynamic element. This breakthrough offered lower cost, greater reliability and improved performance for communication and public address systems. Shure Unidyne microphones are still manufactured and used worldwide in numerous audio applications.
Site of the Founding Meeting of ASCE, 185240° 42' 46.00" N, 74° 0' 21.00" WWhen the twelve founders of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects gathered at the Croton Aqueduct on November 5, 1852, and agreed to incorporate the new organization, they laid a foundation for what proved to be one of the most prominent engineering societies in the world.
Smithfield Street Bridge, 188340° 26' 5.00" N, 80° 0' 8.00" WThe Smithfield Street Bridge represented a unique adaptation of a contemporary European engineering device, the lenticular truss, to suit American needs. It served as a guide for the many highway bridges of similar design built in America during the ensuing decades.
Snoqualmie Falls Cavity Generating Station, 189947° 32' 30.91" N, 121° 50' 12.66" WThe concept of an underground hydroelectric station was first successfully achieved at the Snoqualmie Falls Cavity Generating Station. This innovation has since been applied successfully in many other sites throughout the world.
Snowy Mountains Hydo-electric Scheme, 1947-197236° 7' 12.00" S, 148° 36' 0.00" EThe Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme is a world class civil engineering project that provides vital electric power and irrigation water. Its construction remains the largest construction project in Australia, and one of the largest of its type in the world.
Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory29° 38' 54.23" N, 82° 20' 54.75" WThis highly diverse Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory (SEECL) was unique in developing practical solar energy devices based on established principles of thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics long before solar energy was considered a serious energy alternative. Among its many significant technological accomplishments are advanced solar collector designs, solar-assisted HVAC systems, space power systems, breakthroughs in solar-based housing, and development of advanced materials including glazings and highly selective surfaces. Both the U.S. Department of State and the United Nations have recognized this facility for its global accomplishments in training and innovation.
Southern Gas Association-PCRC Analog Facility29° 26' 56.55" N, 98° 36' 49.21" WThe Southern Gas Association (SGA) analog was commissioned by the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) to help design safe compressor systems, free from damaging pulsations. Built in 1955, the analog computer is the first device of its kind applied to natural gas pipeline systems and has been used to create or modify more than 10,000 installations worldwide in natural gas, petroleum, chemical, and nuclear industries. Analog computers predict physical behavior by simulating it in analogous processes instead of solving equations.
Southern Pacific38° 35' 4.15" N, 121° 30' 14.49" WSouthern Pacific #4294, a 4-8-8-2 cab-in-front articulated locomotive, is the sole surviving steam locomotive of its type. The 4-8-8-2 locomotives were really two engines combined into one. They had one boiler which served two sets of cylinders driving independent groups of wheels. These locomotives were long, heavy, and the largest, most powerful locomotives on the Southern Pacific during their time. They were fast—capable of attaining speeds of 70 miles per hour. These locomotives were used to haul heavy freight and passenger trains over the steep grades in the Sierra and Cascade Mountains.
Southern Railway Spencer Shops35° 41' 14.66" N, 80° 26' 4.23" WOne of four known preserved railroad shop complexes in the United States, Spencer Shops is the only one designed and constructed primarily during the 20th century. A majority of the buildings, used originally in steam locomotive repair and maintenance, are still intact, including the backshop, roundhouse, flue shop, paint shop, and parts storage buildings. The 37-stall roundhouse is one of the largest remaining roundhouses in North America still in continuous operation, and the backshop is the only preserved erecting shop in the U.S. The site contains other significant buildings, including the car repair shed, yard office, oil house, sand house, and wheel balancing shed.
Speak & Spell, the First Use of a Digital Signal Processing IC for Speech Generation, 197832° 55' 31.38" N, 96° 45' 23.89" WTexas Instruments, Dallas, TX. In December 1976, Richard Wiggins demonstrated the Speak & Spell concept to Paul Breedlove, Larry Brantingham and Gene Frantz in Texas Instruments' Dallas research laboratory. This group led the team that created Speak & Spell in April 1978. The key device was the industry's first digital signal processing integrated processor, the TMS5100. This innovation in audio processing began the huge digital signal processing consumer market.
Special Citation Heinz Nixdorf Museum, 199651° 43' 53.61" N, 8° 44' 11.61" EOne of the largest computer museums in the world, the Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum presents 5000 years of computing history from the emergence of numbers and lettering circa 3000 B.C.E. to the modern digital age. Through presentations, workshops, seminars, and exhibitions, it has provided a broad audience with the insights and perspectives required to navigate a world that is increasingly shaped by digital technology.
Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Apparatus29° 26' 56.49" N, 98° 36' 49.25" WThe Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is a mechanical test instrument used to characterize the dynamic response of materials at high strain rates (typical of impacts and explosions). The apparatus, based on devices invented by Bertram Hopkinson and Herbert Kolsky, was developed at SwRI in 1962 by Dr. Ulric Lindholm. Conventional mechanical test systems had been available for years to obtain strength data under long term conditions (hours to days) or static conditions (minutes) using screw or hydraulic loading systems. The maximum deformation or strain rate of these machines is about 0.1 per second (0.1 s-1). Pendulum impact machines can produce strain rates of up to about 100 s-1, yielding only energy absorbed to fracture, but not a complete stress-strain curve. During World War II, strength properties associated with shock waves were developed using light-gas gun or explosively driven flyer-plate impact experiments, producing high hydrostatic pressures and strain rates in excess of 104 s-1. The SwRI Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar was designed to fill the strain rate range from 102 s-1 to 5.0 x 103 s-1, the time duration of many explosive, ballistic impact, crashes and other accident scenarios of interest for both military and civilian applications.
Springfield Armory42° 6' 25.99" N, 72° 34' 54.06" WGeorge Washington's concern over standardization of rifles for the Continental Army led to the formation of national armory and to his selection of Springfield as its site. Completed in 1794, it was the first national armory in the United States. Not many years later the U.S. Model 1795 Musket, a Flint Lock, was the first official U.S. weapon and the first Springfield weapon produced.
St. Charles Avenue Street Car Line29° 58' 3.12" N, 90° 5' 21.75" WThe St. Charles Street Car line is the oldest continuously operating street railways in the world and was one of the first passenger railroads in the United States. The electric streetcars now operating on the route are typical of the transportation that played a major role in American cities in the first part of the 20th century.
St. Clair Tunnel, 189142° 57' 0.00" N, 82° 25' 0.00" WThe St. Clair Tunnel, built under the St. Claire River, was the first successful subaqueous railway tunnel in North America.
Standardisation of the Ohm, 1861-186755° 52' 22.88" N, 4° 17' 28.65" WThe International Committee on Electrical Standards, with contributions by Fleeming Jenkin, James Clerk Maxwell, William Thomson, Werner von Siemens, and colleagues, advised the British Association for the Advancement of Science in providing a widely recognised standard for electrical resistance. This unit, subsequently named after Georg Simon Ohm, is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant current of one ampere produces a potential difference of one volt.
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center37° 25' 12.57" N, 122° 12' 16.50" WThe Stanford Linear Accelerator Center—renamed in 2009 to the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory—is, at two miles, the longest in the world. The main accelerator is buried 30 feet (10 meters) underground and passes underneath Interstate Highway 280. Built in 1962, the engineering problems facing the accelerator's design included manufacturing a thousand sections of precision copper waveguide, aligning these sections over a two-mile length, producing high-power pulsed microwaves, and safely handling the intense high-energy beam of electrons.
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 196237° 25' 15.64" N, 122° 12' 21.90" WStanford, Stanford, California, U.S.A. Dedication: February 1984 - IEEE San Francisco Bay Area Council. (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE). The Stanford two-mile accelerator, the longest in the world, accelerates electrons to the very high energy needed in the study of subatomic particles and forces. Experiments performed here have shown that the proton, one of the building blocks of the atom, is in turn composed of smaller particles now called quarks. Other research here has uncovered new families of particles and demonstrated subtle effects of the weak nuclear force. This research requires the utmost precision in the large and unique electromechanical devices and systems that accelerate, define, deliver and store the beams of particles, and in the detectors that analyze the results of the particle interactions.
Star of Laufenburg Interconnection, 195847° 33' 15.00" N, 8° 3' 1.22" EUCTE, Laufenburg, Switzerland. This is the original location of the electric-power interconnection of three countries: Switzerland, Germany and France. The Union for Production and Transmission of Electricity (now UCTE) was formed to manage this interconnection. This installation pioneered international connections, and technical and political cooperation for European integration. UCTE coordinated one of the largest synchronously connected power networks serving almost all of continental Europe.
Starrucca Viaduct, 184841° 57' 48.00" N, 75° 34' 55.00" WThe Starrucca Viaduct, the key masonry viaduct of the New York and Erie Railroad, was one of the earliest structures between the eastern seaboard and the Midwest. It was constructed in record time and was among the first, if not the first, important engineering work to utilize structural concrete.
State Line Generating Unit 141° 42' 29.43" N, 87° 31' 16.90" WDwarfing the typical electric-power generators of the day, the "State Line" turbine-generator, located on the Indiana-Illinois border, represented 14 percent of the entire Chicago metropolitan district when it was placed in commercial service on April 8, 1929. The Unit 1 turbine was the first unit to use five stages of feed-water heating, was the first to produce 650 pounds of pressure steam for electric generation, and was an original design in that the metal-enclosed generator bus is housed outdoors.
Statue of Liberty, 188640° 41' 21.00" N, 74° 2' 40.00" WThrough the aesthetic genius of Frederick Bartholdi and the engineering ingenuity of other French and American engineers, particularly Gustav Eiffel, Charles Stone and Charles C. Schneider, the Statue of Liberty was completed in 1886 and became the world’s symbol of the United States as the land of the free.
Steamboat William G. Mather41° 30' 37.66" N, 81° 41' 45.14" WThe Steamship William G. Mather (1925) represents the evolution of mechanical engineering in Great Lakes shipping. Launched as a state-of-the-art ship for its time, the Mather served as a prototype, incorporating the latest advancements. Subsequent enhancements that extended the ship's economic life included a single oil-fired boiler, steam turbine propulsion, automatic power plant control, as well as a dual propeller bow-thruster. As a result, Great Lakes shipping remained efficient, productive, and competitive with other modes of transportation. The savings helped local iron ore sources maintain an economical edge over non-US suppliers.
Stevens Pass Railroad Tunnels, 1897 - 192947° 44' 33.00" N, 121° 4' 10.00" WThe first and second Cascade Tunnels and the switchbacks carried the Great Northern Railroad trains over the Stevens Pass since 1892. John F. Stevens was made chief engineer of the Great Northern in 1895 and supervised construction of the Cascade Tunnels. The second Cascade Tunnel was the longest tunnel in the Western Hemisphere from 1929 to 1989.
Stirling Water-Tube Boilers34° 46' 53.80" N, 84° 58' 20.34" WThe Crown Cotton Mills, now named the Elk Cotton Mill, was the first major industrial plant in Cross Plains, Georgia, now known as Dalton. The mill's two Stirling water-tube boilers, built and installed in 1906, are among the oldest existing steam generators in a cotton mill in this country.
Stone Arch Brige of Burlington Northern RR, 188344° 59' 0.00" N, 93° 16' 0.00" WThe Stone Arch Bridge of the Burlington Northern Railroad, the oldest extant railroad bridge over the Mississippi, was a key element in development of the northwest part of the United States.
String Galvanometer, 1901-190552° 9' 58.06" N, 4° 28' 38.34" EOn 22 March 1905, the first successful clinical recording of a human electrocardiogram (ECG) took place at this location, which at the time was the Academic Hospital Leiden. Willem Einthoven’s pioneering work, from 1901 to 1905, resulted in a string galvanometer specifically designed to measure and record the heart’s electrical activity, which made this medical achievement possible. This invention marked the beginning of electrocardiography as a major clinical diagnostic tool.
Suez Canal, 1859-186930° 42' 18.00" N, 32° 20' 39.00" EThe Suez Canal was the longest man-made sea level canal in the world when opened. This modern canal is one of the world’s most heavily used shipping routes and continues to play a critical role in international trade.
Superconducting Magnet System for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator/Collider, 1973-198541° 50' 18.82" N, 88° 15' 44.06" WThe first large-scale use of superconducting magnets enabled the construction of the Tevatron. By 1985, the Tevatron achieved energy above 1 Tera electron-volt (TeV) in proton-antiproton collisions, making it the most powerful particle collider in the world until 2009. The Tevatron construction established the superconducting wire manufacturing infrastructure that made applications such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) viable.
Superconductivity at 93 Kelvin, 198734° 43' 45.73" N, 86° 38' 29.29" WOn this site, a material consisting of yttrium, barium, copper, and oxygen was first conceived, synthesized, tested, and -- on 29 January 1987 -- found to exhibit stable and reproducible superconductivity at 93 Kelvin. This marked the first time the phenomenon had been unambiguously achieved above 77 Kelvin, the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, thus enabling more practical and widespread use of superconductors.
Sweetwater Dam, 188832° 41' 29.77" N, 117° 0' 29.00" WThe Sweetwater Dam was once the tallest masonry arch dam in the United States, and it served as a model for many others. The dam has survived three over-toppings, and the water impounded by it has enabled economic development of the National City, Chula Vista, and Bonita regions.
Sydney Harbour Bridge, 193233° 51' 8.00" S, 151° 12' 38.00" EA steel through-arch, multi-modal structure, the Sydney Harbour Bridge was the second longest span (503 m) of its type when completed. The bridge is now an international symbol of Australia and her engineering achievements.
T.V. Emery Rice Steam Engine40° 48' 53.57" N, 73° 45' 43.62" WDuring the nineteenth-century transition from sail to steam, the poorly armored screw-propelled warships were given engines of low profile, fitting below the waterline for protection of vital parts. The horizontal compound engine of the training vessel (T.V.) Emery Rice is a unique survivor typical of the period 1840 to 1880. The 61-ton back-acting engine has an unconventional configuration in that its two cranks lie close to their cylinders and two off-center piston rods straddle the crank-shaft in a cramped, but efficient, arrangement.
TIROS I Television Infrared Observation Satellite, 196040° 19' 54.07" N, 74° 37' 53.89" WSarnoff Library, Princeton, NJ. On 1 April 1960, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration launched TIROS I, the world's first meteorological satellite, to capture and transmit video images of the Earth's weather patterns. RCA staff at Defense Electronics Products, the David Sarnoff Research Center, and Astro-Electronics Division designed and constructed the satellite and ground station systems. TIROS I pioneered meteorological and environmental satellite television for an expanding array of purposes.
TPC-1 Transpacific Cable System, 196421° 18' 34.88" N, 157° 51' 32.69" WThe plaque may be viewed at Hawaiian Telcom, 1177 Bishop Street, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 U.S.A. The first transpacific undersea coaxial telephone cable linking Japan, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland was completed in 1964. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda inaugurated this communications link on 19 June 1964. This joint project involving American Telephone and Telegraph, Hawaiian Telephone Company, and Kokusai Denshin Denwa improved global communication and contributed to deep water submarine cable technologies.
TRON Real-time Operating System Family, 198435° 42' 28.70" N, 139° 45' 45.69" EIn 1984, a computer architecture project team at the University of Tokyo began designing The Real-time Operating system Nucleus (TRON) OS family and helping external partners commercialize it. Specifications and sample source code were provided openly and freely, facilitating innovations by developers and users. TRON real-time OS family copies have been adopted worldwide in billions of embedded computer devices, including aerospace and industrial equipment, automotive systems, and home electronics.
Tacoma Narrows Bridges, 194047° 16' 0.00" N, 122° 33' 0.00" WTaken together, the 1940 and 1950 Tacoma Narrows bridges represent both tragedy and triumph for civil engineers. The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge failed dramatically in a windstorm on November 7, 1940, four months after opening. The lessons in aerodynamics learned from this failure generated new knowledge necessary to build safe, efficient, and stable suspension bridges worldwide.
Tacoma Narrows Bridges, 195047° 16' 0.00" N, 122° 33' 0.00" WTaken together, the 1940 and 1950 Tacoma Narrows bridges represent both tragedy and triumph for civil engineers. The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge failed dramatically in a windstorm on November 7, 1940, four months after opening. The lessons in aerodynamics learned from this failure generated new knowledge necessary to build safe, efficient, and stable suspension bridges worldwide.
Taum Sauk Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant, 196337° 19' 37.31" N, 91° 1' 27.37" WTaum Sauk Power Plant, Reynolds County, Missouri, U.S.A. Dedication: September 2005. The Taum Sauk Plant, when it came on-line in 1963, was the largest pure pumped-storage electric power plant in North America. Other pioneering features for this pumped-storage plant were its high capacity turbine-generators and its ability to be operated remotely, 90 miles away, from St. Louis, Missouri.
Technical Tours
Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line, 187635° 8' 0.00" N, 118° 27' 0.00" WThe Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line had 18 tunnels, 10 bridges and numerous water towers for the old steam locomotives and was the primary factor in the early growth of the city of Los Angeles and the state of California.
Tennessee State Capitol, 187736° 9' 57.00" N, 86° 47' 3.00" WThe Tennessee State Capitol was one of the first buildings in the nation with structural iron roof trusses. In addition, the grounds set the standard for park development in the region.
Texas & Pacific31° 44' 24.12" N, 95° 34' 16.34" WThe Texas & Pacific 610 is the sole surviving example of the earliest form of the super-power steam locomotives built by the Lima Locomotive Works from 1925 to 1949. The super-power locomotives were the first to combine a high-capacity boiler with a modern valve gear and a four-wheel trailing truck. The performance of these locomotives was unprecedented, and they were the prototype for the modern American steam locomotive through the end of the rail industry's steam age. The chief design engineer was William E. Woodard (1873-1942), mechanical engineer, Lima Locomotive Works.
Texas Commerce Bank Building, 192929° 45' 30.00" N, 95° 21' 50.00" WThe Texas Commerce Building (now Chase) was the tallest building west of the Mississippi River until 1962. With Dr. Karl Terzaghi as consultant, this building represents one of the first applications of the new field of soil mechanics to foundation design and building settlement on a clay soil.
Thames Tunnel, 184351° 30' 10.80" N, 0° 3' 7.20" WThe Thames Tunnel was the first shield-driven tunnel, the first successful soft ground subaqueous tunnel, and, in 1869, was adapted as the first subaqueous railway tunnel.
The Birth of Electrodynamics, 1820-182748° 50' 43.22" N, 2° 20' 43.66" EStimulated by experimental reports that an electric current could deflect a compass needle, André-Marie Ampère discovered the fundamental law of electrodynamics, the science of interactions between electric currents. He then developed the theory that electric currents are responsible for magnetism. These achievements formed the basis for electrical technologies, including electric motors and generators. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress named the unit of electric current the ‘ampere’ (A).
The CP/M Microcomputer Operating System, 197436° 37' 24.78" N, 121° 55' 23.93" WThe plaque may be viewed at 801 Lighthouse Avenue, Pacific Grove, California, U.S.A. Dr. Gary A. Kildall demonstrated the first working prototype of CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) in Pacific Grove in 1974. Together with his invention of the BIOS (Basic Input Output System), Kildall’s operating system allowed a microprocessor-based computer to communicate with a disk drive storage unit and provided an important foundation for the personal computer revolution.
The Dalles Lock and Dam, 1952 - 195645° 36' 45.00" N, 121° 7' 52.00" WThe Dalles Lock and Dam was one of the largest, most complete, and complex multipurpose projects of its kind in the united states at the time of its construction. It provided an example for future projects benefitting navigation, recreation, water for irrigation and hydropower, fish migration, and flood mitigation. The unusual "L" configuration of the project enabled reduced construction dewatering and created a permanent shallow stilling basin that aids fish passage.
The Development of RenderMan® for Photorealistic Graphics, 1981-198837° 49' 57.62" N, 122° 17' 1.30" WRenderMan® software revolutionized photorealistic rendering, significantly advancing the creation of 3D computer animation and visual effects. Starting in 1981, key inventions during its development at Lucasfilm and Pixar included shading languages, stochastic antialiasing, and simulation of motion blur, depth of field, and penumbras. RenderMan®’s broad film industry adoption following its 1988 introduction led to numerous Oscar®s for Best Visual Effects, and an Academy Award of Merit Oscar® for its developers.
The Discovery of the Principle of Self-Complementarity in Antennas and the Mushiake Relationship, 194838° 15' 12.66" N, 140° 52' 23.88" EIn 1948, Prof. Yasuto Mushiake of Tohoku University discovered that antennas with self-complementary geometries are frequency independent, presenting a constant impedance, and often a constant radiation pattern over very wide frequency ranges. This principle is the basis for many very-wide-bandwidth antenna designs, with applications that include television reception, wireless broadband, radio astronomy, and cellular telephony.
The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 195646° 13' 54.12" N, 60° 13' 19.63" WSydney Mines, Nova Scotia, Canada. Dedication: 24 September 2006. Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.
The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 195656° 22' 49.03" N, 5° 31' 24.62" WOban, Scotland. Dedication: 24 September 2006. Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.
The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 195648° 8' 46.54" N, 53° 57' 50.76" WClarenville, Newfoundland, Canada. Dedication: 24 September 2006. Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.
The First Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI), 197340° 54' 45.58" N, 73° 7' 47.59" WResearchers at Stony Brook University produced the first two-dimensional image using nuclear magnetic resonance in 1973.The proton distribution of the object, a test tube of water, was distinctly encoded using magnetic field gradients. This achievement was a major advance for MRI and paved the way for its worldwide usage as a noninvasive method to examine body tissue for disease detection.
The First Word Processor for the Japanese Language, 1971-197835° 32' 6.97" N, 139° 41' 58.92" EToshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Japan. At this site, between 1971 and 1978, the first Japanese-language word processor was developed. Researchers headed by Ken-ichi Mori created a wholly new concept of Japanese word processing. Their first practical system, JW-10, was publicly unveiled on 3 October 1978. The JW-10, and improved versions, played a major role in advancing the Information Age in Japan, and provided the basis for Japanese-language word-processing software in personal computers.
The Floating Gate EEPROM, 1976 - 197837° 25' 1.77" N, 121° 55' 15.34" WSanDisk Headquarters, Bldg. 6, which includes the main Visitors' Lobby. 601 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035 From 1976-1978, at Hughes Microelectronics in Newport Beach, California, the practicality, reliability, manufacturability and endurance of the Floating Gate EEPROM -- an electrically erasable device using a thin gate oxide and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for writing and erasing -- was proven. As a significant foundation of data storage in flash memory, this fostered new classes of portable computing and communication devices which allow ubiquitous personal access to data.
The High Definition Television System, 1964-198935° 38' 8.33" N, 139° 36' 56.60" ENHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) developed high-definition television (HDTV), a high-resolution and wide-screen television system designed to convey a strong sense of reality to viewers. Research began in 1964, ranging from psychophysical experiments to system development. In 1989, the world's first HDTV broadcast via satellite opened a new era in broadcasting. Since 1989, HDTV has spread throughout the world.
The Lapeyre Automatic Shrimp Peeling Machine30° 23' 36.96" N, 88° 51' 32.63" WThe growth of the shrimp processing industry and its impact on local economies along the northern Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. West Coast, and in more than forty other countries is largely attributable to the "machine that peels shrimp," invented by sixteen year old James Martial Lapeyre from Houma, Louisiana.
The MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar, 198434° 51' 8.00" N, 136° 6' 32.00" EIn 1984, Kyoto University built the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar as the first large-scale MST (Mesosphere, Stratosphere, and Troposphere) radar with a two-dimensional active phased array antenna system, with the collaboration of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. The MU radar enabled continuous and flexible observation of the atmosphere, and has contributed to the progress of atmospheric science and radar engineering.
The Trans-Canada Microwave System, 195849° 16' 52.00" N, 123° 6' 59.00" WOn 1 July 1958, the Trans-Canada Microwave System introduced live network television and direct-dialled long distance telephone service to Canadians from coast to coast. Comprising 139 towers spanning more than 6275 kilometres, it was, when completed, the world's longest such network. Later extended and upgraded, the system had an immense impact on Canada's society and economy.
The United States Standard Screw Threads39° 57' 29.56" N, 75° 10' 23.36" WWilliam Sellers (1824-1905) of Philadelphia was inspired by Great Britain's adoption of a comprehensive system of screw threads promulgated in 1841 by that nation's leading maker of machine tools, Joseph Whitworth (1803-1887). He understood the value of Whitworth's standard, a clear improvement over the various "mongrel" threads that U.S. machinery makers used, but Sellers decided to improve upon Whitworth's approach, creating a system of threads adapted to U.S. needs.
Theodore Roosevelt Dam & Salt River Project , 191133° 40' 18.00" N, 111° 9' 40.00" WThe Theodore Roosevelt Dam & Salt River Project was the first project of the Bureau of Reclamation and the first multipurpose (irrigation, river regulation, power generation and recreation) project in the United States
Thermo King© C Refrigeration Unit44° 50' 26.93" N, 93° 17' 5.92" WThe refrigeration units placed on trucks in 1938 by Thermo King Corp. revolutionized the transportation of perishable foods, prompting consumer demand for meat, poultry, produce and dairy products to increase at an astounding rate. These installations and subsequent ones on refrigerated vehicles, ships, and railroads have had worldwide impact on the preservation of food and other perishables during distribution. Today, more than three quarters of the food through the United States alone is shipped and stored under refrigeration, with a frozen food industry having annual sales in excess of $40 billion. In addition to food, refrigeration makes available more delicate cargo such as photographic film, pharmaceuticals, and flowers.
Thomas A. Edison West Orange Laboratories and Factories, 188740° 46' 42.52" N, 74° 14' 20.58" WWest Orange, NJ. Thomas Alva Edison, a West Orange resident from 1886 until his death in 1931, established his final and most comprehensive laboratory and factory complex about one-half mile (0.8 km) north of here in 1887. Edison's visionary combination in one organization of basic and applied research, development, and manufacturing became the prototype for industrial enterprises worldwide. Work here resulted in more than half of Edison's 1,093 patents.
Thomas Alva Edison Historic Site at Menlo Park, 187640° 33' 54.11" N, 74° 20' 14.75" WMenlo Park, Edison, NJ. Dedication: 9 September 2006. Between 1876 and 1882 at Menlo Park, New Jersey, Thomas Edison developed the world's first industrial research and development laboratory devoted to developing new technology. At this laboratory. Edison and his staff developed the first system of incandescent electric lighting and electric power generation, and invented recorded sound and a commercially successful telephone transmitter.
Thomas Viaduct Railroad Bridge, 183539° 13' 0.00" N, 76° 43' 0.00" WThe first multiple-arch stone railroad viaduct in the United States, the massive eight-arch Thomas Viaduct Railroad Bridge was built under unusual site conditions requiring a curved railway alignment.
Thrust SSC Supersonic Car52° 24' 40.31" N, 1° 30' 33.84" WFollowing his successful bid for the world LSR in 1983, entrepreneur Richard Noble pulled together a team to design and construct Thrust SSC—a supersonic car. This car was ready for initial test runs in 1996 and it finally set the LSR record of 763 mph in 1997. Powered by two Rolls-Royce MK 202 Spey Turbofan engines, which produced over 44,000 lbs (196kN) of thrust, the Thrust SSC Supersonic car was the first land vehicle to officially break the sound barrier.
Tipon, 1200-1534 A.D.13° 34' 0.00" S, 71° 47' 0.00" WThe Tipon complex attests to the advanced hydraulic and geotechnical engineering of the Inca people and their predecessors. Tipon is an engineering masterpiece of planning, design, and construction. The complex irrigation system of canals, aqueduct, fountains, buried conduits, and a tunnel provided conjunctive use of both surface and spring water.
Titan Crane55° 53' 44.37" N, 4° 24' 11.12" WDesigned by Adam Hunter and Sir William Arrol & Co Ltd, and built in in Clydebank, Scotland in 1907, the Titan Crane was designed to lift boilers and engines at the John Brown & Company shipyard. During construction, small sub-assemblies of the cantilever, weighing just a few tons each, were lifted by means of hand-powered cranes and riveted in place—first with temporary bolts, and then permanently after the alignment was adjusted. A steam-powered crane lifted the heavier sections of machinery.
Titan Crane, 190755° 53' 50.40" N, 4° 24' 31.44" WWhen tested with a 160-ton load at a radius of 85 ft [26 m] and then commissioned, this 164 ft [50 m] high crane became the largest of the hammerhead type. The Titan Crane’s fixed counterweight and electrically operated hoists also made this crane faster and more responsive than its steam-powered predecessors. It influenced the design of cranes of this genre worldwide and is now the earliest survivor.
Tokaido Shinkansen35° 55' 19.80" N, 139° 37' 3.64" EIn 1964, Shinkansen (which means "new trunk line" and is also known as the bullet train) between Tokyo and Shin-Osaka became the world's first high-speed railway system, running at a maximum business speed of over 200 km/h (130-160 mph). By 1992, the number of passengers transported by Shinkansen was over 600,000 a day on an average, reaching about four times of those carried by airplanes. As of March 2015, the fastest Nozomi trains could travel between Tokyo to Shin-Osaka in just 2 hours 22 minutes.
Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train), 196435° 6' 27.98" N, 136° 53' 8.04" ETokai Nagoya Station, 1-1-4 Meieki, Nakamura-Ku, Nagoya, Japan. Plaque is at West Side of station on concourse wall. Dedication: July 2000 - IEEE Tokyo Section. (IEEE Milestone and ASME Landmark). Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train) was designed with the world's most advanced electrical and mechanical train technologies to operate at speeds up to 210 km/hr, a world record when it began service in 1964. It has carried more than 80 million passengers per year for many years with an excellent safety record.
Toshiba T1100, a Pioneering Contribution to the Development of Laptop PC, 198535° 42' 51.54" N, 139° 25' 24.90" EThe plaque may be viewed at Toshiba Client Solutions Co., Ltd., Tachihi Building 2, 6-1-3 Sakae-cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo 190-0003, Japan, 35.714316, 139.423582. The Toshiba T1100, an IBM PC compatible laptop computer that shipped in 1985, made an invaluable contribution to the development of the laptop PC and portable personal computers. With the T1100, Toshiba demonstrated and promoted the emergence and importance of true portability for PCs running packaged software, with the result that T1100 won acceptance not only among PC experts but by the business community.
Trans-Atlantic Telephone Fiber-Optic Submarine Cable (TAT-8), 198840° 23' 50.79" N, 74° 8' 8.17" WTAT-8, the first fiber-optic cable to cross an ocean, entered service 14 December 1988. AT&T, British Telecom, and France Telecom led the consortium that built TAT-8, which spanned a seabed distance of 5,846 km between North America and Europe. AT&T Bell Laboratories developed the foundational technologies: 1.3 micron fiber, cable, splicing, laser detector, and 280 Mbps repeater for 40,000 telephone-call capacity. Bell Labs led the integration at Freehold, New Jersey.
Transcontinental Telegraph, 186142° 12' 7.45" N, 104° 33' 55.09" WFort Laramie, Wyoming, U.S.A. Dedication: August 1990 - IEEE Denver Section. Between July 4 and October 24, 1861, a telegraph line was constructed by the Western Union Company between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California, thereby completing the first high-speed communications link between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. This service met the critical demand for fast communications between these two areas. The telegraph line operated until May 1869, when it was replaced by a multi-wire system constructed with the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railway lines.
Transmission of Transatlantic Radio Signals, 190150° 1' 56.57" N, 5° 15' 20.75" WNational Trust Visitor Center, Poldhu, England. Dedication: 12 December 2001 - IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section. On December 12, 1901, a radio transmission of the Morse code letter 'S' was broadcast from this site, using equipment built by John Ambrose Fleming. At Signal Hill in Newfoundland, Guglielmo Marconi, using a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, confirmed the reception of these first transatlantic radio signals. These experiments showed that radio signals could propagate far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communications in the twentieth century.
Triborough Bridge Project, 193640° 47' 43.00" N, 73° 55' 13.00" WThe Triborough Bridge Project, a three and a half mile, three-branched waterway crossing, is comprised of a major suspension bridge, a large vertical lift span, a fixed span designed to be convertible to a lift span, a long viaduct, and an innovative three-legged roadway interchange. It is an early example of the complete planning and development of a major transportation project in an urban environment.
Tunkhannock Viaduct, 191541° 37' 20.00" N, 75° 46' 38.00" WWhen built, the Tunkhannock Viaduct, a reinforced concrete structure, was the largest of its kind.
Turbinia54° 58' 9.14" N, 1° 37' 29.34" WThe aim of Parsons' Marine Steam Turbine Co., formed in January 1884, was to thoroughly test the application of his well-known steam turbine to the propulsion of vessels. The decision was thus taken to construct an experimental highspeed craft of around 100 feet length to be powered by a 1,000 horsepower turbine. The resulting vessel became the Turbinia or, initially, simply the Experimental Launch.
Two-Way Police Radio Communication, 193340° 40' 3.37" N, 74° 7' 6.38" W26th Street and Avenue C, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: May 1987 - IEEE North Jersey Section. In 1933, the police department in Bayonne, New Jersey initiated regular two-way communications with its patrol cars, a major advance over previous one-way systems. The very high frequency system developed by radio engineer Frank A. Gunther and station operator Vincent J. Doyle placed transmitters in patrol cars to enable patrolmen to communicate with headquarters and other cars instead of just receiving calls. Two-way police radio became standard throughout the country following the success of the Bayonne system.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterway Exp Ctr, 192932° 17' 5.00" N, 90° 51' 50.00" WThe U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station was the first federal hydraulics research facility and is now the Corps’ largest engineering and scientific research facility.
U.S. Capitol, 180038° 53' 22.00" N, 77° 0' 33.00" WThe U.S. Capitol’s construction included an iron-ribbed dome 135 feet in diameter topped by Thomas Crawford’s statue “Freedom.” The dome required a scaffolding 350 feet high. New engineering techniques for construction and quality control were developed to meet the challenge of this immense project.
USS Albacore43° 4' 55.94" N, 70° 46' 0.81" WThe USS Albacore (AGSS-569) represented a radical change in submarine design. The hull was designed with underwater speed, and not surface performance, as the prime requirement, and it was built with newly developed high-strength steel (HY-80). In addition to these two major innovations, the Albacore served as a test vessel for many new designs in submarine technology, including the testing of various control designs and the correlation of actual sea-trial performance with that predicted in tow-tank tests.
USS Cairo Engine and Boilers32° 22' 33.21" N, 90° 52' 0.14" WThe USS Cairo is the sole survivor of the fleet of river gunboats built by the Union during the Civil War with the object of controlling the lower Mississippi River. Designed by Samuel Pook and built by James B. Eads, it saw limited battle and was sunk on the Yazoo River in 1862 by newly developed electronically detonated mines, becoming the first craft ever sunk by this predecessor to torpedo technology. The 175-foot ironclad Cairo was sunk within 12 minutes, burying much of its gear and 13 guns and thus preserving a unique view of the Civil War in the river silt for more than 100 years.
USS Olympia, Vertical Reproducing Steam Engines39° 56' 45.06" N, 75° 8' 26.74" WThe two 3-cylinder triple-expansion engines of the U.S.S. Olympia are excellent examples of naval ship propulsion machinery of the late nineteenth century. The ship was built in 1892, soon after the U.S. Navy had come to accept the vertical engine for propulsion; big warships had continued to be sail-powered until the 1870s. The Olympia's engines, which barely exceeded water-level height, had a short stroke and a relatively high speed of rotation, generating about 7,000 indicated horsepower per shaft.
USS Texas' Reciprocating Steam Engines29° 45' 22.21" N, 95° 5' 23.52" WThe USS Texas is the last surviving warship of its kind—powered by reciprocating steam engines. It was launched at Newport News in 1912 during a period in which naval authorities were switching to the newly-developed steam turbine for propulsion, but were unsure of its suitability. Only one more warship, the New York, commissioned one month after the Texas, was to be powered by the reciprocating engines. At the time, the Texas' engines were initially described as "the ultimate in naval reciprocating engine construction."
US Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, 1942-194539° 43' 42.05" N, 84° 12' 3.33" WCarillon Historic Park, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A. Dedication: October 2001 - IEEE Dayton Section. In 1942, the United States Navy joined with the National Cash Register Company to design and manufacture a series of code-breaking machines. This project was located at the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory in Building 26, near this site. The machines built here, including the American "Bombes", incorporated advanced electronics and significantly influenced the course of World War II.
Union Canal Tunnel, 182740° 21' 4.00" N, 76° 27' 57.00" WThe Union Canal Tunnel is the oldest existing transportation tunnel in the United States.
Union Pacific Big Boy 4023 and Centennial 690041° 16' 19.36" N, 95° 55' 23.24" WTo pull heavy freight trains on fast schedules over long distances and mountain grades, the Union Pacific railroad purchased some of the largest steam and diesel-electric locomotives ever built. No. 4023 is one of twenty-five "Big Boy" articulated steam engines that operated between 1941 and 1959. It was specifically designed to haul fast, heavy eastbound freight trains between Utah and Wyoming, over a 1.14 percent grade. All of the Big Boys were coal-burning, stoker-fired, and designed to run 7,000 horsepower at 70 miles per hour. They have been lauded in the industry as the highest horsepower, heaviest, and longest steam locomotives ever built. After the war, the Big Boy locomotives were slowly superseded on the original assignment by diesel locomotives, finally ending their operation in 1959.
Union Station, 189438° 37' 40.90" N, 90° 12' 28.34" WUnion Station, in which 22 railroad lines from east and west terminated in a centralized location, was the largest in the world at the time of its construction.
United States Military Academy at West Point, 180241° 23' 33.72" N, 73° 57' 30.24" WThe U.S. Military Academy is the oldest educational institution in the United States to offer formal academic instruction in the field of civil engineering.
Utica Memorail Auditorium, 195943° 6' 18.00" N, 75° 14' 0.00" WThe Utica Memorial Auditorium was among the first of three cable-suspended roofs in the world and the first to employ a double-layer bicycle roof system where cables are strung from an exterior compression ring to an interior tension ring held in midair.
Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor37° 36' 40.06" N, 121° 50' 26.70" WThe Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor was the first privately owned and operated nuclear power plant to deliver significant quantities of electricity to a public utility grid. It was a pilot plant, a collaborative effort of the General Electric Company and Pacific Gas and Electric Company, with Bechtel serving as engineering contractor. Its construction was approved by General Electric Company's management in 1955, begun in 1956, and completed in 1957; it went critical on August 3 of that year and was connected with the utility grid on October 19.
Vapor-phase Axial Deposition Method for Mass Production of High-quality Optical Fiber, 1977-198335° 26' 26.62" N, 139° 18' 51.02" E3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-0198 Japan. In 1977, Dr. Tatsuo Izawa of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT) invented the vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method suitable for the mass production of optical fiber. NTT, Furukawa Electric, Sumitomo Electric, and Fujikura collaboratively investigated the fabrication process. The technology successfully shifted from research and development to commercialization. The VAD method contributed greatly to the construction of optical-fiber networks.
Viaducto Del Malleco, 189037° 57' 47.00" S, 72° 26' 20.00" WThe Viaducto del Malleco, an early steel viaduct, utilized steelwork prefabricated in France. The structure has an overall length of 408 m and carries the rail line 91 m above the Malleco River. The viaduct typifies the engineering challenge associated with design and construction in remote mountainous areas.
Victoria Dutch Windmill28° 48' 4.00" N, 97° 0' 5.00" WThe wind-powered gristmill in Victoria, Texas, was built in 1870 by Fred Meiss, Jr., and Otto Fiek near Spring Creek, from parts of the first windmill in the new state of Texas, erected by E.G. Witte. The millstones are the ones Witte imported from Europe and are believed to be one of the earliest sets in the United States to survive.
Victoria Falls Bridge, 190517° 56' 0.00" S, 25° 51' 0.00" EThe Victoria Falls Bridge is a 152-meter span, steel-lattice, two-hinged arch bridge with a deck level 122 m above the Zambezi River and is situated just downstream from Victoria Falls in a site of unsurpassed grandeur.
Virginia Smith High-Voltage Direct-Current Converter Station, 198839° 42' 25.53" N, 105° 8' 13.57" WWAPA Corporate Headquarters Building, 12155 West Alameda Parkway, Lakewood, Colorado 80228 USA. Built by Siemens, owned and operated by Western Area Power Administration (US DOE), the 200 MW HVDC Virginia Smith Converter Station near Sidney, Nebraska, connected the eastern and western U.S. grids. Its core technology is an all solid-state converter with integrated steady-state, dynamic, and transient voltage control up to its full rating. The station was an important advance in HVDC technology and cost-effectiveness.
Volta's Electrical Battery Invention, 179945° 48' 48.69" N, 9° 4' 31.48" ETempio Voltiano, Guglielmo Marconi, Como, Italy. Dedication: 15 September 1999 - IEEE North Italy Section. In 1799, Alessandro Volta developed the first electrical battery. This battery, known as the Voltaic Cell, consisted of two plates of different metals immersed in a chemical solution. Volta's development of the first continuous and reproducible source of electrical current was an important step in the study of electromagnetism and in the development of electrical equipment.
Voyager Spacecraft Interplanetary Explorers34° 12' 4.55" N, 118° 10' 17.02" WThe Voyager explorers, which provided scientists and the world with the first detailed pictures of faraway planets, were designed and tested during 1972 to 1977. The explorers were launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in 1977; Voyager 2 was launched first on August 20, followed by Voyager 1 on September 5.
Vucje Hydroelectric Plant, 190342° 52' 0.00" N, 21° 55' 0.00" ELeskovac, Yugoslavia. Dedication: 25 June 2005, IEEE Yugoslavia Section. The Vucje hydroelectric plant began operation in 1903. It was the first in southern Serbia and the largest in the broader region. By transmitting alternating electric current of 50 Hz at 7000 volts -- high for the period -- over a distance of 16 km , it helped to transform the regional economy. It remained in continual use for more than a century.
Vulcan Street Plant, 188244° 14' 51.50" N, 88° 24' 14.83" W807 S. Oneida St., Appleton, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Dedicated September 1977 - IEEE Northeastern Wisconsin Section. (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with ASCE and IEEE). Near this site on September 30, 1882, the world's first hydroelectric central station began operation. The station, here reproduced, was known as the Vulcan Street Plant and had a direct current generator capable of lighting 250 sixteen candle power lamps each equivalent to 50 watts. The generator operated at 110 volts and was driven through gears and belts by a water wheel operating under a ten foot fall of water.
Vulcan Street Plant, 188244° 15' 12.00" N, 88° 24' 42.00" WWhen it began operation, the Vulcan Street Plant was the first Edison hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America. This project was the beginning of cooperation among civil, mechanical, and electrical engineers to provide power for the United States.
Vulcan Street Power Plant44° 15' 29.08" N, 88° 23' 50.51" WThe Vulcan Street Power Plant, which began operation only twenty-six days after Thomas Edison's first steam plant began operating on Pearl Street in New York (landmark #46), was the first Edison hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America.
WEIZAC Computer, 195531° 53' 33.26" N, 34° 47' 52.16" EWeizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Dedication: 5 December 2006. The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, built the Weizmann Automatic Computer (WEIZAC) during 1954-1955 with the scientific vision of Chaim Pekeris and the engineering leadership of Gerald Estrin. The WEIZAC was based on drawings from the IAS computer at Princeton University and built with much ingenuity. The machine was the first digital electronic computer constructed in the Middle East and it became an indispensable scientific computing resource for many scientists and engineers worldwide.
Waldo-Hancock Suspension Bridge, 193144° 33' 38.49" N, 68° 48' 7.08" WThe Waldo-Hancock Suspension Bridge was the first bridge to make use of the Vierendeel truss in its two towers, giving it an effect that David Steinman called “artistic, emphasizing horizontal and vertical lines."
Walnut Street Bridge, 189040° 15' 30.00" N, 76° 53' 21.00" WWhen completed with fifteen truss spans and an overall length of 2820 feet, the Walnut Street Bridge was the finest and largest example of the standardized wrought iron truss bridges produced by the Phoenix Bridge Company.
Ward House, 187641° 1' 33.00" N, 73° 40' 1.00" WWhen built, the Ward House was the first reinforced concrete building constructed in the United States dramatically demonstrating the construction potential of an engineered combination of steel and concrete.
Washington Monument, 188535° 53' 0.00" N, 77° 2' 0.00" WWhen completed, the Washington Monument was the tallest structure in the world.
Waterford (Union) Bridge (replaced in 1909), 180442° 47' 19.32" N, 73° 40' 25.92" WThe original wooden Union Bridge, built in 1804 near Waterford, New York, was the first to cross the lower Hudson River and lasted for 105 years until it burned down in 1909 when it was replaced by the existing steel bridge. Built on the same piers, the new steel truss bridge continues the more than 200 years of service to the area.
Waterford Bridge, 190942° 47' 19.32" N, 73° 40' 25.92" WThe original wooden Union Bridge, built in 1804, was the first to cross the lower Hudson River and lasted for 105 years until it burned down in 1909 when it was replaced by the existing steel bridge. Built on the same piers, the new steel truss bridge continues the more than 200 years of service to the area.
Watertown Arsenal, 181642° 21' 30.00" N, 71° 10' 0.00" WThe Watertown Arsenal was the first major engineering testing laboratory in the United States. The dissemination of its test results made this arsenal of special significance to the civil engineering profession.
Watkins Woolen Mill39° 24' 36.70" N, 94° 15' 34.70" WThe Watkins Woolen Mill is among the best preserved examples of a Midwest woolen mill in nineteenth-century United States. Its machinery for preparing, spinning, and weaving wool reflects the existence of well-established textile industry in the country. It was designed and built by Waltus L. Watkins (1806-1884), a machinist and master weaver from Frankfort, Kentucky, who began operating his mill in 1861 in Clay County.
WaveLAN, Precursor of Wi-Fi, 198752° 1' 39.40" N, 5° 5' 7.10" EIn November 1987, a group of Dutch engineers in Nieuwegein demonstrated a method for significantly increasing the data rate achievable under new regulations that permitted license-exempt short-range wireless data communications in certain frequency bands. Their development of WaveLAN technology led directly to formation of the IEEE 802.11 Working Group for Wireless Local Area Networks and establishment of the now ubiquitous Wi-Fi industry
West Baden Springs Hotel, 190138° 34' 2.00" N, 86° 37' 5.00" WAt the time of its completion, the West Baden Springs Hotel was the largest domed structure in the world. The dome diameter of 200 feet was not surpassed for more than 60 years.
Westinghouse Atom Smasher, 193740° 26' 4.93" N, 79° 53' 26.04" WAvenue A and West Street, Forest Hills Borough, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Dedication May 1985 - IEEE Pittsburgh Section. The five million volt van de Graaff generator represents the first large-scale program in nuclear physics established in industry. Constructed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1937, it made possible precise measurements of nuclear reactions and provided valuable research experience for the company's pioneering work in nuclear power.
Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA, 192040° 27' 15.05" N, 79° 53' 26.04" WKeystone Commons, 700 Braddock Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1994 - IEEE Pittsburgh Section. Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting. Transmitting with a power of 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters, KDKA began scheduled programming with the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, 1920. A shed, housing studio and transmitter, was atop the K Building of the Westinghouse East Pittsburgh works. Conceived by C.P. Davis, broadcasting as a public service evolved from Frank Conrad's weekly experimental broadcasts over his amateur radio station 8XK, attracting many regular listeners who had wireless receiving sets.
Westmoreland Iron Works43° 6' 58.46" N, 75° 24' 0.07" WThe Westmoreland Iron Works, founded as Oakhill Malleable Iron Company in 1833 and established under its present name in Westmoreland in 1850, was the oldest malleable iron company in continuous operation in the United States. Its history was inseparable from that of the small town of Westmoreland, where neighbors and workers kept time by the foundry bell. Erastus W. Clark, who along with his brother-in-law Abel Buell brought the foundry to Westmoreland, ran the ironworks until 1871 and was the first of six generations who owned and managed it.
Weston Meters, 1887-189340° 44' 28.35" N, 74° 10' 43.26" WEdward Weston and the Weston Electrical Instrument Company introduced the first portable and direct-reading current and voltage meters in 1888-1893. Weston inventions enabling this were the first truly permanent magnets, temperature-insensitive conductors, low-resistance and non-magnetic springs, metal coil frames where induced eddy currents provided pointer damping (1887), and the electric shunt (1893) for the measurement of large currents and multiple current ranges in a single meter.
Wheeling Suspension Bridge, 185640° 4' 12.58" N, 80° 43' 38.46" WWhen built, the Wheeling Suspension Bridge was the first long-span wire-cable suspension bridge in the country.
Whipple Truss Bridge, 185547° 45' 0.00" N, 73° 55' 0.00" WThe Whipple Truss Bridge, relocated to Union College, was built from a design patented in 1841 by Squire Whipple and was the first scientifically designed truss bridge in the United States.
Whirlwind Computer, 1944-5942° 21' 40.48" N, 71° 5' 47.99" WThe Whirlwind computer was developed at 211 Massachusetts Avenue by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It was the first real-time high-speed digital computer using random-access magnetic-core memory. Whirlwind featured outputs displayed on a CRT, and a light pen to write data on the screen. Whirlwindʼs success led to the United States Air Forceʼs Semi Automatic Ground Environment - SAGE - system and to many business computers and minicomputers
White Pass and Yukon Railroad, 190059° 27' 30.00" N, 135° 18' 45.00" WAmerican and Canadian engineers constructed the White Pass and Yukon Railroad, extending from Skagway, Alaska, to White Horse, Yukon Territory, in only 27 months, representing the first cold region engineered construction in Alaska.
White River Concrete Arch Bridge, 193036° 16' 0.00" N, 90° 32' 30.00" WWhen completed, the White River Concrete Arch Bridge included the first major use of a cableway in association with lattice steel ribs that acted as reinforcement and precluded the need for conventional centering.
Wilkinson Mill41° 52' 39.17" N, 71° 22' 56.60" WThe Wilkinson Mill, situated on the west bank of the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, was built between 1810 and 1811 by machinist Oziel Wilkinson. Constructed in stone rubble, three and one-half stories high, the mill played a critical role in the history of textile technology, in steam power generation, and in the development of the machine tools industry.
William Tod Rolling-Mill Engine41° 7' 47.55" N, 80° 37' 31.25" WThe William Tod Company of Youngstown was one of a handful of builders of very large machinery for the American steel industry. The landmark engine, with cylinders of 34- and 68-inch bore by 60-inch stroke, is representative of the firm's—and the industry's—application of steam power to rolling-mill drive early in the period of gradual transition to electric drive. As a cross-compound, non-reversing merchant mill engine, it featured cylinders located across form one another on two separate bedplates. The frame, cylinder, and flywheel castings, and the crankshaft, piston-rod, and connecting-rod forgings of these engines are typical of the largest work pieces produced by the nation's foundries and forges.
Williamsburg Bridge, 190340° 45' 0.00" N, 73° 57' 0.00" WThe Williamsburg Bridge's 1,600-foot main span was the longest in the world from 1903 until 1924. With 40-foot deep stiffening trusses, it was the first suspension bridge over 1,000 feet to have steel towers.
Woodhead Dam, 189733° 58' 35.00" S, 18° 24' 8.00" EThe Woodhead Dam was the first large masonry dam in South Africa. A regional water system with a major reservoir was a bold venture requiring difficult construction in a remote area. Innovative techniques, including an aerial cableway to carry materials, were needed. The dam's successful completion paved the way for sister dams that continue to supply water to Cape Town and its environs.
World's First Low-Loss Optical Fiber for Telecommunications, 197042° 9' 43.27" N, 77° 5' 38.89" WIn 1970, Corning scientists Dr. Robert Maurer, Dr. Peter Schultz, and Dr. Donald Keck developed a highly pure optical glass that effectively transmitted light signals over long distances. This astounding medium, which is thinner than a human hair, revolutionized global communications. By 2011, the world depended upon the continuous transmission of voice, data, and video along more than 1.6 billion kilometers of optical fiber installed around the globe.
World's First Reliable High Voltage Power Fuse, 190942° 0' 5.28" N, 87° 40' 45.72" WS & C, Chicago, IL, USA. In 1909 Nicholas J. Conrad and Edmund O. Schweitzer developed an extremely reliable high voltage power fuse which used an arc-extinguishing liquid to assure proper interruption of short circuits. These fuses, later manufactured at this location, played a major role in the adoption of outdoor distribution substations, and the technology remains a central component of electrical transmission and distribution systems today.
Worthington Horizontal Cross-Compound Pumping39° 57' 46.77" N, 76° 43' 28.62" WThe York Water Company, the oldest investor-owned water company in Pennsylvania, began its operation in 1816 distributing spring water through log pipes. In 1849 it became clear that the town was outgrowing the spring capacity, and the Company decided to augment the supply by pumping water from the Codorus Creek. The new building demanded the installation of the latest equipment, a steam-powered pump. When a cleaner water supply was required and the old pumping station was abandoned, the new raw water pumping station was built near Brillhart in 1897.
Wright Field 5-Foot Wind Tunnel39° 47' 22.03" N, 84° 6' 6.95" WWind tunnel testing of aircraft models is essential to determine aerodynamic parameters such as lift and drag. The 5-foot Wright Field wind tunnel is an early example of the modern wind tunnel, well known from the early 1920s to the late 1950s for its contributions to research and the development of nearly every major aircraft and associated hardware used by the US Air Force and its predecessor, the Army Air Service.
Wright Flyer III39° 43' 45.02" N, 84° 11' 59.69" WThe 1905 Wright Flyer III, built by Wilbur (1867-1912) and Orville (1871-1948) Wright, was the world's first airplane capable of sustained, maneuverable flight. Similar in design to their celebrated first airplane, this machine featured a stronger structure, a larger engine turning new "bent-end" propellers, and greater control-surface area for improved safety and maneuverability.
Wyman-Gordon 50,000-Ton Hydraulic Forging Press42° 15' 20.16" N, 71° 48' 7.44" WAfter World War II, two factors soon pushed the U.S. toward heavy press production: First, the growing interest in supersonic aviation, and the rumblings of the Korean War. The outgrowth of the need for larger, stronger aircraft parts was the Air Force Heavy Press Program. Air Force Lt. Gen. K. B. Wolfe, one of the team who had visited post-war Germany to inspect the presses, was the originator and prime motivator of the program.
Xerography39° 59' 22.98" N, 83° 1' 14.60" WIn 1937, Chester Carlson, a New York patent attorney, developed the concept of applying an electrostatic charge on a plate coated with a photoconductive material. On November 22, 1938, Carlson dusted powder dyed with evergreen spores across an exposed plate and transferred the imprint to the surface of a paper.
Yosami Radio Transmitting Station, 192934° 58' 27.02" N, 137° 1' 0.74" EKariya, Aichi pref., Japan. In April 1929, the Yosami Station established the first wireless communications between Japan and Europe with a long wave operating at 17.442 kHz. An inductor-type high-frequency alternator provided output power at 500 kW. The antenna system used eight towers, each 250m high. The facilities were used for communicating with submarines by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1941 to 1945 and by the United States Navy from 1950 to 1993.
Zenit Parabolic Reflector L-band Pulsed Radar, 193850° 0' 14.48" N, 36° 13' 42.05" EThe 1938 Zenit radar test at the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Oscillations of the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology was a major advance in the development of radar. Designed by Abram Slutskin, Alexander Usikov, and Semion Braude, microwave scientists and magnetron pioneers, Zenit established the practicality of combining the pulsed method and a shorter wave band for determining precisely all three coordinates of airborne targets.
Zhaozhou Bridge (or Anji), 60537° 43' 12.60" N, 114° 45' 47.70" EThe Zhaozhou Bridge, with a span of 37 meters, is the world’s oldest open-spandrel arch bridge.
Zion Mt. Carmel Tunnel & Hwy, 193037° 13' 0.00" N, 112° 58' 0.00" WThe Zion Mt. Carmel Tunnel and Highway includes the longest vehicular tunnel in the National Park system (5,613 ft), which was blasted through the towering sandstone cliffs above Pine Creek Canyon. Construction of the tunnel and highway required extraordinary access through cliff-face galleries for blasting and excavation.
Zuiderzee Enclosure Dam, 193252° 50' 0.00" N, 5° 20' 0.00" EThe Zuiderzee Enclosure Dam has successfully barred the sea for over 50 years. The structure protects a large area north of Amsterdam, allowing construction of polders to claim these areas of land from the sea.