About Raymond Besson
Raymond Besson was born on May 02, 1938, in Villars Saint Georges/France, where he still lives today. His nationality is French, and he speaks several languages including American, English, Portuguese and Russian together with some Norwegian and German. He has been an exceptional class professor in “École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques” in Besançon France until 2006. Then, he volunteered, until 2018, as a professor in Université de Franche Comté in Besançon France. He served as “Directeur du laboratoire de Chronométrie et Piézoélectricité” between 1974 and 2002. He was the Regional Delegate of the Ministry in charge of Research and Technology between 1982 an1999. He also has been Président of Société Française de Microtechniques et de Chronométrie (1992-2002).
He was awarded several scientific awards including Grand Prix de l’Électronique « Général Ferrié » in 1980, médaille d’argent du C.N.R.S. in 1980, W.G. CADY Award (IEEE) in 1992 and Outstanding paper Award (IEEE/UFFC) in 1994.
He holds several honorific distinctions in particular Officier dans l’Ordre National du Mérite and Officier dans l’Ordre National de la Légion d’Honneur.
He has published 123 scientific papers and he holds 16 patents (among which 10 have been used in industry). He has worked as a consultant in more than 12 companies in France and abroad (Switzerland, Germany, U.K., U.S.A., Japan and Russia).
About this First Hand History
This article was composed from an interview conducted by Clemens Ruppel on June 21, 2018.
It is recommended that this First Hand History be cited as follows:
Raymond Besson, a first hand history composed from an oral history conducted by Clemens Ruppel, Villars Saint Georges/France, June 21, 2018
The Early Days
Raymond Jean Claude Besson was born on 2 May 1938, in a very small Village (Villars Saint Georges), 20 miles south from Besançon. At that time, the village had less than 90 inhabitants. The family was in a difficult financial situation. His father, Raymond Adrien, was at first a shoemaker but, then, he had to become a farmer during World War II. His family was a very happy, harmonious and educated. Until he was 11 years old, Raymond lived in close harmony with nature, the animals and the forests surrounding his home.
During his childhood, Raymond lived in the house where he still lives today. It is the same house, where his father was born, where his grandfather was born and where the father of his grandfather was also born in 1810. He started school in October 1943 and rapidly demonstrated surprising and exceptional talents. The adults began to say that, one day, he would need to pursue his second level education in a "lycée" (high school in France), which was extremely unusual in his village at those days.
From the beginning, fate intervened on his behalf. For instance, in 1945, two old ladies, Jeanne and Marguerite came to live in the village. They were extremely well-educated professors and they decided to take an active part in the education of the young boy who began to hear about unfamiliar subjects like Science, Philosophy (this included Far East philosophies, Indian Vedas or Buddhism). He also had the chance to have an exceptional primary school teacher and an exceptionally loving mother Madeleine as well as a father who was immensely proud of his son. All those adults nurtured the young child.
In 1949, Raymond started as a boarder school pupil in a very highly rated high school ("Lycée") named „Lycée Victor Hugo“. At that secondary school, here was a strict selection process in place, both for pupils and teachers alike. The young Raymond had to adapt and he struggled both with being a boarder school pupil and living in a city. This environment was so different from the native village where he had been surrounded by nature.
Life in a city was so frightening for the young child and the other boys picked on him and gave him nick names (tomato because he often went red, „rustic“ because he was considered to be a real peasant and so forth, including “Socrates“ for his tendency to philosophize). His results in class were clearly outstanding: for instance, he was awarded the "excellence award" of his class for 7 successive years from 1950 to 1956. Here below, a photograph taken in 1953. Raymond is standing on the second rank on the left (the teacher is his beloved professor Alexandre Kreisler).
During his youth, Raymond wanted to study to become an agricultural technician or a radio set electronics engineer or, as he grew older, a medical doctor. His family did not approve of his latest wish. One day, in June 1955, Raymond met, by chance, an exceptional physics teacher by the name of Roger Martelet. Roger Martelet strongly recommended that he should enroll in a class named Mathematics. Roger Martelet was sorry not to teach him in this class. But, during summer, there was a change and, in October he became the physics teacher in this class.
One day, Roger Martelet raised an issue about a significant mistake that had been printed in the class book in hands of everyone. The answer was written in Raymond’s book that he had bought from a future M.D.. Suddenly, Roger Martelet got very angry because nobody could answer. Finally, Raymond decided to tell the answer. But, without giving him the time to explain where he had found the answer. Roger Martelet began to claim that he was the only student who was really good in physics. Raymond then started to face a tough time, because he had never learnt any of the physics lessons for the past two years (at that time his passion was chemistry) and his level in physics was close to zero. So, he decided to study his physics lessons thoroughly because he absolutely did not want to disappoint his teacher. And this is, in fact, the real reason how the young Raymond Besson became a physicist!
Surprisingly, another field of high interest for him was philosophy and he had the chance to be taught by a remarkable and well-known philosopher André Vergez with whom he enjoyed deep discussions, and this closeness lasted until 2007 when dear André Vergez passed away. However, in 1956, he almost had to stop studying because his bursary was stopped, even though he had gained outstanding results. The headmasters of the high school declared that, unfortunately, there was nothing that they could do about it. But, again an unexpected twist of fate or „synchronicity“ (in the sense of Carl Gustav Jung and Wolfgang Pauli) occurred.
A very low ranked teacher with the name of Mr. Chapelain decided that fate would not have it and, this exceptionally brave guy managed to meet with the Minister J. Minjoz and put the case forward. The academic authorities were forced to apologize and claimed it was all a ridiculous mistake from their administration (the letter of the authorities to the Minister J. Minjoz can be found in the archives). Consequently, Raymond was admitted from 1956 to 1958 as a student in the same high school but for a postsecondary program, in „elite“ classes for higher mathematics and, then, for special mathematics programs. Again, he was taught by an exceptional physics teacher who had graduated with honors from the École Normale Supérieure in Rue d’Ulm Paris. His name was Georges Davier and he continuously supported Raymond for the next twenty years.
From 1949 to 1958, Raymond’s best scholar results had been obtained in classical literature, philosophy, foreign languages, history and physics. Raymond was selected to represent the school in National Contests in Latin (1954) and in Physics (1956). However, some other opportunities had been offered to him. In 1953 for instance, the high school had decided to send him to the U.K. as part of an exchange program with a British boy from Brighton in Sussex. During all that time, the financial situation of the family had been extremely difficult and the young Raymond would have to kiss goodbye to everything if any of his school results turned out to somewhat lower (at that time, the French Republic was in the mood of promoting educational assistance to young people with great merit, especially if they were facing a difficult financial situation at home).
Student in University and teacher in Lycée
University (Besançon France): Secondary teacher’s degree
In 1958, it appeared that Raymond could obtain a small salary if he decided to study under a State contract as a future teacher in secondary schools (Lycées). Rapidly he decided to seize the opportunity. Anyway, he had always wanted to give back what he had, himself, received from his former elite professors. In some ways, this was a vocation call for the transmission of education. Within two years, he gathered six university degrees in Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. Then, he was admitted to join training programs as a future high school teacher. In 1961, he obtained a teacher’s diploma in Physics and Chemistry (this was after a strict selection on the national level).
Additional training at École Normale Supérieure in Paris
At the end of year1961, he was admitted to the École Normale Supérieure in Paris for further training. This was a marvelous place for students interested in physics since the professors, usually with worldwide reputation and incredible talents, were teaching there. In September1962, he became a teacher for secondary schools in „Lycée Nationalisé de Garçons“ in Dole, a little town where Louis Pasteur had been born.
First professional experience
Raymond stayed in Dole until he had to do his military service. He was a soldier from May1965 to September 1966. However, between 1962 and 1965, in addition to his work in the high school, he had been called to teach part time, as an assistant Professor, in the University of Besançon. After 1965, his job as a soldier included one year as an engineer in the Laboratoire Central de l’Armement in Paris (with some periods of experimental work in Chamonix, Mont Lachat laboratory). This was a happy time full of joy, jokes, friendships, laughter, and, important progresses made in physics. Meanwhile, he improved his photography techniques and decided to learn Norwegian and to start learning German (the only languages that he knew at that time were French and English in addition to a knowledge of Latin and Greek).
A very sensitive optical recorder
September 1966 brought him back to reality and he started additional training in optics under the guidance of outstanding Professor Pierre Michel Duffieux known worldwide for the use of Fourier transforms in optics. Meanwhile, Raymond invented a new electric signal recorder: this very sensitive recorder was built from a loudspeaker’s coil moving a small mirror for optical recording on photo-sensitive paper. He also participated in several projects including one project for experimental tests on the results of a dowser! This dowser, Reverent Father Marcel Ferry graduated from the École Normale Supérieure rue d’Ulm in Paris in 1932. He was in contact with Professor Yves Rocard and locally with Professor Duffieux. In fact, R.F. Ferry was able to find a very small magnet previously placed (out of his control) in a meadow of 10000 square meters. He wanted to build a coil using 1 microamp so that he could from a distance decide if he was facing the north side or the south side of the coil. And this worked! But Raymond decided that this type of work would be very harmful for his career (Professor Rocard was not accepted in French Science Academy for this precise reason), and he stopped this cooperation.
Main career as a researcher and as a leading scientist
Ph.D., and Assistant Professor at University
In September 1966, Raymond’s career took a new direction when the Ministry of Education accepted to transfer him from teaching in high schools and, he was able to join the university system. This was a difficult step since, in 1958, he had signed an agreement stating that he would teach in high schools („Lycées“ in France) at least for10 years. But, in 1966, a General Inspector decided that he could pursue his career in universities. In fact, the Professors at the university of Besançon (especially his „boss“ professor P. Mesnage) had strongly insisted that he should get this exceptional promotion. Raymond decided he would immediately start working for a PhD. as he had already obtained promising results (at that time, Ph.D. was a national degree named by tradition „Docteur ès Science“).
He obtained this new degree in two steps:
- First step: he graduated as a doctor in Metrology on June 06, 1968 after an original work on permittivity variation under stress for solid insulators (this was correlated to electrostriction in solid insulators).
- Second step: the second step rapidly followed when, 27 October 1968.
In 1970, Raymond obtained his Ph.D. presenting his contributions to electrostriction and nonlinearities in piezoelectric effects. This was an important step because performances in quartz resonators and oscillators were seriously limited by nonlinearities. This work was possible because Raymond had designed a new strain measuring system, with a resolution better than 0, 01 Angstrom. This sensor was based on a special LC oscillator using an unijunction transistor as a low noise negative resistor. The variation of the capacitance C (thickness x) was in direct relation with the strain to be measured. This system had more or less been previously discussed with former professor G. Davier. The sensor was, by far, much better than any strain measuring sensor (essentially Fabry- Perrot interferometers). Fig 3 on page 258 in Physical Acoustics Vol. XI gives a realistic idea of the complete measurement.
Intuition about the winner of the Nobel Price
But the real reason why this date of 27th October 1970 became famous is somewhat different. Let’s go back in time for a moment. In April 1970, Raymond had a strong intuition that someone in his thesis committee would become, one day, a Nobel prize winner. This was rather surprising, since he had not, at that time, the slightest idea about what the Nobel prize was, including in Physics. But, this intuition was very clear, though he did not want to speak about it aloud except with family and friends. In June, his mother in law sent him a brief reprint from a local newspaper announcing that Nobel prize in Physics would be attributed on October 27th. This date had already been chosen as the date for the final submission of his Ph.D.
Raymond kept the reprint on his desk and forgot about it. The day of the submission of his Ph.D. finally arrived and Raymond bravely defended his Ph.D. He obtained the title with honors, but this almost two hours defending of his PhD. thesis had exhausted the new PhD. laureate. So, during the party that followed he decided to go back to his office for a while. When he arrived there, the phone was ringing and someone on the line was asking: am I talking to the winner? (in French „lauréat“) Raymond answered yes as he had just obtained his PhD. But the following words were from the Nobel prize committee secretary in Stockholm, and Raymond heard the incredible news: Professor Louis Néel, the honorary president of his Ph.D. committee had just been awarded the Nobel prize in Physics! So, Raymond rushed back to the reception hall, and with great emotion, went to Professor Louis Néel and announced to him that he had just been awarded the Nobel prize in Physics. This story is also mentioned in a book by Louis Néel under the title „Un siècle de Physique“. (One century of Physics).
Louis Néel never knew about the intuition Raymond had had all along, and this has never been reported anywhere else in the press. Of course, immediately after this exceptional announcement, the press was everywhere and everything went crazy. Raymond still keeps a photograph of Louis Néel taken just after this historic moment.
Full time Professor
After this historic event, Raymond pursued his work as an assistant professor at the University of Besançon where he was in charge of teaching electricity (including Maxwell equations). However, his career began to speed up, and in 1974, he was selected as a full time Professor in the local engineering school (now École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques) where he was in charge of the electronics department. The director of the engineering school was Professor Pierre Mesnage who had been his previous „boss“. Raymond, almost immediately, created and organized a research lab named "Laboratoire de Chronométrie, Électronique et Piézoélectricité". This was a continuation of the local tradition of watch-making industry and the associated research that went with it. The lab rapidly grew to include more than 42 people. But, more importantly, impressive results were obtained and the reputation of the lab grew worldwide. Of course, one of the topics was the nonlinear effects in quartz resonators and oscillators. This subject is discussed with details in a Physical Acoustics book (edited by W.P. MASON And R.N. Thurston in 1975, Vol. XI, pp. 245-288 ) by Gagnepain and Besson.
But, in practice the most important result turned out to be the design of a new resonator in the name of „B.V.A. resonator“ invented in 1975-1976 and covered by numerous worldwide patents (essentially from Raymond Besson) after the original French patent N° 76 010 35 ( 01-19-1976). Here, on next page, is the original patent in the U.S.A. Of great importance is the fact that electrodes do not sit onto the crystal, but have to be extremely close to the crystal (in the order of 10 microns from the crystal).
In fact, the engineering school had inherited the Paris Observatory facility for the fabrication of resonators (under Vladimir Ianouchevsky who happened to retire at that time). Ianouchevsky was famous in the U.S. and the Paris facility was essentially financially supported by contracts from Fort Monmouth (Dep. of the Army). However, when Raymond visited the resonators’ facility he immediately thought that he would definitely not like to make resonators by using this technology. He then started on his own to invent a new design. He made the first sample himself in his office and anxiously tried to obtain the first experimental results. The results clearly showed it was worth pursuing this path for research.
10 by the power of -14
Raymond had gathered around him a very strong technical staff of five people strictly devoted to workshop technology (because he felt that solutions to improve results were fundamental but also technical). The basic ideas of improvement stemmed again from pure intuition and were based on a new monolithic structure together with an "electrodeless" design. Monolithic structure took care of stresses in fixations and "electrodeless" design took care of problems created by coating. Basic ideas were excessively simple but needed exceptional realization in microtechnology and nanotechnology which, fortunately, were inside the main field of the engineering school. This was done with an exceptional technical staff of 5 people including Pierre Maitre, Daniel Thiebaut, Georges Renard, Pierre Cassard. State of the art oscillators were also needed and this was done with help of an excellent engineer (Marc Mourey).
For the resonator, principal care was on crystal surfaces technologies and cleaning. Finally, the resonator allowed exceptional short term stability in the 10 by the power of -14 range (first results were obtained in N.B.S. Boulder with help of Fred L. Walls, Sam Stein, Chuck Manney) together with excellent aging, low g-sensitivity and low vibration sensitivity.
One of the key to success was excellent connections with researchers in the lab (in 30 years more than 23 Ph.D. and Doctor-Engineers obtained their final degree and eventually became co-workers). Also, Raymond was responsible for „engineer projects“ in the engineering school (more than 60 groups in 3 years). This connection with industry was also very helpful.
This new BVA resonator was then produced by an industry in Neuchâtel Switzerland (OSA. under André Wavre and Bernard Schlueter). This rapidly did allow oscillators at the world top level for two decades. The fabrication stopped in 2016, after financial structure changes in OSA, but, nevertheless, there is still a big pressure, due to the needs of atomic clock industry, to restart the fabrication of resonators using this technology.
In 1979, Raymond had been selected as one of the 22 leading personalities in France after survey by the National weekly magazine "l’Express".
After 1980, came the time for awards (over 12). This includes, the Silver Medal of C.N.R.S. (1980), the Electronics grand prix Général Ferrié (1980), the IEEE S.M. (1980), the National Science and Defence award (1984), the IEEE W.G. Cady award (1992). The citation for this IEEE award read: “for fundamental contributions to both quartz resonator fabrication technology and understanding of nonlinear effects leading to devices of superior performance“. Then came the outstanding paper award (IEEE 1994) and the European Time and Frequency Award (in the European Frequency and Time Forum in Braunschweig 2006).
In 1982, Raymond became the local representative of the Ministry in charge of research and technology; he kept this responsibility for 17 years. Nevertheless, he still found the time to publish 123 papers and he is the author of 16 patents in western countries including the U.S.A.. Patents covered resonators but also sensors especially for pressure and temperature (oil industry in Schlumberger) or accelerometers (for defence purposes). He extensively worked for various space agencies (French, European and American NASA). Between January 1976 and April 1992, 12 Patents covering various resonators always using the same principles were deposited. But Also 3 patents covering pressure sensors and accelerometers were deposited. This is the case for patents N° 8213745 and N° 8213746(August 1982) which have been extensively used in oil industry by Schlumberger Flopetrol for years. Also one patent was covering a differential accelerometer (patent N° 9000252 January 1990).
On the next page is the sensor for temperature and pressure which has been used extensively in oil industry without major changes. The resonator was a doubly rotated cut. It could stand high pressures and high temperatures usually met in oil wells.
This was a very difficult time because Raymond was still teaching in the engineering school and, of course, running his research lab at the same time. He also attempted several times to launch a manufacturing company in Besançon, France.
Creation of the E.F.T.F. and international cooperations
After world war II (1945), the principal scientific exchanges, in time and frequency community, took place uniquely in the U.S.A, basically through the Annual Frequency Control Symposium under the Department of the Army (later it became IEEE international Frequency Control Symposium only in 1992).
Raymond and Jean-Jacques Gagnepain began to regularly attend the A.F.C.S. Starting in 1973. Raymond and Jean-Jacques had opportunities to work in various places in the U.S. For Raymond this included first N.B.S. in Boulder and Washington, but also NASA in Palo Alto, H.P. labs in California, the Air Force Hanscom Fields labs close to Boston, the Frequency and Time Systems Inc. in Beverly near Boston, and some other fancy places all over the U.S.A. including Atlanta and New-Orleans. These international cooperations requested much effort from Raymond but also from his beloved wife Colette who often entertained international scientists at their home for work, discussions and various contacts.
In fact, success was essentially due to some individuals such as Helmut Hellwig: in the photo on this page, Helmut is receiving the "honoris causa doctor award" in Besançon (1989). But many other people should be mentioned including Art Ballato, Nick Yannoni (who often visited Besançon). For Raymond, those contacts were the starting point of an international career and this is probably due to the fact that the American time and frequency community had been welcoming the young "Frenchie" with open arms.
For instance, when, together with his colleagues in Boulder he obtained for the first time a short term stability of a few 10 by the power -14, the community presented a special cake at the next A.F.C.S.: on this cake was written 10 by the power -14!
Raymond had extremely good connections within this community especially with Erich Hafner, Art Ballato, John Vig, Fred L. Walls, Dave Allan, Sam Stein, Dave Wineland, Harry Tiersten, Bob Smythe, Nick Yannoni, Jerry Norton, and many others. Raymond still remembers with emotion Art Ballato introducing him at a session at AFCS: “Here is a gentleman who obtained some 10 by the power -14 short term stability in N.B.S Boulder». This was really a good time with so many incredible memories. The picture on next page shows, for instance, a photo during a discussion with Nick Yannoni and John Vig. This was really a happy time and Raymond began to live the American way of life and he also could understand America from the inside.
But, Raymond also knew that many things were happening in Europe and he felt that this was somewhat ignored. So, one day he began to think about organizing a short conference related to time and frequency keeping in Europe. In the past, he had made a first attempt, with the help of Louis Néel, but it had not succeeded since many people, including some friends were skeptical about it. Several discussions took place with Jean-Jacques Gagnepain, Bernard Schlueter, Peter Kartaschoff ( Swiss Federal Office for Metrology) and Marcel Ecabert (Microtechnology F.S.R.M. in Neuchâtel).
So, finally, Raymond decided he would launch the experiment with the help of a founders’ committee. But even in France people were somewhat skeptical and the "Société Française de Chronométrie" said they would support the idea if Raymond would somewhat afford the financial risk. Raymond accepted and with the help of several people including Jean-Jacques Gagnepain and Bernard Schlueter, the first European Frequency and Time Forum was launched in Besançon (March1987). This first E.F.T.F. basically started on a French-Swiss basis (Besançon, Neuchâtel), but it rapidly extended to Germany, Italy, the U.K. and other European countries. Under the dynamic local committees led by R. Besson/A. Rémond in France and B. Schlueter/M. Ecabert in Switzerland success grew rapidly.
In 1999, the international joint meeting between IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and EFTF was created. This took place in Besançon after several visits of important leaders from the U.S.A.. The first co-chair was Don Sullivan from N.I.S.T. in Boulder and it was a real pleasure to work with him for such an event in Besançon (this gathered roughly 630 persons and 50 exhibitors). In fact, the opinion in the U.S.A. had evolved and it was then decided to run joint meetings every four years (and later every two years) alternatively in the U.S. and in Europe.
Raymond had also taken advantage of the fact that, between 1982 and 1999 he was the representative of the French Ministry in charge of research and technology in the "Région de Franche-Comté" located, at that time, in Besançon where time and frequency business was traditionally important. In fact, even the connection with local politicians was very important. This was also carefully organized and participated in the success of this enterprise.
After 1990, began a period of intense international cooperations not only with the U.S.A., but also with European countries like Italy, Germany, the U.K and with also Japan, South America (Uberlandia in Brazil) and Russia. Raymond took advantage of this period to learn several languages including Portuguese (needed in Brazil) and Russian ( or this language, he worked for three years as a student in the university and obtained an undergraduate in Russian language).
This was a happy time, with lots of travels (he went to Brazil several times for teaching) and many times in Russia where he became popular because he could speak Russian. For instance, the 16th E.F.T.F. was organised in Saint-Petersbourg in March 2002 with Yury Gulayev, Raymond Besson, Georgy Mansfeld and Sergei V. Kulakov. Kulakov also played an important part in establishing scientific cooperations with Russia because he knew every person of importance in Russia. Raymond participated in European cooperative programs especially in Samara and Togliatti. He also visited Alexandrov (the scientific and technical center for production of artificially grown crystals) and of course many other places. Cooperation with Saint- Petersbourg region was extremely active and pleasant (he received an honorific Ph D. there thanks to initiative of the Aerocosmic University in 2003).
Creation of BVA Industry
In 1990, Raymond created a company for the industrial production of the latest BVA resonators and oscillators, in Besançon. Roughly 11 people were producing miniaturized 10 MHz space qualified resonators and oscillators. But, Raymond was a civil servant and, by law, he could not run the show. Nevertheless, the company existed for almost 10 years before it collapsed due to financial problems created by accidental destruction of a large series of oscillators devoted to a special space program.
After 2006, Raymond retired from the engineering school and immediately volunteered for a job in Université de Franche-Comté, where he was put in charge of cooperation with Russia with help of S.V. Kulakov. Two Russian scientists (Professor Boris G. Saltykov and Professor Gennady I. Podoprigora) then became doctors „honoris causa“ in the Université de Franche-Comté in Besançon. Also, at that time, the „Région de Franche-Comté“ happened to have organized a cooperation with the Kraï of AltaÏ in Siberia (city of Barnaul). The goal of this cooperation was cheese industry and plantation of new vineyards. Consequently, Raymond took part in many trips for this purpose. In principle, the Franco-Russian Center in the University of Franche-Comté was also in charge of organizing cooperations in various technical domains. An attempt was done for SAW sensors operating at high temperature for oil pipelines, between Avangard in Russia and Senseor in France, but this did not really get success.
In fact, this type of activity will only flourish if the international political situation is stable and, also, a lot of time is always needed before achieving real success. In the end, the cooperation somewhat slowed down after June 2013 and practically stopped after September 2014.
After 2010 a new center of interest
In 2010, Raymond began to show an interest in Far East philosophies and also in quantum physics applications. This came after practicing of Qi Gong, when his professor gave him a book whose title was: “le Tao de la Physique“ by Fridjof Capra. In Raymond’s mind this book immediately drew a bridge between East Oriental philosophies and quantum physics. Then, Raymond decided to again learn quantum physics because his training on the subject had been very poor (during his studies, the teaching of quantum physics was not widely developed in France). All of a sudden, Raymond understood the possible answer to many questions that always occupied his mind. Applications of quantum physics to medical subjects also fascinated him.
Then, Raymond was intensively working on those subjects every day (more than he had ever worked when he was studying for his PhD.). Also, when he was younger, he wanted to become a medical doctor and there came a sudden opportunity to immerse himself deeply in these knowledges. He bought many new books and began to work with all the scientific literature that was available to him.
Starting new research
In 2015-2016, Raymond began to develop personal ideas regarding those issues. This came in addition to many discussions with Professor Bernard Cretin (acting director of engineering school École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques) and ended up in a decision to build up a small laboratory at home for preliminary tests.
In this laboratory, a person (eventually a dowser) is placed under test and sits inside a triple black room and a double Faraday cage. Human awareness through quantum physics (including entanglement) is the goal. The question is: Are „extrasensory“ (outside the five usual senses) communications possible ? Several measurements can be performed on the person under test, including detection of bio-photons (in the sense of Fritz-Albert Popp). Research is concentrated on communications between the brains (essentially the right brains) and any outside source of information.
In fact, the latest developments of quantum physics exhibit „spiritual“ aspects, even if they are solidly based on experimental results for the last 50 years. But, this subject covers many strongly discussed topics giving rise to important controversies. The idea is to introduce a simple solid measurement in the tests and forget about various controversies. At that point, only preliminary results have been obtained. To go further, it is necessary to precisely measure the working frequency of the brains without perturbing the system. The necessary sensor is in construction and should be available within months. In fact, the principal interest, in this new research, is to introduce the contribution of physicists in a field where physicists are not very numerous.
Summary: This was the way my life went on
- Early days: from childhood to high school and "grandes écoles" classes (Mathématiques supérieures and Mathématiques spéciales)
- University in Besançon France; secondary teacher’s degree and training. Additional training in "École Normale supérieure" in Paris.
- First professional experience: Young teacher in high schools (Dole France) and Assistant Professor. Various additional trainings. Military service in Paris and … Chamonix!
- Career as a researcher, University Professor and leading Scientist:
- PhD time, Assistant Professor in University.
- Full Professor in the „École Nationale Supérieure de Mécaniques et des Microtechniques“ engineering school (1974-2006)
- The European Frequency and Time Forum
- First retirement: new activity in Université de Franche-Comté Besançon in charge of relations with Russia. Learning new languages (including Russian with a diploma).
- After 2010, at home: extensive training in Quantum Physics and applications, training in Far East philosophies and medical applications.
- Starting new research, exploring new ideas, building a new laboratory, starting a group of colleagues for this new research.
- „Non-linear effects in piezoelectric quartz crystals“, with J.J. Gagnepain, Physical Acoustics, Vol. XI, pp. 245-288, Academic Press Inc., New-York, 1975
- „Quartz crystal and super conductive resonators and oscillators“, Tutorial invited paper, Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting, Washington, Nov 1978, pp. 101- 130
- „New advances in precision quartz oscillators and their impact on quantum standards“ Journal de Physique, C8 Supplément au n°12, Tome 42, pp. C 8-199
- „Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators. Recent developments and future trends“ (with J.M. Groslambert, F.L. Walls) in Ferro Electrics, 1982, Vol 43, pp. 57-65
- „Recent evolution and new developments of piezoelectric resonators“, Invited paper, Proc of the 1984 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium , Dallas ,U.S.A, pp. 14-16, Nov 1984
- „Quartz crystal resonators“ Invited paper:Proceedings of the 1st European Frequency and Time Forum, Besançon, March 1987, pp. 20-30
- „Recent progress of quartz resonators and oscillators for atomic clocks“ Invited paper, XXII General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Sciences, Tel Aviv, Israel, August 1987
- „RF local oscillators for future frequency standards“ Invited paper: Fourth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona, Italy, Sept. 1988
- „Innovative frequency standards: piezoelectric resonators and others“ Invited paper: Proceedings of the Fourth European Frequency and Time Forum Neuchatel, March 1990, pp. 99-105
- „Dual mode thickness-shear quartz pressure sensors“ Invited paper, Proceedings of the 1991 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, pp. xxx-xxx
- „A study of quartz crystal non linearities: application to X cut resonators“ (together with J.J. Gagnepain), Physics Letters A. Vol. 41 A, n° 5 pp 443-444 Oct. 1972.
- „Résonateurs et oscillateurs à quartz à fort niveau“ (With J.J. Gagnepain) l’Onde Electrique , Vol. 52 Fasc. 11 pp 488-492. Dec. 1972.
- „Measurement of non-linear Elastic, Piezoelectric, Dielectric coefficients of quartz“ 28th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control. Atlantic city N.J. May 1974, Proc. pp 8-13.
- „Etude et réalisation d’un capteur de micro-déplacements à grande résolution“ (With R. Bourquin, J.J. Gagnepain and J. Balbi.) Colloque international sur l’électronique et la mesure Paris May 1975 Proc., pp380-389.
- „A new electrodeless resonator design“ 31st Annual Symposiumon Frequency Control Atlantic City NJ. USA May 1977. Proc., pp 147-152.
- „Some recent progress in Microwave Frequency and Time standards at the National Bureau of Standards“ (With D.W. Allan et al, NBS Boulder Colorado USA). Precise Time and Time Interval Meeting (P.T.T.I.) Washington Dec 1977.
- „A new non-linear analysis method and its application to quartz crystal resonator problems“ (With J.H. Balbi, J. Duffaud) 32nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Atlantic City/USA, May 1978. Proceedings, pp 162-168.
- „A system approach to high performance oscillators“ (with S.R. Stein et al NBS Boulder Colorado USA) 32nd Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Atlantic City, N.J./USA, May 1978, Proc. pp 527-530.
- „Design of a bulk wave quartz resonator insensitive to acceleration“ (with J.J. Gagnepain, D. Janiaud, M. Valdois), 33rd Annual Frequency Control Symposium, Atlantic City, N.J./USA, May 1979, Proc. pp 337-345.
- „Performances of new oscillators designed for electrodeless crystals“ (with D.A. Emmons, P.G. Girardet and E.P. Graaf) 34th Annual Frequency Control Symposium Philadelphia, May 1981, pp 457-462.
- „New bulk wave quartz accelerometer“ (With R. Bourquin and B. Dulmet), 4th European Frequency and Time Forum Neuchâtel March 1990 Proc pp 359-364.
- „A BVA quartz crystal oscillator for severe environments“ (with M. Mourey, 44th Annual Frequency Control Symposium, Baltimore May 1990 and proc., pp 593-596.
- „A space oscillator with cylindrical oven and symmetry „ (with M. Mourey) 45thAnnual Frequency Control Symposium, Los Angeles, May 1991 and proceedings of the symposium.
- „A new model relating resonator volume to 1/f noise in BAW quartz resonators (With F.L. Walls, P.H. Handel, J.J. Gagnepain), 46th Annual Frequency Control Symposium, Hershey PA, and Proceedings of the Symposium.
- „Electrical Characterization of Precision Piezoelectric quartz crystal Resonators“ (with J.J. Suter and J.R. Norton) 6th International Symposium on characterization of materials, 1993.
- „Tactical BVA quartz resonator performance“ (With Jerry R. Norton ) 47th Annual Frequency Control Symposium Salt lake City June 1993.
- „Une nouvelle génération de résonateurs à quartz“ C.R. Ac. Sciences Paris t. 288 série B 25 pp 245-248, 2nd May 1979.
- „Oscillateurs à quartz BVA pour environnements sévères: applications à la réception de signaux spatiaux lointains“ l’Onde Electrique Mars –Avril 1992 Vol 72 N° 2 pp 23-26.
- Brevet N° 82. 13745, 5 août 1982, „Capteur Piézoélectrique, notamment pour la mesure de pressions“ (R. Besson, J.J. Boy, J.P. Valentin).
- Brevet N° 8213746, 5 août 1982, „Capteur piézoélectrique de pression et four de température“ ( M. Valdois, P. Maitre, R.J. Besson, J.J. Boy)
- Brevet N° 90.00252 11 Janvier 1990, „Accéléromètre différentiel à résonateurs piézoélectriques“ ( R.J. Besson, R. Bourquin, B. Dulmet, P. Maitre)
- 1 About Raymond Besson
- 2 About this First Hand History
- 3 The Early Days
- 4 Student in University and teacher in Lycée
- 5 First professional experience
- 6 Main career as a researcher and as a leading scientist
- 7 First retirement
- 8 After 2010 a new center of interest
- 9 Starting new research
- 10 Principal references