Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3)
MIL-STD-464 broadly defines Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) as:
"The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. It encompasses all electromagnetic disciplines, including electromagnetic compatibility; electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic vulnerability; electromagnetic pulse; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and p-static."
This is a highly specialized subject matter, covering all aspects of electromagnetics engineering. It can be subcategorized into several smaller disciplines, such as, equipment and system compatibility, health and safety, and electro-physics of natural phenomena.
Impacts of E3 have been historically costly in terms of equipment failures and losses, severe damages to infrastructures, and of course, undue injuries and tragic fatalities. Today, E3 management programs have been instituted to effectively mitigate such risks.
A good historical summary of E3 is found in "Electromagnetic Environment Effects Summary Report to the Chief of Naval Material"; TESS Action Council, US Department of the Navy; 30 September 1977.