Julian J. Bussgang
- Lwow, Poland
- Associated organizations
- Fields of study
- Signal processing
Julian Jakub Bussgang, Life Fellow of IEEE (Fellow, 1973), was born in Lwow, Poland, in March 1925. He holds six patents, published many technical papers, founded Signatron, Inc., and is well-known for the Bussgang Theorem (widely used in adaptive equalization)
In September 1939, he and his family escaped from Poland, fleeing to Romania and later immigrating to Palestine. During World War II, he graduated from the Polish refugee high school in Tel Aviv and then joined the Free Polish Forces (The Polish 2nd Corp) in the Middle East (1943). He graduated from the Artillery Officers' School and fought in the Italian Campaign, including the Battle of Monte Cassino. After the war, he studied mathematics and engineering in Italy and Great Britain, arriving in the United States in 1949. He received the following academic degrees: B.Sc. from the University of London (1949), MSEE from MIT (1951), and PhD (Applied Physics) from Harvard (1955).
Bussgang worked at MIT Lincoln Laboratory (1951-1955) and at RCA Aerospace Division (1955-1962) where he first served as Manager of Radar Development and later as Manager of Applied Research. Leaving RCA in 1962, he founded Signatron, Inc., an electronics company, and served as its president (1962-1985). Signatron, Inc. became a leading developer of high date rate troposcatter (over the horizon) modems and HF modems and radio channel simulators. In 1984, he merged his company with Sundstrand Corporation and served as a consultant, retiring in 1987. He holds six patents and has published many technical papers.
His contributions include work on the Apollo program; benchmark papers on Pulse Doppler Radar, sequential detection of signals in noise, HF communications, non-linear signal analysis, digital phase-shift communications; and a chapter in How to Start your own Business (MIT Technology Press, 1974). In regard to the Apollo program, Bussgang was a consultant to Grumman Aircraft in the selection, simulation and evaluation of Rendezvous Radar and Landing Radar for LEM (Lunar Module) for man's first trip to the moon.
During his career, he also served as a consultant to many major companies such as COMSAT, GTW, Grumman Aircraft, Honeywell, Hughes Aircraft, Philco-Ford, IBM, the Mitre Corporation, United Aircraft, the RAND Corporation, Arthur D. Little, Raytheon Company, RCA, and Sperry Univac.
Bussgang was visiting lecturer at Harvard (1964-1965), lecturer at Northeastern University (1962-1965), member of the U.S. Commission C of URSI, and associate editor for Communications of the magazine Radio Science. He is listed in Who's Who in America and American Men of Science.
Bussgang served on the IEEE Life Members Committee, on the Board of Governors of PGIT, and as a reviewer for various IEEE Transactions. He was chair of the Boston Section of IEEE; chair of the Boston Section's Fellows and Awards Committee (1989-1993), Education Chair (1989-1993) and a member of the Publications Committee and the Audit Committee as well as the Boston Section representative to the Central New England Council of IEEE (1995-2007). In addition, he was the nominator for the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Milestone and was twice elected to three-year terms on the Board of Governors of the IEEE Information Theory Society. He also served on the organizing committee of the East Coast electronic trade show ELECTRO.
He received the Regional Professional Leadership Award (USAB Region 1, 1955); the Third Millennium Medal (2000); and the Boston Section Distinguished Service Award (2005).
In 2011, Bussgang was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland.
PATENTS (In reverse chronological order - latest first)
'US Patent #6,259,404; Position location system and method by Parl; Steen A. (Arlington, MA), Bussgang; Julian (Lexington, MA), Weitzen; Jay (Chelmsford, MA), Zagami; James M. (Woburn, MA); July 10, 2001, Filed: March 15, 1999.
Abstract A position location system includes multiple base stations spaced over a region. A remote unit within the region transmits a locating signal which is received by the base stations. The base stations report amplitude, phase and time data related to the locating signal to a control station. The control station includes a processor and memory that combine the data from all of the participating base stations to directly compute an optimal estimate of the location of the portable unit. The control station generates a locator function based upon the probability that the portable unit is located at a particular position. By optimizing the locator function, the error in the computation is minimized to produce an accurate position estimate.
US Patent #5,883,598; Position location system and method by Parl; Steen A. (Arlington, MA), Bussgang; Julian (Lexington, MA), Weitzen; Jay (Chelmsford, MA), Zagami; James M. (Woburn, MA); March 16, 1999, Filed: December 15, 1995.
Abstract A position location system includes multiple base stations spaced over a region. A portable unit within the region transmits a locating signal which is received by the base stations. The base stations report amplitude, phase and time data related to the locating signal to a control station. The control station includes a processor and memory that combine the data from all of the participating base stations to directly compute an optimal estimate of the location of the portable unit. The control station generates an ambiguity function based upon the probability that the portable unit is located at a particular position. By optimizing the ambiguity function, the error in the computation is minimized to produce an accurate position estimate.
US Patent #5,278,568; Method of and apparatus for two-way radio communication amongst fixed base and mobile terminal users employing meteor scatter signals for communications inbound from the mobile terminals and outbound from the base terminals via Loran communication signals by Enge; Per K. (Groton, MA), Johannessen; Paul R. (Lexington, MA), Bussgang; Julian J. (Lexington, MA); January 11, 1994, Filed: May 1, 1992.
Abstract A method of and apparatus for two-way radio meteor scatter communication amongst mobile transceiver-equipped terminals and fixed meteor scatter base terminal(s) that comprises communicating high volume point-to-point inbound information from the mobile terminals to the base terminal(s) and outbound information from the base terminal(s) to particular mobile terminals by radio meteor scatter, and broadcasting outbound information from the base terminal(s) to many mobile terminals by supplemental Loran communications short messages modulated upon Loran radio positional and navigation transmissions.
US Patent #4,468,804; Speech enhancement techniques by Kates; James M. (Andover, MA), Bussgang; Julian J. (Lexington, MA); August 28, 1984, Filed: February 26, 1982.
Abstract A method for processing a voiced speech waveform when the periods and amplitudes thereof may be non-uniform so that the intelligibility thereof is adversely affected. In accordance with such method successive portions of the speech waveform are processed so that each portion has a substantially uniform period and the intelligibility thereof is enhanced. In some instances the processing may be such as to provide in addition substantially uniform peak amplitudes in each processed portion. The voiced speech waveform enhancement technique may further be used in conjunction with methods for processing unvoiced speech waveforms so as to enhance the intelligibility thereof.
US Patent #3,909,721; Signal processing system by Bussgang; Julian J. (Lexington, MA), Gish; Herbert (Lexington, MA); September 30, 1975, Filed: February 28, 1974.
Abstract A signal processing system for processing an analog signal which has been quantized by suitable sampling techniques, different portions of the quantized data information having different significances. The processing is accomplished so as to improve the overall error characteristics of the system wherein the quantized data information is encoded in such a manner that it is afforded more protection from error during transmission than the less significant quantized data information. A receiver system appropriately decodes the encoded transmitted information by selectively reforming the arrangement of the quantized data information in conformity with the selective arrangement provided in the transmitter encoding process. The reformed quantized data information is then converted to an analog signal representing the analog signal processed by the transmitting system.
'US Patent #3,527,885; Data compaction system with staggered scanning and adaptive redundancy removal by Bussgang; Julian J.' (Lexington, MA); September 8, 1970, Filed: May 1, 1967.
Abstract A data compaction system in which data concerning an image is selected in accordance with prescribed two-dimensional curvilinear scanning path and such data is thereupon supplied to a suitable bandwidth compression means, such as an adaptive redundancy removal system, for producing a data compacted output information signal which can then be transmitted by a transmitting signal having a considerably reduced bandwidth.
1. Bussgang, Julian J. and Steen A. Parl, chapter on HF Communications, John G. Proakis ed., Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
2. Zagami, James M., Steen A. Parl, Julian J. Bussgang, and Karen Devereaux Melillo, "Providing Universal Location Services Using a Wireless E911 Location Network", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 66-71, April 1998.
3. Bussgang, Julian J. Edward H. Getchell, Bernard Goldberg, and Paul F. Mahoney, Stored Channel Simulation of Tactical VHF Radio Links, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 154-163, Feb. 1976.
4. Bussgang, J. J., E.H. Getchell, and B. Goldberg, VHF Channel Simulation, chapter in Communications Channels: Characterization and Behavior, edited by B. Goldberg, pp. 389-393, IEEE Press, 1975.
5. Bussgang, J. J., L. Ehrman, J. W. Graham, Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs, Proc. IEEE, v. 62, no. 8, pp. 1088-1119, Aug. 1974.
6. Bussgang, J. J.., Consulting Services, chapter in W. D. Putt ed., How to Start Your Own Business, MIT Technology Press, 1974.
7. Bussgang, J. J., P. Nesbeda, and H. Safran, Unified Analysis of Range Performance of C-W and Pulse Doppler Radar, Proc. IRE, v. 47(10), Oct. 1959, also v. 48 (Oct.’60); Reprinted in D. Barton, Radar Equation, Artech House, 1974.
8. Bussgang, Julian J., Review of 'Theory of the Transformation of Information, Vol. I: Signals and Noise' (Spataru, A.; 1966), IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-14, p. 786, September 1968.
9. Bussgang, Julian J. and Myron Leiter, Error Performance of Quadrature Pilot Tone Phase-Shift Keying, IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 526-529, August 1968.
10. Bussgang, Julian J. and Myron Leiter, Error Performance of Differential Phase-Shift Transmission over a Telephone Line, IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 411-419, June 1968.
11. Bussgang, Julian J. and Michael B. Marcus; Truncated Sequential Hypothesis Tests, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-13, no. 3, pp. 512 - 516, July 1967; also RAND Research. Publication RM-4268-ARPA.
12. Bussgang, Julian J. and Michael B. Marcus, Information Theory and Alternate Hypothesis Tests, Journal Optimization Theory Appl., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 194-214, 1967.
13. Bussgang, Julian J. and Michael B. Marcus, Sufficiency of the Terminal Decision in a SPRT, RAND Research Report P-3291, January 1966.
13. Bussgang, Julian J. and Michael B. Marcus, Sufficiency and Information Rate of Multi-stage Statistical Tests, RAND Research. Publication: RAND Corp., Rept. RM-2994-PR, June 1962
14. Bussgang, J.J. and M. Leiter, Phase Shift Keying with a Transmitted Reference, IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 14-22, Feb. 1966.
15. Bussgang, Julian J., Some properties of binary convolutional code generators, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-11, pp. 90 - 100, January 1965.
16. Bussgang, Julian J., Review of 'The Statistical Theory of Signal Detection' (in Polish; Seidler, J.; 1963), IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-11, p. 156, January 1965.
17. Bussgang, J.J. and M. Leiter, Error Rate Approximations for Differential Phase-Shift Keying, IEEE Transactions on Communications Systems, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 18-27, March 1964.
18. Jones, D. M. and Julian J. Bussgang; Tree-like structure of block codes (Corresp.), IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-8, pp. 384 - 385, October 1962.
19. Bussgang, Julian J., D. M. Jones, and W. R.; A Comparative Evaluation of Sequential Decoding Algorithms, WESCON, Aug. 1962.
20. Bussgang, Julian J., Application of Decision Theory to Radar Systems, lecture, joint IRE-AIEE Lecture Series, New York Section, 2 April 1962.
21. Bussgang, Julian J , Fundamental Concepts of Information Theory, lecture, Lecture Series, IRE Dallas Section, Feb. 1962.
22. Bussgang, J.J., Sequential Detection, Proc. of the Symposium on Reconnaissance, Johns Hopkins Univ., Rad. Lab., Baltimore, MD, 8 Nov. 1961.
23. Bussgang, J.J., Microwave Phased Array Techniques, Electronically Scanned Array Radar Symposium, sponsored by ARPA (Proj. Defender), Towson, MD, 16 March 1961.
24. Bussgang, Julian J. and W. L. Mudgett; A note of caution on the square-law approximation to an optimum detector, Lttr. to Editor, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-6, pp. 504 - 505, September 1960.
25. Bussgang, Julian J., Bit-Sequential and Block-Sequential Decoding, UNESCO International Conference on Information Processing, Error Detection and Correction Symposium, Paris, June 1959.
26. Bussgang, J.J. and A. H. Nuttall, Spectral Folding of Single-Tone FM Signal, AIEE Summer and Pacific General Meeting and Air Transportation Conference, Paper No. CP 59-768, Seattle, Washington, June 21-26, 1959.
27. Bussgang, Julian J. and David S. O. Middleton; Optimum sequential detection of signals in noise, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-1, pp. 5 - 18, December 1955. Reprinted in S. S. Haykin, Signal Detection and Estimation, Benchmark Papers in EE and Computer Science, 13, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1975.
28. Bussgang, Julian J., Sequential detection of signals in noise, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1955.
29. Bussgang, J.J, Crosscorrelation Functions of Amplitude-Distorted Gaussian Signals, RLE TR#216, March 1952, reprinted: A. H. Haddad, Nonlinear Systems, Benchmark Papers, v.10, Halsted Press, 1975.
30. Julian Bussgang is listed on the web page Jewish Computer & Information Scientists, Comprehensive List: http//www.jinfo.org/Computer_Scientists.html (Assembled by: email@example.com)