Milestone-Nomination:Krka – Šibenik Electric Power System
Docket Number: 2012-03
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Krka-Šibenik Electric Power System, 1895
On 28 August 1895 electricity generated at this location was transmitted to the city of Šibenik, where six power transformers supplied a large number of street lamps. This early system of power generation, transmission and distribution was one of the first complete multiphase alternating current systems in the world and it remained in operation until World War I.
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In the space below the line, please describe the historic significance of this work: its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science and its importance to regional/national/international development.
A timeline is included in the following paper: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4400640. Of course, as any, this timeline does not list all early power systems.
Krka-Šibenik was the first implementation of Ganz's 2-phase alternator (the "A2"). Several famous engineers worked at Ganz, including Károly Zipernowsky, who together with Miksa Déri and Ottó Bláthy, is credited for the construction (and patent) of the first transformer and several other important AC technologies. A large number of the Zipernovsky, Déri, and Bláthy patents were first implemented in Ganz early power systems, including Krka-Šibenik.
In any of the previous similar systems were either for an experiment or for an exhibition; this one was not, it was intended as a commercial system supplying a city (Šibenik) with (multiphase) electric power.
What features or characteristics set this work apart from similar achievements?
Ganz & Co had previously built an alternator in Rome Tivoli (A1) - a single-phase generator which remained in operation for a limited time. The Power Plant Jaruga 1 (in the Krka-Šibenik system) held Ganz's first multi-phase generator (A2). Furthermore, the Krka-Šibenik system was unique in many ways. Several Zipernowsky, Bláthy, and Déri (who, at the time, all worked for Ganz) inventions were first used in Šibenik: ZBD transformers, Blathy watt-meters, etc. The transmission line was also quite interesting. Built on wooden poles it had 6 wires: 4 power conductors (double two-phase line) and a communication (telephone) line. As the power system was set to operation on the night of 28 August 1895, the telephone line (on the transmission poles) was used for communication between the "control centre" (Villa Meichsner) and the power plant.
This was one of the first commercial power systems, supplying an entire city with multiphase electric power.