First-Hand:List of First Hand Histories
Engineers, scientists and related professionals have long been the main actors in the drama of technological innovation. Knowing their stories, and the stories of their organizations, is essential to understanding how and why technology has progressed as it has for the benefit of humanity. This gives technologists from around the world the opportunity to relate their personal, first-hand experiences as central participants in the process of technical innovation in its broadest context.
Do you have a story to tell? No matter how big or small, we would be delighted to add your memoirs to our collection. Areas like the thought processes that led to choosing a particular engineering solution, how one came up with the idea for an invention, or projects that have given the most personal and professional satisfaction are all great areas of focus for a first hand history, and you can submit your First Hand History here.
Group First-Hand Histories
Evolution of the 2-Person Crew Jet Transport Flight Deck, by Delmar M. Fadden, Peter M. Morton, Richard W. Taylor, and Thomas Lindberg - The authors of this article provide an account of their experiences in conceptualizing and developing the two-person cockpit for commercial airlines.
Gigabit Wireless Networks, by Arogyaswami J. Paulraj, Helmut Bölcskei, Rohit U. Nabar, and Dhananjay A. Gore - A brief account of the development of gigabit wireless networks in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Solid State Circuits Society First Hand Histories - A collection of first hand histories initially published in the IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society newsletter and subsequently its magazine, including Dale L. Critchlow, Gene M. Amdahl, Barrie Gilbert, Robert H. Dennard, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Eric A. Vittoz, Christian Enz, Gordon Bell, Erik H. M. Heijne, Federico Faggin, Marcian E. Hoff, Stanley Mazor, Masatoshi Shima, Joseph A. Fisher, Robert P. Colwell, Ken Smith, Tom Rent, John W. Meredith, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, and Robert Brayton.
50 Year Member First-Hand Histories
The 50 Year Member First-Hand Histories is a special collection of First-Hand Histories submitted by loyal members since the merger of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) to form IEEE on 1 January 1963.
Recollections of the development of the FoxTrax hockey puck tracking system, by Rick Cavallaro - Cavallaro discusses how the hockey puck tracking system was developed under Fox’s commission when they won the NHL broadcasting rights in 1995. Included is discussion on the use of infra-red technology in the camera tracking system, development of an ‘electronic puck’ by using LEDs in the puck and the process of synchronizing the cameras and the puck.
My Recollections of the Development of the Glowing Hockey Puck, by Stan Honey - Honey recounts his experiences while working at Newscorp and developing the glowing hockey puck for Fox who were eager to make hockey more accessible to television viewers. He describes the various technical approaches and different kinds of technology used in TV cameras to provide a better viewing experience on television.
Single Author First-Hand Histories
Starting Up Cetus, the First Biotechnology Company - 1973 to 1982, by Roy Merrill - An account of Merrill's role in starting up Cetus with 20 other employees under Pete Farley, where he began by managing the computing facility supporting the Cetus Mass Screening System.
A Real First-Hand Account of the Startup Phase of Cetus, by Calvin Ward - A response to Merrill's First Hand History, discussing some of its claims.
John Webster visits China in June, 1980, by John Webster - An account of Webster visiting China to meet with Chinese biomedical engineers
From War-Time Radio to Peace-Time Television, by Leslie Balter - Reminiscences of Balter's childhood working with radio and later as a professional at Endicott.
Applying digital television technology to medical imaging = x-ray dosage reduction and non-invasive angiography, by Stanley Baron - An account detailing the development of noise reduction techniques for television images for creating angiograms which reduced the radiation risks involved with earlier imaging services for fetuses.
Digital Television: The Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) Standard, by Stanley Baron - In this article Baron discusses how the demand for an enhanced, advanced television broadcasting services led the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) to commission a taskforce that was to be engaged in developing digital terrestrial television broadcasting. The DTTB was to offer ‘broadcasters the ability to construct a digital highway into each home that allowed for a range of digital services.’
Inventing the Vidifont: the first electronics graphics machine used in television production, by Stanley Baron - An account of Baron's dealings with the employees at CBS and their collaborative efforts in developing the vidifont.
The Foundation of Digital Television: the origins of the 4:2:2 component digital standard, by Stanley Baron - Baron's recollections in developing a foundational standard for digital television broadcasting.
Wartime Work on Missile Guidance to Federal Telecommunications System, by M. Lloyd Bond - Bond discusses his work on missile guidance systems, and his role in the Federal Telecommunications System (FTS) and the Advanced Record System in the 1960s.
Observations of the History Of Radio/Television Since the Close of World War II, by Jules Cohen - Cohen provides highlights various important events in the history of broadcasting.
My Recollections: Development of Football's Virtual First Down Line, by J.R. Gloudemans - An account of the development of the First-and-Ten line used in football television broadcasting.
The end of PicturePhone, by Edward Goldstein - PicturePhone had become an embarrassment to the Bell System, and Goldstein discusses his role in ending the project.
Chad is Our Most Important Product: An Engineer's Memory of Teletype Corporation, by Jim Haynes - A thoroughly comprehensive history about Teletype, a manufacturer of communications equipment.
Negotiating Communications Center Construction in India, by Leonard A. Karr - An engineer for Burns and Roe, Karr recalls an assignment to Calcutta, where he was tasked with meeting with Damodar Valley Corporation to discuss a proposal for installing a central load dispatch and communications center.
Phase Noise, by David B. Leeson - A discussion of phase noise and Leeson's role in standardizing acceptable concepts for a common definition of phase noise in the early 1970s.
Radio, TV, and Life in War and Peace, by Rowland Medler - Medler discusses his experiences in World War II, and his work in television at WJHL/AM/FM/TV and WUFT after the war.
Bing Crosby and the Recording Revolution, by Robert R. Phillips - An account of Phillips role in the Bing Crosby corporation, which made pioneering developments in audio and video recording.
The Evolution of the Bing Crosby Radio Show, by Robert R. Phillips - An account of Phillips role in the Bing Crosby Radio Show, which made pioneering developments in audio and video recording.
Philips Telephone Exchanges and Denmark, before 1960, 1960 - 1970, 1970 - 1980, 1980 - 1990, 1990 - 1997, by Swenn Poulsen - A detailed account of the origins of Danish Philips telephone exchanges and the author's role in their development.
Telstar... and some personal recollections, by Milton Punnett - Punnett's recollections of his role in the Telstar project, the first satellite to relay television signals.
Event in Telecom Switching Development, by Philip C. Richards - A discussion of the Electronic Switching Systems by Bell Laboratories and the System 12 switching system.
Real-time Telemetry Processing, by Bill Rymer - Rymer provides for a brief history of telemetry, and its development since World War II.
Early Developments in T.V. Broadcasting, by John Shaw - Receiving his first television set in 1936, Shaw discusses how he began his career as an electrical engineer and recounts the work done by his father, G. R. Shaw, Chief Engineer of RCA's Tube Division.
Components, Circuits, Devices and Systems
Discovery of Superconductivity at 93 K in YBCO: The View from Ground Zero, by Jim Ashburn - A thorough account of the development of yttrium, barium, copper, and oxygen (YBCO) superconductivity.
The First-Ever Integrated High Fidelity Output System, by Alfred W. Barber - Barber discusses his role in the development of the W2XR high fidelity project.
Warsaw's First Vacuum Tube Factory: The Story of Wieslaw Barwicz, by Wieslaw Barwicz - An account of the vacuum tube manufacturing industry in Poland.
Invention of an Integrated Circuit, by Jack Bremer - An account of the development of an integrated circuit using superconductivity instead of semiconductivity.
Tube Manufacturing at Sylvania, by W. A. Dickinson - Dickinson discusses his career manufacturing tubes for a number of clients, and his role in the IRE.
A Life in Wire and Cable Engineering, by Emil Evancich - An account of Evancich's career, spanning from head of the manufacturing engineering department, and later president, at Northern Electric Company, head of computer stock market research at William O'Neil & Company, forming Wireflex and becoming chief engineer for Wrap On.
The First Quartz Wrist Watch, by Armin Frei - The world's first quartz wrist watch had been created by a group of researchers Centre Electronique Horloger (CEH), Neuchâtel. Here Frei explains his views on why the world's first quartz wrist watch was Beta 1 and not Beta 21, which is claimed by the Swiss watch industry. Frei then describes how CEH did not use the Beta 1 model after 1968, differing from non-Swiss manufacturers who saw great success by basing their products on Beta 1.
The First Quartz Wrist Watch Assembling Crew, by Armin Frei - Aside Frei's insights on Beta 1 and Beta 21 mentioned in the previous entry, this article sheds light on certain people who were involved the invention of the first quartz wrist watch but who did not receive recognition.
Saving the Transistor Symbol, by Sorab K. Ghandhi - Ghandhi reminisces about early standardization issues pertaining to the symbol used for transistors.
Reminiscences on My Career in Control, by Elmer Gilbert - Gilbert gives an account of his career in control systems engineering
My recollections of 50 years in Electronics, by Stephen Goch - An account of the author's role in developing klystron transmitters, electronic navigational aids, and radar and IFF systems.
Semiconductors at Purdue and Beyond, by David M. Hodgin - Recollections of Hodgin's role in semiconductor research at Purdue from 1942 through early 1944.
Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: An Engineering Career in Consumer Electronics, by Lee H. Hoke, Jr. - An account dealing with the changing nature of consumer electronics, spanning the developments that lead from vacuum tubes, to transistors, to integrated circuits, as well as discussion of the author's work at Philco-Ford.
A Birth of Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) and Early Days of Its Promotion Activities, by Misao Kobayashi - An account of Kobayashi's role in the development of the gapless metal oxide surge arrester
Surfing the Waves of Technological Change. Part One, by Michael S. P. Lucas - An account of Lucas' career spanning his beginnings as a telephone maintenance engineer and teacher, to solid state researcher in thin films and superconductivity and finally a professor of electrical and computer engineering specializing in instrumentation and measurements.
Surfing the Waves of Technological Change. Part Two, by Michael S. P. Lucas - An in depth look at Lucas' time at Kansas State University from 1968 to 1995
Circuit Design, Fiber Optics, Games, Detector Arrays, Voice Communications: A Journal of an Electrical Engineer, by Harold Minuskin - A varied account dealing with the many aspects of Minuskin's lengthy career.
A Memorable Period, by Jack Peterson - An account of Peterson's work in the electronics industry in circuit design, starting with vacuum tubes, then working with early transistors, and his work with integrated circuits.
My Ten Years at Ampex and the Development of the Video Recorder, by Fred Pfost - Pfost recalls his role in the development of the Video Recorder.
The Diffusion Mode Operation of FET Devices, by Keats Pullen - A brief recollection about Pullen's early experiences in AIEE and his role in the definition of the diffusion mode of operation of FET devices.
A Hidden Voltage Source, by R. H. Rehder - An account of a problem encountered by Canadian General Electric Company Limited measuring conductor temperatures at site during commissioning of a 30,000 A, 23 kV , isolated phase bus duct at a large nuclear generating station.
Heat Losses in Isolated-Phase Bus Enclosures, by R. H. Rehder - Rehder's experiences working with heat losses in the 1960’s at large power generating stations
Creating Self Cooling in Switchgear Equipment, by R. H. Rehder - An account of Rehder's designing a self cooling switchgear assembly in the 1960s while working at General Electric Canada.
Lab for Agricultural Remote Sensing, by Bill Rymer - Rymer discusses his role in the development of a pattern recognition circuit for agricultural remote sensing.
Work at RCA on Traveling Wave Tubes, by Max J. Schindler - A brief account of the author's work on traveling wave tubes.
The Birth of Glow Discharge Chemistry, by R.C.G. Swann - A history documenting some of the research performed by the author at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories, Harlow, Essex (1959 -1966) and subsequently at the Shockley Laboratories in Palo Alto, California (1966 - 1968) and at ITT Semiconductors in West Palm Beach, Florida (1968 - 1971).
Beginning of the Silicon Age, by Morris Tanenbaum - This account details the beginnings of the silicon age and chronicles Tanenbaum's involvement with Bell Labs and the development of the transistor under William Shockley.
Serendipity and Superconducting Magnets, by Morris Tanenbaum - Tanenbaum writes about his work developing superconducting magnet technology at the Metallurgical Research Department at Bell Labs.
Computers and Information Processing
Building a New Generation of Slot Machines: Silicon Valley Meets Las Vegas, by Allan Alcorn - An account of Alcorn's venture in starting a company that makes slot machines for Las Vegas in the 1990s.
My Development as an Engineer in the Years Before Atari, by Allan Alcorn - An account of how and why Alcorn decided to become an engineer, covering the period of his life when he took an RCA home correspondence course in radio and television repair, studied at UC Berkeley and worked at Ampex.
The Development of Pong: Early Days of Atari and the Video Game Industry, by Allan Alcorn - Describes Alcorn's experiences in developing the video game Pong which revolutionized the video game industry.
Video Game and Computer Technology Interaction, by Allan Alcorn - In this article Alcorn discusses how computer and video game development through computer technology required re-orientations from engineers who had to apply their skill set to a new medium.
Engineering the Technology of the Future: Building High-Speed Computing Machines in the 1950s, by John Alrich - An account of the development of the Datatron computers at Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation.
The Birth of IMS/360, by Uri Berman - Outlines the authors experience in the collaborative project between IBM and Rockwell Space which developed IMS/360 (Information Management System/360) which contained DL/I, a program that had been developed previously by Berman.
Applying Advanced Technology to Cryptologic Systems: Some Special Management Challenges, by James Boone - A discussion of applying advanced technology to the cryptologic field from a managerial standpoint.
No Damned Computer Can Tell Me What To Do! The Story of the Naval Tactical Data System, NTDS, Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, by David Boslaugh - An incredibly detailed account of the development of the Naval Tactical Data System, the first digitized weapon system in the US Navy, which is rich with photographs, interesting anecdotes and personal recollections of the events and technology.
Origins of Hewlett Packard 35 (HP-35), by Dave Cochran - In this article Cochran traces his work at Hewlett-Packard from the mid 1960s to the early 1970s. In particular he writes about their work on developing the HP-35, a pocket-sized hand-held calculator.
Six Decades of Calculations, by Thomas Cuthbert - Provides an account of all ‘kinds of computing devices’ used over 62 years. A naval pilot officer, Cuthbert earned three EE degrees that ‘have enabled design and synthesis of electrical filters and impedance-matching RF networks in frequency ranges from VLF through K band in conjunction with numerical methods and analysis, especially optimization (nonlinear programming), and computer programming in FORTRAN, BASICA, QuickBASIC, Visual BASIC, and C languages.’
Interview of Peter J. Denning, by Dave Walden - An interview with Denning on the course of his career, originally published in the October-December 2012 issue of the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.
The Anti-Submarine Warfare Ship Command and Control System, by Capt. Carl C. Drenkard - A spin off of the history of the Naval Tactical Data System, Captain Drenkard recalls his role in the development of new automated methods for combatting submarines.
Parallel Processor, Theory and Circuits, by Raymond Dudley - Materials pertaining to the development of a parallel computing processor and its applications in chess.
The First Commercial Computer Application at General Electric, by Burton Grad - Grad details how GE learned the ‘value of using analog computing facilities for scientific calculations and the enhanced use of punch card equipment for all kinds of business applications like accounting, manufacturing control and engineering support’ during the world war II. Its investments in these fields made GE a leading company in computerization.
Wi-Fi's Early Days, by Alex Hills - An account of Hill's involvement in development of Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) from 1993 to 1998.
Bletchley Park, Station X - Memories of a Colossus Operator, by Eleanor Ireland - Ireland recalls her time working as an operator on the Colossus computer, a decrypting machine used by the British in World War II.
Innovations in Disk Recording, MFM and 3PM Code, by George V. Jacoby - Jacoby recalls his role in developing what would be known as the MFM code, and his development of the 3PM code, used in magnetic disk recording.
The AT&T BELLMAC-32 Microprocessor Development, by Sung Mo (Steve) Kang - In this article Kang contextualizes the emergence of the microprocessor BELLMAC-80 during the division of Bell Laboratories into two separate entities due to federal pressure from 1974-1984.
Origin of Toshiba Computer Software Product Line "COPOS and PODIA" for Power-Generation Plant and its induction into the Software Product Line Hall of Fame at Carnegie Mellon University, by Haruo Kawahara - An account of how the Toshiba computer software product line for power-generation plant control and operation became one of the most successful and one of the earliest large-scale real-time software for industrial plants.
The Title Plant Operating System: A Data Base System of Index Files for Recorded Documents, by Jerry Koory - Koory discusses his experience developing the Title Plant Operating System on the IBM 360 and the financial and time-related challenges involved.
39 years with IBM, by Joe Kuhn - An overview of Kuhn's lengthy career at IBM.
Internet's Origin, by Yngvar Lundh - An overview of the technology underlying the Internet, including a discussion of the author's role in the development of Arpanet.
Over 50 Years in Computing, by Raymond E. Miller - An account of Miller's work in the computing field, beginning in 1950 with engineering courses at IBM.
Early Digital Art At Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc, by A. Michael Noll - A history, with summary timeline, of the digital computer art and animation that was developed and created at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. during the 1960s and early 1970s.
Howard Wise Gallery Show of Digital Art and Patterns (1965): A 50th Anniversary Memoir, by A. Michael Noll - Noll's reminiscences of the Howard Wise Gallery in New York City held a show of computer-generated pictures by Bela Julesz and Michael Noll. This show was a very early public exhibit of digital art in the United States.
New Media at Bell Labs, by A. Michael Noll - A history of Bell Labs' forays into computer art and animation in the 1960s.
The VanDerBeek-Knowlton Movies, by A. Michael Noll - An account of filmmaker Stan VanDerBeek's collaboration with Bell Labs researcher Kenneth Knowlton in the production of ten computer-animated movies.
A Historical Cobol Note, by Robert Patrick - This brief account notes how Patrick discovered a debate in the 1930s on producing and standardizing a single language for international commerce, and integrated the constructs of one of the contenders, Basic English, into the Honeywell compiler.
Measurement in Early Software, by Robert Patrick - An account on Patrick's involvement in the the development of software for various early IBM machines (701, 704, 709, 7040, 7090), and the engineering approaches that came along with it.
Operating System Roots, by Robert Patrick - A history of the evolution of various IBM operating systems and Patrick's role in their development.
Evolutionary Events in Core Business Information Systems, by Bruce Peterson - In this article, Peterson highlights key events in his computing career which shaped core business information systems, including his work on IBM S/360 computers and Pitchfork Processing.
To Be an Engineer is Sometimes an Adventure, by Paolo M. De Gaetano Polverosi - Recollections on Polverosi's lengthy career spanning Europe, Saudi Arabia and the United States.
The Hidden Markov Model, by Lawrence R. Rabiner - A remembrance of Rabiner's development of the Hidden Markov Model, a statistical method for speech processing.
The Birth of MELVYL, by Stephen R. Salmon - A brief account of the development of MELVYL, the first online library catalog.
Commercialization of Embedded RISC Cores, by Hajime Sasaki - A recollection of Sasaki's role in semiconductor development at NEC Corporation.
Interview with Rolf Skår, by Dave Walden - An interview with Skår on the course of his career, originally published in the January-March 2013 issue of the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing.
Things I remember about my time with IBM - by Russel Theisen - A recollection about how Theisen suggested using an oscilloscope to solve a particular problem with excessive noise in the transmission of data of an IBM 7030 computer in the North Street Plant of Endicott, NY.
Contributions of Russell E. Theisen - Theisen talks about how in 1964 he suggested and implemented a "cookbook" of substitute transistors, diodes and other parts for replacement and service on IBM machines.
More Contributions of Russell E. Theisen - Theisen discusses being tasked with building the first IBM Solid Logic Computer, the IBM 360-20, and the problems he encountered with the power system.
The Unscented Transform, by Jeffrey Uhlmann - Uhlmann discusses the development of the unscented transform in Q&A format.
Cryo CMOS and 40+ layer PC Boards - How Crazy is this?, by Tony Vacca - An account detailing how logic designers and other computer scientists decided to utilize CMOS technology for the ETA Systems Supercomputer.
The First CMOS And The Only Cryogenically Cooled Supercomputer, by Tony Vacca - A brief history of the hardware technology developed for the ETA Systems ETA-10 supercomputer CPU and the major features of the resulting technology, many of which are applied to today’s systems.
PDP-8/E OMNIBUS Ride, by Remo J. Vogelsang - An account of Vogelsang's experience at DEC where he designed the PDP-8/E, an improvement on the DEC minicomputer PDP-8 using a new I/O bus, the OMNIBUS, and its debut at the 1970 WESCON exhibition Western Electronic Show and Convention.
Learning About Computers, Programming, and Computer System Design Circa 1963 - 1981, by Dave Walden - Walden tells how he learned the technology of computing in the days when university computer science departments were still a new idea.
A Brief Account of Spell Checking as Developed by Houghton Mifflin Company, by Howard Webber - An account of Webber's role in developing a spellchecker for Houghton Mifflin.
Early PC History - by Alan Weinkrantz, a brief account which discusses the importance of Datapoint in the history of the development of the personal computer.
Novell 1980-1990, by Roger White - A brief account of three stages in Novell's history, first when Novel Data Systems is founded, second from 1983-1989 in which the company witnessed huge success and employed thousands and third in 1990 when there was a management shift and the visionaries left.
Liquid Crystal Display Evolution - Swiss Contributions, by Peter Wild - An account of the Swiss contributions to the development of the LCD.
IBM's Evolution, From Punch-Card Machines to High-Speed Computers, by Harry D. Young - Young discusses his usage of IBM Punched Card machines in the military and his employment at MEMCO.
A Career with IBM, by Joe Zauchner - A brief account of Zauchner's lengthy career at IBM.
History of Operational Safety Awareness in the US Gulf of Mexico 1964 to 2014:, by Ken Arnold - A history of operational safety of workers during offshore operations.
Prudhoe Bay Permafrost, the Cold War, and the CIA: Nothing Can Be So Bad That It Cannot Get Worse, by Stan Christman - An account of Christman's experience as drilling engineer at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.
First Artificial Lift Installation, by Joe Clegg - A brief story regarding an artificial lift installation at Shell’s West Texas Odessa Production Division in September 1953.
The Rise and Fall of Dual Wells, by Joe Clegg - Clegg's account of the use of dual wells in Texas.
Jacques L. Elbel, an autobiography of Elbel's career.
Charles Sedwick (C.S.) Matthews: A Biography, by George L. Stegemeier - A recollection of Matthews' life written by Stegemeier.
How to Fix a Broken Computer, by Sam Gibbs - A brief anecdote about the hardiness of an HP computer.
Computer Hot Flashes and Cold Feet, by Sam Gibbs - An account dealing with the temperature sensitivity of early mainframe computers.
Learning by Serendipity, by Sam Gibbs - Gibbs details how practical experience can be just as useful as scientific methods in well analysis work.
Sometimes Well Weighers are Just Lucky, by Sam Gibbs - A brief account of how luck can play into oil well diagnoses.
Memories of Working in Hydraulic Fracturing, by Carl Montgomery - Recollections of moments in Montgomery's career in hydraulic fracturing.
Fracturing Recollections, by Tom Perkins - Perkins provides an account of his career beginning at Atlantic Refining Company in 1957.
How we learned to drill the pressurized shale in the Gulf of Mexico: one person's recollection - by Bill Rehm, An account of how Rehm figured out how to drill the plastic pressured marine shale in the Mississippi River Delta.
The Only Woman in the Room, by Eve Sprunt - Sprunt's reflections on gender in engineering, and her recollections of her career in the oil industry.
Reflections of a Production Engineer, by Ralph Veatch - Veatch's musings and recollections on a career in hydraulic fracturing as a production engineer beginning in 1960 at Pan American Production.
The Evolution of the ARAMCO Reservoir Behavior Simulator (ARBS) - A seminal paper on oil reservoir simulation was published by Bill West, Walt Garvin and John Sheldon in 1954.
Electrical Power Conversion, by Harold T. Adkins - A history of the development of switching power amplifiers and power supplies.
The Lights Go Off All Over the Camp, by Ralph H. Baer - An account of Baer restoring the power to a military camp at a Normandy Chateau during World War II.
Arc Furnace Transformers (and me!), by Thomas Blalock - Traces the history of arc furnaces and provides details of the furnace transformers for Pontiac and Baytown, and details Blalock's experiences and observations on those furnaces.
My Life in Power Electronics, by Bimal K. Bose - An account of Bose's professional career from a power engineer in India in the mid-1950s to joining the faculty at Bengal Engineering College to being employed by General Electric's Corporate Research and Development division.
The Life of an Engineer, by Arthur Cable - Cable's recollection of his career in power spanning England, Singapore, Ceylon and Canada.
My Career as an Electrical Consultant, by Aubrey G. Caplan - Caplan talks about his work as an electrical consultant, whose office designed over four thousand jobs.
My Life Over 60 Years in the Development of Our National Energy Systems, by Jack Casazza - Cassaza, who came from a working class family, writes about his schooling, his admission to the engineering program at Cooper Union, his part-time work that sustained his education, his education in the V-7 program at Cornell and Princeton University, enrollment in the Midshipmen program at the Naval Academy following his recruitment in the navy during the WWII. After this period he describes his work at PSE&G, further education at GE electrical and management roles in the IEEE in the post WWII era.
My Experiences at Westinghouse, by John Cerminara, jr. - A brief account of the author's position installing wind turbine structures.
The Evolution of the Independent Power System Operator in New York State, by Dean Chapman - A narrative of the evolution of the Independent Power System Operator as an independent entity under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in New York State.
WAPDA's Electric Distribution System in Pakistan, by Frank K. Faulkner - A brief account of a promising, yet ultimately disappointing venture in Faulkner's career.
Engineering Power, by Clive M. Gardam - Recollections of Gardam's career at English Electric Company of Canada and Toledo Edison Company.
Westinghouse Pioneers Development of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breakers, by Winthrop Leeds - Leeds discusses the influence of Benjamin Garver Lamme's on his career, which culminated with his role in the application of the gas SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) to high voltage switchgear, which were the first 500 kw circuit breakers put into service in the United States.
An Electrophysicist's Role in Academia and Star Wars, by Enrico Levi - The author of the texts "Polyphase Motors: a Direct Approach to their Design" and "Electromechanical Power Conversion", Levi discusses his career in academia, his teaching approach where he encouraged his students to broaden their horizons to astrophysics, and his role in the Star Wars program, which he began in 1956.
Generators and Electrical Insulation, by Vernon McFarlin - McFarlin discusses the Great Depression and poor job prospects afterwards, and his work in testing generators for predicting the life of electrical insulation.
A Lifelong Career in Engineering, An Interview with Darrel E. Moll - A brief interview with Moll about his career, focusing in power engineering.
Interconnected Power Systems, Regional Integration and the EPA, by Theodore Schroeder - Schroeder recounts his experiences in power engineering, including designing interconnected power systems.
Early Youth and Developing Interests of Henry F. Seels, by Henry Seels - A brief account of Seels' observations on service issues with Con Edison in Hell's Kitchen.
Engineering Profession and Education
An Engineer's World Travels, by Leo Berberich - Berberich details his varied career, focusing on his time working in international relations at Westinghouse.
A Co-op Student Before Graduation, by Dean Chapman - This article examines the Co-op Student before Graduation program, its benefits for the prospective engineer and its role as a recruiting tool for GE.
It's a Small World, by Samuel Colodny - An account of Colodny's career spanning from Philco to American Electronic Laboratories.
An IEEE Senior Member's Interesting Engineering Career, by William S. Cranmer - An overview of Cranmer's career.
An Engineer's Career in Academia, by W. Jack Cunningham - Cunningham describes his career trajectory from the University of Texas (Austin) to Yale.
Seeing Was Believing, by Thomas Cuthbert - A brief recollection of how Cuthbert's research was shaped by Arthur Collins papers.
Experiences at Westinghouse, by John Duhl - A brief account of Duhl's career at Westinghouse.
A Checkered Career in Electrical Engineering, by William A. Edson - Edson discusses his varied career, spanning from the University of Kansas, Bell Labs, the Electromagnetic Technology Corporation and the Radio Physics Lab of SRI International.
Apple, RCA and the Visionaries, by Michael Ettenberg - Based on his experience at RCA, Ettenberg contrasts RCA and Sarnoff with Apple and Jobs.
A Jesuit's Forays in Astronomy and Seismology, by Francis J. Heyden - An account of Heyden's career, receiving an assignment to be the chief astronomer of the Manila Observatory.
Fifty years of R D & D in Engineering and Technological Education, by John Heywood - Heywood recalls his engineering experiences, beginning as a radio officer in the British Merchant Marines which led to a varied career in academia.
Engineering in Military, Civilian, and Government Sectors, by Alfred Holtum - Holtum recalls his lengthy and varied career starting with the Signal Corps, and spanning from the Andrew California Corporation, the R&D Department of the CIA, and Professor of Engineering Technology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
Adversity No Match for Electronics Engineer, by Frank T. Luff - Raised in a small farming town in rural Nebraska, Luff discusses his experiences in the Great Depression, difficulties finding adequate math and science courses in high school, and various obstacles overcome in his career as a radar engineer.
Unions and Utilities in New York, by Alexander Lurkis - One of the founders of the first civil service technical organization, the Civil Service Technical Guild, and former president of AFL-CIO, Lurkis discusses his role in organized labor in New York, his position of Chief Engineer of the Bureau of Gas and Electricity in the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity under Commissioner Armand D'Angelo, and his post-retirement consulting activities.
Electrophysiology and Defense, EKGs, Electroshock Therapy, and Antisubmarine Weaponry, by Franklin Offner - Founder of Offner Electronics which initially manufactured electrophysiological equipment, but later worked on defense contracts and merged with Beckman Instruments, Offner provides an overview of his career and his various accomplishments.
A Career at Westinghouse, by Nick Petrou - A brief account of Petrou's career at Westinghouse which culminated with the position of Corporate Vice President of Human Resources.
Education and Management in an IEEE Life Member's Career, by George Platts - A manager at Crosley Corporation, Platts discusses his career, building devices including automotive radios and proximity fuzes.
The Electrical Engineering Career Of Thomas J. Radcliffe, P.E., by Thomas J. Radcliffe - A sketch of Radcliffe's career, the majority of which spent at Republic Steel, working on power, x-ray gauging, high frequency welding, automatic control systems, and finally applying nuclear technology in steel-making.
Optimizing the Project Engineering Process, by C. R. Schmidt - Detailed musings about Schmidt's experience and thoughts on the engineering industry and its trends towards younger engineers who have a fresh grasp on emerging technologies that enable their companies to make a profit.
Transitions in Engineering, Technology and Life, Donald Schover - Schover recounts his career, changing from vacuum tubes to transistors to integrated circuits.
Transition from Animal to Machine Power Spurs Farm Boy's Electrical Interest, by M. E. Scoville - Born a poor farm boy, Scoville discusses how he got off the farm and into electrical engineering.
A Career at Bell Laboratories, by Philip Sproul - A brief account of Sproul's 43 year career at Bell Labs.
The Trials of Engineer Training in New Zealand, by Nigel Stace - Stace presents an anecdote about being asked to design a motor for a rail system in New Zealand for an exam and his early interests in civil engineering.
Ups and Downs in an Engineer's Career, by Rudolph Steiner - Steiner gives a brief recollection of his personal accomplishments and the most important people he met during his career as an engineer.
Milestones in Consumer Electronics - Memories of a High-Tech PR Pioneer, by Joel Strasser - A recollection of Strasser's landmark work in marketing communications, specifically the development of high-tech public relations.
How I Chose My Profession, by George W. Swenson, Jr. - A recollection of how Swanson entered the engineering profession.
Recollections of My Career, by Sasson Toeg - A brief overview of Toeg's varied career.
My Very Biased History of the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, by Steven Tretter - Tretter recounts his experiences at the University of Maryland from 1958 through 2008.
Ingenious Gender Detector, by V. Vanek - A brief recollection of a piece of gender recognition equipment, developed by RCA in 1964 for the New York World's Fair.
Electronics and Industrial Engineering, by Edgar W. Van Winkle - Van Winkle recalls his career, spanning loudspeaker design at Best Manufacturing to Western Electric (WE) to the Allen B. DuMont Lab.
Growing up in Rural Vermont in the Early Twentieth Century, by Cyril G. Veinott - A brief account of Veinott's recollections of automobiles and electrification in rural Vermont.
From Draftsman to Engineering Dept. at the Philadelphia Electric Company, by Olaf B. Vikoren - Vikoren notes his difficulty finding employment in his native Norway, and his hiring at The Philadelphia Electric Company.
Diversity in Engineering Applications, From Oncology to Radio Guidance Systems, by H. R. Weiss - A refugee from Nazi Germany, Weiss provides an overview of his career, beginning at MIT's High Voltage Research Laboratory, to Raytheon, to General Electric.
Project Engineering on a Broad Scale, by Price Wickersham - Musings on Wickersham's experiences in project management and the lessons learned throughout his engineering career.
My Recollections in Electrical Engineering, by Alvin C. Wilson - A recollection of the author's time spent at the National Bureau of Standards.
An Electrical Engineering Education at Cornell, 1956 - 1961, by A. David Wunsch - An account of Wunsch's experiences in the Cornell engineering program.
From a Colorado Farm to the Bureau of Reclamation: An IEEE Life Member's Story, by Thomas M. Austin - A brief account of Austin's career at the Bureau of Reclamation and his relationship with AIEE and IEEE.
My Life with IEEE, by Jacob Baal-Schem - Recollections of Baal-Schem's IEEE career, including involvement in Region 8, IEEE Israel Section, AFRICON, COMPEURO and HISTELCON.
Recollections of the IRE, by Bradford Bates - Brief recollections of IEEE's predecessor organization
IEEE Orange County Section Early History with Details about the L.A. Council, Wescon And Personalities Thereof, by Benton Bejach - An account of the section's early days and origins starting off with the author joining the AIEE in 1948.
Norman Bleshman, Chairman of the Power and Industrial Division (NY), by Norman A. Bleshman - A brief account of Bleshman's role in the AIEE New York Section.
Gustav Bliesner: Coordinator, Portland Section, by Gustav Bliesner - A brief account of Bliesner's role in IEEE.
Starting IEEE Computer Magazine, by Ted Bonn - A recollection of the formation of IEEE Computer Magazine, the first magazine published by the IEEE.
Recollections of a Region 8 Director, by Anthony C. Davies - An account of Davies' relationship with IEEE and Region 8, dating back to the 1967.
Events that Influenced My Career, by Gerard H. (Gus) Gaynor - An account of Gaynor's experiences at College, 3M Europe where he worked for more than 25 years and his post-retirement activities in IEEE.
History of GHN, by Richard Gowen - Gowen, past president of the IEEE and Chair of the IEEE History Committee from 2007-2008, served as a guide for the development of the Global History Network and provides an account of the motivations behind the development of the GHN, its objectives, and the processes involved in establishing it.
A Look Back over the First 50 Years of IEEE, by G. Holman King - Reflections on IEEE and its relationship with the engineering profession.
Recollections on the Merger of IRE and AIEE, by Julian Reitman - A brief account of Reitman's role in the IRE and how the merge affected his career.
Origins of the Winter Simulation Conference, by Julian Reitman - An account of the origins the IEEE Winter Simulation Conference in November of 1967
How I Became VP of IEEE Technical Activities, by John Vig - An account of how Vig became Vice President of IEEE Technical Activities
The IEEE Internet of Things Journal Started With a Conversation About Bread, by John Vig - An anecdote about the formation of the IEEE Internet of Things Journal
Lighting and Lasers
The Saga of "Astral Convertible", by Per Biorn - An account of Biorn's involvement in the construction of eight towers with light and sound which would respond to dancers in a performance by the Trisha Brown Dance Company.
The First Continuous Visible Laser, by Alan White - White details his experiences working on the laser from 1958 - 1962. He explains how much of the innovation in this field at Bell Labs was sponsored by Signal Corps’ request after the latter recognized the potential of laser for communications.
Illusion or Reality? Optics and the Human Brain, an Experiment, by J. Coleman White An anecdote involving White's professor at Cornell employing an optical illusion as a classroom experiment.
Tales from the Steel, by Thomas Blalock - An account of Blalock's experiences at Bethlehem Steel
There Was No Ban on Microwave Ovens in the USSR, by John M. Osepchuk - Osepchuck addresses the rumor of a microwave ban in the USSR by relating his personal experiences in the field of microwave engineering.
Nuclear and Plasma Sciences
Recollections of my Wartime and University Experiences in Nuclear Physics, by Dean Edmonds, jr. - Prior to teaching physics for 30 years at Boston University, Edmonds details his wartime experiences and his education at MIT and Princeton where he worked with atomic beam systems.
Adventures at Wartime Los Alamos, by Lawrence Johnston - Johnson details his experiences in Los Alamos, work on the Fat Man implosion type bomb, and focuses on wartime bomb events such as the Trinity test of the Fat Man bomb and the delivery missions of the bombs to Japan.
Spanning the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Era: 1956-58 to 1994-2001, by Roy Merrill - An account discussing Merrill's role in the development of nuclear weapons at Sandia Corporation, the ARIES weapons disassembly facility, and a plant prototypic system for immobilizing waste plutonium accumulated from nuclear weapons development.
My Experience in the Army Air Force, 1943 to 1946, by Herman Lunden Miller - Miller discusses his experiences in the Army which started his on a career in physics, including radiation safety, controlled thermonuclear research, the space program, and nuclear power plants.
Radio and Radar
Innovations in Radio Communications: Post WWI, by Paul D. Andrews - An account of Andrews' early career after World War I and his development of a radio transmitter which was meant to be installed on Post Office aircraft for navigational purposes.
Radio Engineering and NACA Telemetering, by Paul Burk - Burk details his career at the NACA Instrument Research Division and installing the first FM police radio in Juarez.
Sidelobe Cancellers and the Like, by Dean Chapman - Details Chapman's work in developing Electronic Counter-countermeasures (ECCM) to shield radar against scrambling electronic countermeasure (ECM) equipment.
My First Handmade Radio, by Di Chen - A brief description of the first radio built by Chen during the last years of World War II.
My Personal History With APS, Part 1, by William Croswell - This article contains a detailed account of Croswell’s education at the Airforce Institute of Technology and his subsequent work on various aircraft projects such as F-102A, Falcon Missile and Bomarc missile. His engagements with these projects were directly linked with his research interests in Radome research and development.
My Personal History With APS, Part 2a, by William Croswell - Here Croswell continues his narrative, describing various rocket projects including Echo I and II, Little Joe, Project Mercury, the Apollo program, experiments with antenna analysis and Brush cathode discharge tubes.
My Personal History With APS, Part 2b, by William Croswell - A short continuation outlining the development of GTD methods of predicting antenna patterns on aircraft scale models, thin wire structures and the Moment Method.
My Personal History, Part 3, by William Croswell - Croswell's final installment, elaborating on his work on microwave radiometer measurements of the Cape Cod Canal, radiometer development on the AAFE Program, scatterometers, and the stepped frequency microwave radiometer at NASA Langley.
Early Recollections of Ham Radio, by John J. Dougherty - A brief account of Dougherty's first experiences with ham radio, following a near-fatal case of pneumatic fever.
A Passion for Radio, by A. James Ebel - Ebel discusses his interest in radio began in the mid-20s and recollects his lengthy career in radio broadcasting.
Slide Rule Gives Flight to Tracking Antenna, by G. Fonda-Bonardi - A narrative dealing with Fonda-Bonardi’s work in the Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) where he was responsible for the design, test, and integration of the RF subsystem for the APG37 airborne fire control radar which was intended for use in the new generation of jet interceptors and fighter airplanes, beginning with the F86.
Hand-Held Radios and Electronic Beepers, by Al Gross - Gross discusses his work on a "Joan-Eleanor" system of hand-hand radios which operated on high frequencies, and the development of Royalcall, the first beeper.
It Started with Ham Radio, by Pete Lefferson - Lefferson details how his interest in ham radio in 1956 led him to become an electrical engineer and IEEE member.
Electronic Warfare, Radio Receivers and Countermeasures, by Howard O. Lorenzen - One of the founders of the Electronic Warfare Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC, Lorenzen discusses his role in the development of countermeasures during World War II, Korea and Vietnam.
Television Receivers, Missile Guidance Systems, and the USA's First Satellite, by Leonard R. Malling - Malling discusses his work with the BBC, Varian Associates JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratories) and the Lincoln Lab.
AM Noise Reduction System, by John L. Markwalter, Jr. - A brief account of the author's work in noise reduction.
Wartime Meteorology, Radar, and Encryption, by Philip Morris - A student in the Air Force meteorology program during World War II, Morris recounts his training before being discharged at the end of the war.
Establishing Radio Communications in Post-WWII Japan, by Homer M. Sarasohn - A twenty-nine year old radar expert at MIT, Sarasohn was summoned by Douglas MacArthur to help in the rebuilding process of Japan's radio infrastructure after the War.
Early Development and Implementation of Transistor Radios in Automobiles, by Walter Schweiss - Schweiss discusses his childhood fascination with crystal radios and the beginning of his engineering career, which led to him designing automobile radios for Philco Corporation.
WWII-Era Radar Development at MIT, by Samuel Seely - A brief account of Seely's role at the MIT Rad Lab.
Ally of Peace, Global Telecommunications in the Information Age, by Alfred J. Siegmeth - Born in Hungary before the outbreak of World War I, Siegmeth recounts his experiences in radio broadcasting in Budapest, and his move to the United States after World War II.
The Development (and Subsequent Abandonment) of Low-Frequency Radio, by Frank R. Stansel - Recollections of Stansel's involvement in the development of a short-lived radio transmitted that operated at 68 kilohertz.
Major Developments in Military Radar Technology, by Julius Stratton - A description of Stratton's role in the MIT Radiation Laboratory.
First-Hand:C-Band Story, Ku Band Story, S-Band Story, by Robert Walp - Originally used for a presentation at the 2001 IEEE Conference on the History of Telecommunications, Walp gives an account of three bands used in satellite communication.
War-Time Production and Design at Wheeler Labs, Mine Detection and IFF Radar, by Harold Alden Wheeler - Wheeler recounts his experiences in IRE, AIEE and IEEE, as well as his role in developing the Mark III IFF (Identity Friend or Foe) system.
Radar Research and Development during WWII, by J. Rennie Whitehead - An overview of Whitehead's career including his work on the IFF Mark III and the first 400MHz transponder for the Alouette topside sounder satellite.
Transportation, Aerospace, and Military
From Radio Engineering to War-Time Research, by Sidney Bertram - Bertram details experiences working at Boeing and Ramo Wooldridge, where he worked on the Universal Automatic Map Compilation System, or UNAMACE.
The Story of the Automobile Voltage Regulator, by Bernard Cain - A history of vehicle starters and Cain's involvement in their development in the 1930s
Reinventing the Wheel: Collaboration, Cooperation, and Contention in Engineering, by Paul G. Cushman - Recollections of Cushman's experience with selsyn differential motors and The Polaris Project.
My Experiences as a Space Engineer: The Pre-launch Years, by Sajjad Durrani - A narrative of Durrani's experiences from his engineering college in Lahore, doctorate in New Mexico, work at GE communications, and work teaching at various universities and colleges in the US, RCA Space Center, Comsat Labs, and Operations Research, Inc. (ORI) and NASA. The article provides a detailed account of his involvement in space projects.
Unmanned Aircraft Guidance Technology, by Manuel Fernandez - The author discusses his role in the development of the Cruise missile.
Recollections on Education and Missile Guidance Systems, by Emil Gaynor - Gaynor recalls his early studies and his work at ADT Company and the Fairchild Guided Missiles Division and RCA where he developed the hybrid fire control computer for the Talos weapon system and the display systems for the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS).
Development of the Instrument Landing System Glide Path, by Leon Himmel - An account of Himmel's work at the ITT Federal Laboratories developing a glide path for the instrument landing system. Development work on the equi-signal glide path having a constant rate of descent which was used by the military, and further commercialized for civilian use. It was commissioned by the CAA/Signal Corps.
Lessons Learned from Six Decades of Spacecraft Guidance and Control Experiences, by Henry C. Hoffman, Jr. - Hoffman details his experiences with NASA since the 1940s.
ETAK, an early vehicle navigation system, by Stan Honey - An account of Honey's involvement in the development of ETAK, an early vehicle navigation system which predates GPS.
WWII Allied Telecommunications Systems, by Julius J. Hupert - A recent graduate of Warsaw Polytechnic when World War II broke out, Hupert discusses his experience in Poland, his escape to France, and the development of a partial-crystal-control frequency generation scheme.
Black Magic, by Anthony J. Iacono - An anecdote about solving a problem related to the Fuel Quantity System on the A6E aircraft.
Hotter in the Shade, by Anthony J. Iacono - A brief story about Iacono's work on a particularly hot scenario while performing an EMC Safety of Flight Test.
BMEWS – Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, by Stu Levy - Levy explains how the main objective of the BMEWS was to detect an ICBM attack from the Soviet Union and how it would be electronically connected to NORAD.
Climbing Technical Mountains, by Bernard Maxum - Maxum provides a lengthy overview of his thirty-year career in the aerospace industry through Project Management, plus twenty years in academia through Professor and Chair of the Electrical Engineering Department at Texas State University
Adventures on the USS Intrepid, by John Meredith - This article traces the history of the USS Intrepid, its role in World War II, its voyages in southeast Asia from the 1960s-1970s and primarily focuses upon the Meredith's experiences as a crew member.
A Brief Biography of My Life, by Roy Merrill - Merrill provides an account of his life, both professional and personal.
LearJet, Auto Pilot and Eight Tracks, by Kenneth Miller - A member of the founding management team at LearJet, Miller discusses his relationship with Lear Inc., where he developed auto pilot systems, eight track tape players and recalls how he got hired by fixing Bill Lear's wire recorder.
Banging the Large Drum Slowly, by William Merton Nellis - An account of Nellis' experience in working on a project for the Navy which included recording on large drums as a means of delaying analog signals.
Apollo 1 Disaster Tape Analysis by Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, by A. Michael Noll - An account of the Bell Labs analysis of the tape recordings from the fatal Apollo 1 disaster.
A Right Brain Romantic's Memories of Satellites and Deep Space Probes, by George D. O’Clock - An account of O'Clock's work on a frequency upconverter and the Pioneer 10 and 11 deep space probe system at TRW Systems Group.
The Lunar Module (LM) Full Mission Engineering Simulator (FMES), by John H (Jack) Sachleben - The author discusses his role in the development of the FMES at Grumman.
My Brush With History, by Helmut Schrank - An account of Schrank meeting Joe Lockhart and Mitsuo Fuchida, two major players in the Pearl Harbor bombing.
Young Engineer Puts Mechanical Expertise to Use in WWII, by Jack Staller - A brief account of Staller's entrance into the military as an electrical engineer after formal training in mechanical engineering.
Espionage and Engineering in WWII-Era Finland, by Harry E. Stockman - Stockman describes his experiences analyzing a Soviet transceiver that was recovered from a downed aircraft.
My Saturn 5 Experiences, by Darrell Tesdall - A recollection of Tesdall's role at Douglas Aircraft designing the Saturn 5 rocket.
Professor Turns 'Expert in Space Communications', by Fred J. Tischer - Tischer recalls how he was approached by NASA for employment in 1962.
Research and Development in Missile Tracking and Jet Propulsion, by Marvin Udevitz - An overview of Udevitz's career spanning from Missile Ranging and Navigation (MIRAN) to Mission Operations team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL).
The Trident Submarine Communication System and Other Innovations in Electronics and Communications Engineering, by Elias Weinberger - Graduating from high school in the middle of the Great Depression, Weinberger experienced a lengthy military career and received his degree in electrical engineering after World War II.
The Loon and the Lark, by Howard Wilson - Wilson discusses his experiences working as an engineer in the Army in the 1950s in the electrical modification shop, modifying German V-1 buzzbombs into the army Loon missile, and subsequent development of the LARK missile.
- 1 Group First-Hand Histories
- 2 Single Author First-Hand Histories
- 2.1 Bioengineering
- 2.2 Communications
- 2.3 Components, Circuits, Devices and Systems
- 2.4 Computers and Information Processing
- 2.5 Energy (Petroleum)
- 2.6 Energy (Power)
- 2.7 Engineering Profession and Education
- 2.8 IEEE
- 2.9 Lighting and Lasers
- 2.10 Materials
- 2.11 Microwaves
- 2.12 Nuclear and Plasma Sciences
- 2.13 Radio and Radar
- 2.14 Transportation, Aerospace, and Military