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The interior of the Pantheon, as depicted by Giovanni Paolo Panini, circa mid 1700s. Initially constructed in approximately 29-19 BC and rebuilt in approximately 126 AD, the structure remains in tact and remains the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome.

From crude huts to skyscrapers, civil, structural and architectural engineering have crucial roles role in how people live and work. With the construction of public and private spaces, humanity is able to shield itself from the elements, have places to exchange goods and ideas, and express themselves creatively through architecture. Many structural engineering achievements from the ancient world are still standing today, including the pyramids, Roman bridges and Greek temples. The Industrial Revolution led to both an increased need for urban development and the introduction of new construction materials, such as steel-reinforced concrete. These technologies had to be combined with other areas of engineering, such as transportation (elevators in skyscrapers), water treatment, and air conditioning. The late 19th and 20th century saw the construction of massive skyscrapers, hydroelectric dams generating power from large reservoirs and massive roads bridges carrying tens of thousands of automobiles a day.