Difference between revisions of "Transformers"

(CSV import of Timeline data)
 
(22 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
== Transformers ==
+
[[Image:Oil_Insulation_1909_Building_Oil_Cooled_Transformers.jpg|thumb|right|1909 Oil-cooled transformers]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:5540-004.jpg|thumb|right|Transformer at Conowingo Dam, Pennsylvania. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:5535-001.jpg|thumb|right|Transformer and overhead utility installation. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:5539-006.jpg|thumb|right|Three transformers on utility pole. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:5536-001.jpg|thumb|right|Transformer being installed. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:5539-001.jpg|thumb|right|Transformers on utility pole. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center]]
 +
 
 +
[[Image:5539-002.jpg|thumb|right|Utility pole installation. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center]]
  
 
[[Image:Transformers.jpg|thumb|right|Today's transformers range in size from less than 1 square cm to giants like this one, which is used in the distribution of electric power. Courtesy: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division]]  
 
[[Image:Transformers.jpg|thumb|right|Today's transformers range in size from less than 1 square cm to giants like this one, which is used in the distribution of electric power. Courtesy: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division]]  
  
 
[[Image:Transformer 11kvopen.JPG|thumb|right|A 1MVA, 11kv / 415v 3 phase open winding indoor HV transformer being dismantled]]  
 
[[Image:Transformer 11kvopen.JPG|thumb|right|A 1MVA, 11kv / 415v 3 phase open winding indoor HV transformer being dismantled]]  
 +
 +
[[Image:Ohio_Insulator_Test_Transformers.JPG|thumb|right|Insulator Test Transformer at the Ohio Brass High Voltage Test Laboratory]]
 +
 +
[[Image:Large_Allis-Chalmers_Transformer_at_Ohio_Brass.jpg|thumb|right| Large Allis-Chalmers Transformer at the Ohio Brass High Voltage Test Laboratory]]
 +
 +
[[Image:Lab_Four_750_kv_test_transformers.JPG|thumb|right| Three 750 kv transformers at the Ohio Brass High Voltage Test Laboratory]]
 +
  
 
A transformer is a device used to change the voltage of electric power. Power plants generate power at a low voltage, but power needs to be at a very high voltage for the long trips down the wires from the generator to your house. At a residence the voltage of the power has to drop back down again so that it will not be dangerous and so appliances will not be blown out. A transformer allows the power to change voltages from place to place.
 
A transformer is a device used to change the voltage of electric power. Power plants generate power at a low voltage, but power needs to be at a very high voltage for the long trips down the wires from the generator to your house. At a residence the voltage of the power has to drop back down again so that it will not be dangerous and so appliances will not be blown out. A transformer allows the power to change voltages from place to place.
Line 17: Line 36:
 
We use the name transformer because it is used in alternating current systems to raise or lower voltages. Alternating current creates a fluctuating magnetic field as it flows in a wire. If the number of turns in the first coil is lower than in the second, then higher voltage will be induced in the second coil. If the first coil has many turns, then the “secondary” voltage will be lower. Electric power systems use this principle to raise the voltage produced by a generator or [[Dynamo|dynamo]] to a high level, such as 100,000 volts or higher. At this high voltage, electricity can travel hundreds of miles along transmission wires without being significantly diminished. Near a residence, another transformer does just the opposite: it makes voltage usable by lowering it back down to 120 volts in the United States (220 volts in Europe).
 
We use the name transformer because it is used in alternating current systems to raise or lower voltages. Alternating current creates a fluctuating magnetic field as it flows in a wire. If the number of turns in the first coil is lower than in the second, then higher voltage will be induced in the second coil. If the first coil has many turns, then the “secondary” voltage will be lower. Electric power systems use this principle to raise the voltage produced by a generator or [[Dynamo|dynamo]] to a high level, such as 100,000 volts or higher. At this high voltage, electricity can travel hundreds of miles along transmission wires without being significantly diminished. Near a residence, another transformer does just the opposite: it makes voltage usable by lowering it back down to 120 volts in the United States (220 volts in Europe).
  
[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_application]]
+
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Link to Thomas Blalock's extensive articles about the [http://ethw.org/Archives:Transformers_at_Pittsfield,_part_1 GE Transformers at Pittsfield]
 +
 
 +
Link to Thomas Blalock's first-hand history of [http://ethw.org/First-Hand:Arc_Furnace_Transformers_(and_me!) working with transformers at Pittsfield]
 +
 
 +
Link to [http://ethw.org/IEEE_PES_Transformers_Committee IEEE PES Transformers Committee history]
 +
 
 +
There are also a number of oral histories discussing transformer histories on the ETHW. Those oral histories can be found on this [http://ethw.org/Main_Page?search=transformers&searchToken=2qmcqamgrg6fomjtjqbem3sjk list of search results]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Energy]]
 
[[Category:Power_systems]]
 
[[Category:Power_systems]]
 
[[Category:Transformers]]
 
[[Category:Transformers]]
 +
{{Timeline
 +
|Date=1/1/1881
 +
|Priority=Electrical
 +
|Description=In 1881, in Paris, Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs demonstrated the first commercially successful transformer. In 1886, William Stanley would build upon Gaulard and Gibbs' idea to provide alternating current electrification to offices and stores on Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
 +
}}

Latest revision as of 06:48, 23 November 2017

1909 Oil-cooled transformers
Transformer at Conowingo Dam, Pennsylvania. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center
Transformer and overhead utility installation. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center
Three transformers on utility pole. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center
Transformer being installed. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center
Transformers on utility pole. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center
Utility pole installation. Courtesy Ellenberger Collection of the IEEE History Center
Today's transformers range in size from less than 1 square cm to giants like this one, which is used in the distribution of electric power. Courtesy: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division
A 1MVA, 11kv / 415v 3 phase open winding indoor HV transformer being dismantled
Insulator Test Transformer at the Ohio Brass High Voltage Test Laboratory
Large Allis-Chalmers Transformer at the Ohio Brass High Voltage Test Laboratory
Three 750 kv transformers at the Ohio Brass High Voltage Test Laboratory


A transformer is a device used to change the voltage of electric power. Power plants generate power at a low voltage, but power needs to be at a very high voltage for the long trips down the wires from the generator to your house. At a residence the voltage of the power has to drop back down again so that it will not be dangerous and so appliances will not be blown out. A transformer allows the power to change voltages from place to place.

In 1831 Michael Faraday discovered the principles that make transformers possible.

Using an induction ring Faraday discovered that an electric current flowing through one wire could have the effect of creating or “inducing” an identical current in a nearby wire. This only happens when the voltage is changing—such as when the power is snapped on and the voltage rises from 0 to its peak.

The reason for the induction of a current in a nearby wire is that every flow of current in a wire results in the creation of a magnetic field around the wire. A second wire placed nearby, within that field, is influenced by the magnetism. As the field expands or collapses, it acts on the electrons in the second wire and creates a new flow of current. Winding the wire into coils makes the device more compact, and wrapping the coils onto an iron bar or ring concentrates the magnetic field in a small area.

In 1881, in Paris, Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs demonstrated the first commercially successful transformer. In 1886, William Stanley would build upon Gaulard and Gibbs' idea to provide alternating current electrification to offices and stores on Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.

We use the name transformer because it is used in alternating current systems to raise or lower voltages. Alternating current creates a fluctuating magnetic field as it flows in a wire. If the number of turns in the first coil is lower than in the second, then higher voltage will be induced in the second coil. If the first coil has many turns, then the “secondary” voltage will be lower. Electric power systems use this principle to raise the voltage produced by a generator or dynamo to a high level, such as 100,000 volts or higher. At this high voltage, electricity can travel hundreds of miles along transmission wires without being significantly diminished. Near a residence, another transformer does just the opposite: it makes voltage usable by lowering it back down to 120 volts in the United States (220 volts in Europe).



Link to Thomas Blalock's extensive articles about the GE Transformers at Pittsfield

Link to Thomas Blalock's first-hand history of working with transformers at Pittsfield

Link to IEEE PES Transformers Committee history

There are also a number of oral histories discussing transformer histories on the ETHW. Those oral histories can be found on this list of search results