Milestones:Maxwell's Equations, 1860-1871

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Maxwell’s Equations, 1860-1871

Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.


James Clerk Maxwell began his first serious work on electromagnetism when he was a Fellow at Cambridge University, 1854 – 1856. From 1860 – 1865 he was a Professor at King’s College London, during which time he did some key experiments at the College and at his residence in Kensington. He began to spend his summers at Glenlair, where he also conducted experiments. During his tenure at King’s College, he published his two most important papers on electromagnetic theory: “On Physical Lines of Force” (1861), which added a critical correction to Ampère's circuital law; and “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” (1865), which proposed light as an electromagnetic wave. In both cases he pioneered the use of mathematics in describing the behavior of light. From 1865 – 1871, Maxwell lived full-time at Glenlair as an independent scholar, during which time he wrote his magnum opus, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (published in 1873), which summarized all of the known theory of electromagnetism, including his own contributions. We specify the dates 1860 –1871 for the Milestone- this covers Maxwell’s time at King’s College London and subsequently Glenlair, during which time Maxwell published the two key papers on the theory of electromagnetism, and wrote the Treatise.

The plaques may be visited at

Glenlair,                                                             King’s Building,
Knockvennie,                                                      Strand Campus,
Castle Douglas,                                                  King's College London,
Kirkcudbrightshire,                                               London WC2R 2LS