Difference between revisions of "Milestone-Proposal:IEEE Milestone for the Demonstration of the First Working Laser in Malibu, CA"

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{{ProposalEdit|a1=IEEE Milestone for the Demonstration of the First Working Laser in Malibu, CA|a2a=Proposed site would be the building where the invention occurred at the Hughes Research Lab in Malibu California.|a2b=Metro Los Angeles Section|a3=1960|a4=Theodore Maiman developed the first working laser at Hughes Research Lab in 1960, and his paper describing the operation of the first laser was published in Nature three months later. Since then, more than 55,000 patents involving the laser have been granted in the United States. Today, lasers are used in countless areas of modern life. Some examples include telecommunications, medical diagnostics and surgery, manufacturing, environmental sensing, basic scientific research, space exploration and entertainment.  In the past, the IEEE has recognized the significance of the laser as being one of the key technical achievements of the 20th century.|a5=While there were no previous lasers before Maiman’s achievement, a predecessor of the laser, called the MASER, for "Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation", was independently developed in 1954 at Columbia University by Charles Townes and Jim Gordon and in Russia by Nicolay Basov and Alexsandr Prokhorov.  
 
{{ProposalEdit|a1=IEEE Milestone for the Demonstration of the First Working Laser in Malibu, CA|a2a=Proposed site would be the building where the invention occurred at the Hughes Research Lab in Malibu California.|a2b=Metro Los Angeles Section|a3=1960|a4=Theodore Maiman developed the first working laser at Hughes Research Lab in 1960, and his paper describing the operation of the first laser was published in Nature three months later. Since then, more than 55,000 patents involving the laser have been granted in the United States. Today, lasers are used in countless areas of modern life. Some examples include telecommunications, medical diagnostics and surgery, manufacturing, environmental sensing, basic scientific research, space exploration and entertainment.  In the past, the IEEE has recognized the significance of the laser as being one of the key technical achievements of the 20th century.|a5=While there were no previous lasers before Maiman’s achievement, a predecessor of the laser, called the MASER, for "Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation", was independently developed in 1954 at Columbia University by Charles Townes and Jim Gordon and in Russia by Nicolay Basov and Alexsandr Prokhorov.  
Soon after the maser, Schawlow at Bell Labs and Townes began thinking about ways to make infrared or visible light masers (so-called optical masers). While microwave cavities were well understood in the 1950’s, it was not clear how one might make an optical cavity that incorporated gain. In 1957 Schawlow and Townes eventually realized the solution was aligning two highly reflecting mirrors parallel to each other, forming a Fabry-Perot cavity, and placing the amplifying medium in between. Resonator side walls were not necessary as they were in the microwave case. They soon performed a detailed analysis of laser theory as well as requirements and published a seminal Physical Review paper in 1958.
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|a6=After the Schawlow-Townes Physical Review paper was published in 1958, a furious competition ensued to build the first working laser involving institutions such as Bell Labs, Hughes Research Labs, RCA Labs, Lincoln Labs, IBM, Westinghouse, and Siemens. Most of these efforts attempted to build a continuous wave laser using electrically pumped four-level gaseous media such as ammonia. These have very low gains making it difficult to reach threshold. Higher gains could in principle be achieved in solid state media such as ruby. However, most researchers had dismissed ruby from consideration because it was a three-level system making it unlikely to achieve continuous oscillation.  
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Soon after the maser, Schawlow at Bell Labs and Townes began thinking about ways to make infrared or visible light masers (so-called optical masers). While microwave cavities were well understood in the 1950’s, it was not clear how one might make an optical cavity that incorporated gain. In 1957 Schawlow and Townes eventually realized the solution was aligning two highly reflecting mirrors parallel to each other, forming a Fabry-Perot cavity, and placing the amplifying medium in between. Resonator side walls were not necessary as they were in the microwave case. They soon performed a detailed analysis of laser theory as well as requirements and published a seminal Physical Review paper in 1958.|a6=After the Schawlow-Townes Physical Review paper was published in 1958, a furious competition ensued to build the first working laser involving institutions such as Bell Labs, Hughes Research Labs, RCA Labs, Lincoln Labs, IBM, Westinghouse, and Siemens. Most of these efforts attempted to build a continuous wave laser using electrically pumped four-level gaseous media such as ammonia. These have very low gains making it difficult to reach threshold. Higher gains could in principle be achieved in solid state media such as ruby. However, most researchers had dismissed ruby from consideration because it was a three-level system making it unlikely to achieve continuous oscillation.  
Maiman correctly realized that high gain pulsed oscillation could straightforwardly be achieved in ruby by optically pumping with commercial flash lamps and in May 1960 demonstrated the first laser. This laser was so easy to build that within weeks several other groups duplicated the achievement.  
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|a7=Proposed site would be the building where the invention occurred at the Hughes Research Lab in Malibu, California.|a8=Yes|a9=The site is private corporate property.  Off hours, a gate surrounds the facility. During hours, the gate is open and a reception area can welcome visitors.|a10=The building is currently owned jointly by Boeing and Raytheon, and General Motors who bought this division of Hughes in 1985.|a11=Yes|a12=IEEE Photonics Society. Offices in Piscataway, NJ. R. Linke, Executive Director.|a13name=|a13section=|a13position=|a13email=|a14name=|a14ou=|a14position=|a14email=|a15Aname=|a15Aemail=|a15Aname2=|a15Aemail2=|a15Bname=|a15Bemail=|a15Bname2=|a15Bemail2=|a15Cname=|a15Ctitle=|a15Corg=|a15Caddress=|a15Cphone=|a15Cemail=}}
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Maiman correctly realized that high gain pulsed oscillation could straightforwardly be achieved in ruby by optically pumping with commercial flash lamps and in May 1960 demonstrated the first laser. This laser was so easy to build that within weeks several other groups duplicated the achievement.|a7=Proposed site would be the building where the invention occurred at the Hughes Research Lab in Malibu, California.|a8=Yes|a9=The site is private corporate property.  Off hours, a gate surrounds the facility. During hours, the gate is open and a reception area can welcome visitors.|a10=The building is currently owned jointly by Boeing and Raytheon, and General Motors who bought this division of Hughes in 1985.|a11=Yes|a12=IEEE Photonics Society. Offices in Piscataway, NJ. R. Linke, Executive Director.|a13name=Diana Huffaker|a13section=Metro Los Angeles Section|a13position=Chair|a13email=huffaker@ee.ucla.edu|a14name=Richard Linke|a14ou=Photonics Society|a14position=Exec. Director|a14email=r.linke@ieee.org|a15Aname=Alan Willner|a15Aemail=willner@usc.edu|a15Aname2=|a15Aemail2=|a15Bname=Dr. William Jeffrey|a15Bemail=wjeffrey@hrl.com|a15Bname2=|a15Bemail2=|a15Cname=Alan Willner|a15Ctitle=Professor|a15Corg=Univ. of Southern California|a15Caddress=3740 McClintock Ave., LA, CA 90089|a15Cphone=213-740-4664|a15Cemail=willner@usc.edu}}

Revision as of 14:56, 15 June 2010

This Proposal has not been submitted and may only be edited by the original author.