Difference between revisions of "IEEE Edison Medal"

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== Origins of the Edison Medal on its 100th Anniversary: Introduction ==
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[[Image:EdisonMedal.gif|thumb|left|IEEE Edison Medal]]
  
The Edison medal is the most prestigious award given in the United States and
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== Origins of the Edison Medal on its 100th Anniversary  ==
  
Canada recognizing meritorious accomplishments in the fields of electronics and  
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By David and Julia Bart, 2010
  
electrical engineering. The year 2009 marks the 100th anniversary of the medal
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== Introduction  ==
  
named in honor of America's most famous inventor, [[Thomas Alva Edison]]. Edison's  
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The Edison medal is the most prestigious award given in the United States and Canada recognizing meritorious accomplishments in the fields of electronics and electrical engineering. The year 2009 marks the 100th anniversary of the medal named in honor of America's most famous inventor, [[Thomas Alva Edison|Thomas Alva Edison]]. Edison's work exemplifies the development of large scale industrial research laboratories, the creation of new technology and the installation of the first complete electrical systems in the 19th century. Over its history, many of the most important contributors to the development of electronics have been presented the Edison Medal in recognition of their critical roles in laying the foundations of the modern electrical world. This article presents the story of the Edison Medal, its origins and its legacy of honor.
  
work exemplifies the development of large scale industrial research laboratories,
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[[Image:Fig 1 Edison Photo.JPG|thumb|left|Fig 1 Edison Photo.JPG]]
  
the creation of new technology and the installation of the first complete
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== Edison at the Turn of the Century  ==
  
electrical systems in the 19th century. Over its history, many of the most
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By the end of the 19th century, Thomas Alva Edison had achieved fame, wealth and notoriety. He was known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park" for the many inventions that originated from his research laboratory in New Jersey; including the [[Phonograph|phonograph]] and electric light. In 1886, Edison relocated to a new, larger facility in West Orange, New Jersey. A small laboratory was also set up in 1886 at his new summer home in Fort Myers, Florida. Increasingly, he focused his attention on refining the phonograph and on his new film and motion picture businesses. Edison's work on the alkaline battery and his Portland cement operations also looked promising. The 1903 release of the film ''The Great Train Robbery'' put Edison into the headlines again. Edison's list of accomplishments was well established, and he was a household name in America and in Europe. His long standing and well publicized feud with [[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]] and [[Nikola Tesla|Nikola Tesla]] over the effectiveness of alternating versus direct current did not seem to diminish his public image. And, by the opening years of the 20th century, those battles too were subsiding.<ref name="fn1">The "War of Currents", or "Battle of Currents", raged from the mid-1880s through the first years of the twentieth century. George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became bitter adversaries due to Edison's ruthless promotion of direct current (D.C.) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (A.C.) systems advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. The battle was waged in newspapers, the courts and through various banking and business dealings. Contracts for major lighting and power installations such as the Columbian Exposition and propaganda over the first electric chair provided the public with numerous newspaper headlines.<br><br>Jonnes, J. (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, Inc.<br><br>McNichol, T. (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.</ref>
  
important contributors to the development of electronics have been presented the  
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== Origins of the Edison Medal  ==
  
Edison Medal in recognition of their critical roles in laying the foundations of  
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1904 marked the 25th anniversary of the Edison incandescent lamp. Samuel Insull, [[Charles Batchelor|Charles Batchelor]] and a group of Edison's friends, former employees and associates decided to commemorate the anniversary on the occasion of Edison's birthday.<ref name="fn2">A number of these former employees and associates of Edison would later form the Edison Pioneers in 1918. This group was established to memorialize Edison through public works, including preserving Edison artifacts and historic places, funding scholarship medals and building memorials. The group met annually on Edison's birthday. The original Edison Pioneers included 28 members and 230 former associates of Edison. The following are noted in particular:<br><br>(1) Edison's 'four principal assistants': Charles Batchelor (Chairman of the Edison Medal Assn.), Edward Johnson, [[John Kruesi|John Kruesi]] and Francis Upton (Edison Medal Assn.);<br><br>(2) Edison's 'co-workers': Charles Edgar (Edison Medal Assn.), William Hammer (Edison Medal Assn.), Samuel Insull (Executive Committee of Edison Medal Assn.), Frances Jehl (Edison's assistant at Menlo Park and his biographer), Robert Lozier (Edison Medal Assn.), T. Commerford Martin (Edison Medal Assn. and editor of ''Electrical World''), and John Ott (Edison Medal Assn.);<br><br>(3) Edison's 'associates': Richard Bowker (Edison Medal Association), Henry Ford (founder of the Edison Institute later known as the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village); Arthur Kennelly (awarded Edison Medal in 1933), Frank Sprague (awarded Edison Medal in 1910), Nikola Tesla (awarded Edison Medal in 1916) and Theodore Vandeventer. <br><br>New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1918, Feb. 12).<br><br>Hammer, W.J. (1920, March 31). Letter from W.J. Hammer to F. Jehl. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History Archives Center, William J. Hammer Collection. Rutgers University Thomas A. Edison Papers Digital Edition Internet Site. Document X098A, X098A082; TAEM 0:0. See http://edison.rutgers.edu/digital.htm.<br><br>Miller, F.T. (1931). Thomas A. Edison, Benefactor of Mankind. Chicago: John C. Winston Company.<br><br>Kennelly, A.E. (1932). Biographical Memoir of Thomas Alva Edison 1847-1931. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs. Vol. XV, 10th Memoir. Presented at National Academy of Sciences Autumn Meetings, 1932. <br><br>Edison Pioneers. (2009, April 28). Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.</ref> The first meeting of the Executive Committee formed to organize the event were held in December 1903 as the group rushed to prepare for Edison's February 11, 1904 birthday.<ref name="mins1">Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. Minutes of Executive Committee Dec. 23 and 30, 1903</ref>
  
the modern electrical world. This article presents the story of the Edison Medal,  
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The Executive Committee quickly prepared a circular to solicit contributions. The circular, dated January 1, 1904, identified Samuel Insull as the Chairman and [[Charles Batchelor|Charles Batchelor]] as Vice-Chairman of the Edison Medal Association. It also named the 30 member Executive Committee and 124 additional members of the Edison Association. Among the notables identified were J. Pierpont Morgan, [[Reginald A. Fessenden|R.A. Fessenden]], W.S. Mallory, [[Frank J. Sprague|Frank Sprague]] and [[Nikola Tesla|Nikola Tesla]]. The group planned to name an endowed academic medal after Edison that would be awarded through the [[AIEE History 1884-1963|American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE)]]. The AIEE would act as trustee of the medal.
  
its origins and its legacy of honor.
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The Edison Medal Association intended to raise $7,000 to fund the medal and expenses of the association, of which $5,000 would represent the principal balance of the endowment. Annual interest on the balance would fund future expenses and annual awards. The Executive Committee set an impossibly short time frame of only 30 days to solicit subscriptions. <ref name="doc1">Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1904a, Jan. 1). Edison Medal Association Subscription and Form.</ref>
  
[[Image:Fig 1 Edison Photo.JPG|thumb|left|Thomas Alva Edison. (Photo by Bachrach.  
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The Executive Committee faced logistical difficulties in completing all their preparations before the February celebration. The selected the National Sculpture Society to assist with the medal design; but, at the close of January 1904, the subcommittees responsible for the medal design had not selected an appropriate image of Edison or decided on a sculptor for the Medal.<ref name="mins2">Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. Minutes of Executive Committee Jan. 20, 1904.</ref> Given the impending date of the celebration, the Committee decided it would formally present the legal agreement establishing the Edison Medal and convey the trusteeship of the Edison Medal to the AIEE without presenting the medal itself.<ref name="doc2">Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1904b, Jan. 20). Letter from R. Lozier to E.H. Lewis.</ref> The Committee rushed to draft their Deed of Gift ("Deed") over the next three weeks.  
  
Miller, 1931)]]
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[[Image:Fig 2 Subscription.JPG|thumb|right|1904 subscription for Edison Medal (Documents, 1904a)]]  
  
== Edison at the Turn of the Century ==
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The Deed and corresponding rules governing the Edison Medal specified that the Edison Medal Association would annually recognize a student graduating from any U.S. or Canadian university or military academy who presented the best thesis on an original topic about theoretical applied electricity and magnetism. Competition was restricted to no more than two students from any one institution. Each student had to complete at least two years of residence and coursework at the university and be no older than 25 years of age. The thesis was restricted to 6,000 words (approximately 20 typed pages). The award would be presented annually on Edison's birthday, February 11. The Deed also specified that the Edison Medal Association, under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society, would host a competition to finalize the medal's design after Edison's birthday.<ref name="science1904a">Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904a, Jan. 15). Electrical World. Vol. XIX.</ref><ref name="science1904c">Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904c, May 27). The Edison Medal. Vol. XIX.</ref>
  
By the end of the 19th century, Thomas Alva Edison had achieved fame, wealth and
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== Edison Celebration  ==
  
notoriety. He was known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park" for the many inventions that
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Five hundred people attended the commemorative dinner on February 11, 1904 celebrating Thomas Edison's 57th birthday and the 25th anniversary of the Edison incandescent light. The affair was held at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. Addresses were made by the [[Presidents of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE)|President of the AIEE]], [[Bion J. Arnold|B.J. Arnold]], and [[Arthur E. Kennelly|A.E. Kennelly]] of Harvard University, C.F. Brackett of Princeton University, Joseph McCall and C.L. Edgar. Samuel Insull presented the Deed of Gift inaugurating the Edison Medal. <ref name="science1904b">Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904b, Feb. 26). Scientific notes and news. Vol. XIX.</ref><ref name="nyt1904">New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1904, Feb. 12). Edison Uses Sender For Banquet Speech.</ref>
  
originated from his research laboratory in New Jersey; including the
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Edison sat under a display of flags and 57 electric lamps. According to eyewitness accounts, he was reserved in public and too modest to speak. Sugar models of his inventions were placed on tables in front of him. Edison's original telegraph key and quadruplex sender sat on the table in front of Edison positioned at his right hand. Wires stretched across the room to a Marconi wireless transmitting apparatus. Thousands of electric bulbs were strung along the galleries. Over one hundred waiters served ices "contained in models of motors, phonographs, switchboards, automobiles, incandescent apparatus, dynamos, megaphones, and batteries, the ices themselves being in the form of incandescent bulbs." Each guest went home with a small ivory boxthat had picture ofa woman bearing a light and the inscription "Genius with the Lamp" or a miniature incandescent lamp pin. The menus included a picture of a bronze bust of Edison with the words "The Wizard"and Edison's autograph below the image.<ref name="jones1908">Jones, F.A. (1908). Thomas Alva Edison, Sixty Years of an Inventor’s Life. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers.</ref><ref name="nyt1904" />
  
[[Phonograph|phonograph]] and electric light. In 1886, Edison relocated to a new,  
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Congratulatory messages were received from notables around the world. Andrew Carnegie called Edison the "King of Telegraphers". President Theodore Roosevelt congratulated Edison "as one of those Americans to whom America owes much..." Lord Kelvin cited his "gratitude to Edison [for his] useful and well worked-out inventions for the public". Finally, Edison's own message of thanks was read aloud. It stated, in part, "...Your expressions of goodwill gratify me greatly...This medal is founded to encourage young men to devote their best thought and work to electrical development. I rejoice in this stimulus to harder study...God bless them and you, my dear friends, and this American Institute of Electrical Engineers."<ref name="jones1908" />
  
larger facility in West Orange, New Jersey. A small laboratory was also set up in
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The highlight of the evening occurred with Edison telegraphed "73 - Congratulations and best wishes" on his original quadruplex telegraph instrument. The message was carried across the wires and was then broadcast by the Marconi wireless equipment.<ref name="nyt1904" /><ref name="jones1908" /> Samuel Insull, Chairman of the Edison Medal Association, then formally presented the Deed of Gift to Professor [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]] who received it on behalf of the AIEE.  
  
1886 at his new summer home in Fort Myers, Florida. Increasingly, he focused his
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== The Medal's First Years  ==
  
attention on refining the phonograph and on his new film and motion picture
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The medal was intended to "serve as an honorable incentive to the youth of America to maintain by their works the high standard of accomplishment by the illustrious man whose name and features shall live while human intelligence continues to inhabit the world."<ref name="science1904c" /> The annual student award was to include a parchment certificate and a gold medal funded by the annual interest earnings on the gift. Unfortunately, after the 1904 celebration, little progress was made.
  
businesses. Edison's work on the alkaline battery and his Portland cement
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The gift fund was deposited with the Continental Trust Company of New York. But three years passed and no medals were awarded. In February 1907, the Edison Medal Committee appointed a subcommittee "to propose a statement of the difficulties that the Committee had experienced in obtaining competitors for the medal under the present Deed of Gift and to recommend to the Medal Committee such modifications...as might seem proper in their judgment under the circumstances." <ref name="gherardi">Gherardi, B. (1907, March 16). Letter from B. Gherardi to F.J. Sprague. New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Frank Sprague Papers. Rutgers University Thomas A. Edison Papers Digital Edition Internet Site. Document X120C, X120CCR, TAEM 0:0. See http://edison.rutgers.edu/digital.htm.</ref>
  
operations also looked promising. The 1903 release of the film ''The Great Train
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== The John Fritz Medal  ==
  
Robbery'' put Edison into the headlines again. Edison's list of accomplishments
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Meanwhile, as the Edison Medal languished, the John Fritz Medal, the highest American award in the engineering profession, was being presented each year. Established in 1902, it recognized scientific or industrial achievement in any field of pure or applied science. Fritz had achieved fame and recognition for his development of American iron and steel manufacturing. The John Fritz Medal was established on Fritz's 80th birthday by the American Institute of Mining Engineers (AIME), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE).<ref name="fn3">For a complete history of John Fritz and the Fritz Medal including its winners, see:<br><br>Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1902, Nov.). The John Fritz Medal. Vol. XVI.<br><br>John Fritz Medal. (2009a, April 28). American Association of Engineering Studies Internet Site. See http://www.aaes.org/communications/john_fritz_medal.asp.<br><br>John Fritz Medal. (2009b, April 28). Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society Internet Site. See http://www.tbp.org/pages/About/People/DistinguishedMembers/Fritz.cfm.<br><br>The John Fritz Medal. (1910, Aug.). Announcements: public meeting for the presentation of the medal for 1910. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. XXXVI, No. 8.<br><br>Trainer, M. (2008, June). In Memoriam: Lord Kelvin, recipient of the John Fritz Medal in 1905. Physics in Perspective. Birkhäuser Basel. Vol. 10, No. 2.</ref>
  
was well established, and he was a household name in America and in Europe. His
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[[Image:Fig 3 Fritz Medal.jpg|thumb|left|John Fritz Medal. John Fritz and his legacy. (2005, March 15 - May 2).  Lehigh University Special Collections Exhibition. John Fritz Medal: John W. Fisher Medalist For 2000 Program.  See http://dig.lib.lehigh.edu/projects/exhibits.asp?id=5.]]
  
long standing and well publicized feud with [[George Westinghouse]] and [[Nikola
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The Fritz Medal eventually included the American Association of Engineering Studies (AAES) as well, and rotated among all five engineering societies that made up the successor organizations. The first four Fritz Medals were given to John Fritz (1902), Lord Kelvin (1905), [[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]] (1906) and [[Alexander Graham Bell|Alexander Graham Bell]] (1907).
  
Tesla]] over the effectiveness of alternating versus direct current did not seem
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[[Thomas Alva Edison|Thomas Edison]] received the fifth Fritz Medal in 1908 for his "invention of the duplex and quadruplex telegraph; the [[Phonograph|phonograph]]; the development of a commercially practical incandescent lamp; the development of a complete system of electric lighting, including dynamos, regulating devices, underground system protective devices and meters."<ref name="johnfritz1910">The John Fritz Medal. (1910, Aug.). Announcements: public meeting for the presentation of the medal for 1910. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. XXXVI, No. 8.</ref>
  
to diminish his public image. And, by the opening years of the 20th century, those
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== Edison Medal Restructured  ==
  
battles too were subsiding.<ref name="fn1">The "War of Currents", or "Battle of  
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In 1908, the Executive Committee of the Edison Medal Association now decided to revamp its medal's rules and intended purpose. [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]] later explained that between 1904 and 1908 a shortage of applicants led to the absence of qualified candidates under the existing rules which focused the award on student recipients.<ref name="present1917">Presentation of the Edison Medal to Nikola Tesla. (1917, May 18). Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the AIEE, Held at The Engineering Societies Building, New York City. American Institute of Electrical Engineers.</ref> The Committee responded by redefining the medal's purpose and executed an Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating The Edison Medal ("Amended Deed') in New York on March 26, 1908.<ref name="fn4">The Amended Deed was executed in triplicate by the full Executive Committee including William S. Andrews, Charles Batchelor, Richard R. Bowker, Andrew Carnegie, Charles A. Coffin, Richard N. Dyer, Sherburne B. Eaton, Charles L. Edgar, William E. Gillmore, William J. Hammer, Frank S. Hastings, Charles T. Hughes, Samuel Insull, Arthur E. Kennelly, H. Ward Leonard, John W. Lieb Jr., Robert T. Lozier, W.S. Mallory, T. Commerford Martin, J. Pierpont Morgan, John Ott, Frank J. Sprague, Francis R. Upton, and Schuyler S. Wheeler. Alex S. Webb signed as Vice President of the New York Trust Company and Henry G. Stott signed as President of the AIEE. Eugene H. Lewis, who had executed the original 1904 deed, had since died. John Ott's signature was omitted from Samuel Insull's copy of the Amended Deed, which was delivered to the Edison Medal Association's lawyers as the final copy.<br><br>Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1908a, March 26). Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating Edison Medal.<br><br>Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1908b, May 13). Letter from S. Insull to Messrs. Eaton, Lewis and Rowe.</ref>
  
Currents", raged from the mid-1880s through the first years of the twentieth
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The new deed re-established the Edison Medal in partnership with the New York Trust Company and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). It reasserted that the medal "should, during the centuries to come, serve as an honorable incentive to scientists, engineers and artisans to maintain by their works the high standard of accomplishment set by the illustrious man whose name and features shall live while human intelligence continues to inhabit the world." The Amended Deed also re-wrote the rules and established that the AIEE would present the medal as its award for "...MERITORIOUS ACHIVEMENT [''emphasis in document''] in Electrical Science or Electrical Engineering or the Electrical Arts, whenever in the judgment of said Committee [there is someone] properly deserving of such award..."<ref name="doc4">Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1908a, March 26). Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating Edison Medal.</ref> Revisions to the Committee's bylaws commenced in October 1908, and the final draft was presented to the Board of Directors on December 11, 1908.<ref name="edcom1909">Edison Medal Committee. (1909, May 18). Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. June 30-Dec. 31, 1909. Vol. XXVIII Part II.</ref> The Board approved the minutes on May 18, 1909, making operative the revised by-laws and new rules.<ref name="edcom1910">Edison Medal Committee. (1910, May 17). Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. May 17-Dec. 31, 1910. Vol. XXIX Part II.</ref> Later, the AIEE appointed a jury of 24 members to select the recipient of the award.<ref name="present1917" />
  
century. George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became bitter adversaries due to
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[[Image:Fig 4 Deed signatures.jpg|thumb|right|Signature blocks from Amended and Substituted Deed of Gift Dated 1908 Reestablished Terms for the Edison Medal. Signatures are in alphabetical order on the Deed of Gift, but are shown in the following order in the excerpts: (Left column top) Sprague, Upton, Wheeler; (Left column middle) Webb, Stott; (Left column bottom) Andrews, Batchelor, Bowker, Carnegie; (Right column) Coffin, Dyer, Eaton, Edgar, Gillmore, Hammer, Hastings, Hughes, Insull, Kennelly, Leonard, Lieb, Lozier, Mallory, Martin, Morgan."]]
  
Edison's ruthless promotion of direct current (D.C.) for electric power
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== A Design for the Medal  ==
  
distribution over the alternating current (A.C.) systems advocated by Westinghouse
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The 1904 Edison Medal Committee had initiated a "Programme and Rules" governing its competition to select an appropriate design for the medal.<ref name="doc3">Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;lt; Julia Bart. (1904c, Feb. 20). Programme and Rules For A Competition For The Selection of a Design For And Edison Medal Commemorating The Invention of the Incandescent Lamp.</ref> Working under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society, designs were invited within a general scheme that specified Thomas Edison's portrait would dominate the face of the medal, and an allegorical design would appear on the reverse side. Edison's image would date from the time of his incandescent light, approximately 25 years earlier. A prize of $1,000 would be awarded to the selected artist for production of the medal. Designs were due from April 25-30, 1904, with a decision to be rendered within one month. The jury for the competition included Daniel C. French<ref name="fn6">Daniel French designed several renowned public monuments including ''Abraham Lincoln'' at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the ''Minuteman Statue'' in Concord, Massachusetts and ''Republic'', the centerpiece of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893.<br><br>French. (2009, May 5). Daniel Chester French. Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org. </ref>, Augustus Saint Gaudens<ref name="fn7">Augustus Saint Gaudens was a sculptor and artist who designed many public monuments including ''William Tecumseh Sherman'' in New York City's Central Park, ''Diana'' and ''Hiawatha'' at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the ''Robert Gould Shaw Memorial'' on Boston Common and ''The Puritan'' in Salem, Massachusetts. He also designed the Double Eagle $20 U.S. gold coin as well as the $10 Indian Head gold eagle.<br><br>Gaudens. (2009, May 5). Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.</ref> and J.Q.A. Ward<ref name="fn8">Artist and sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward is best known for his statue of ''George Washington'' on the steps of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City.<br><br>Adams (2009, May 5). John Quincy Adams Ward. Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.</ref> of the National Sculpture Society and Edward Adams and [[T. Commerford Martin|T. Commerford Martin]] on behalf of the Edison Medal Association.<ref name="doc3" />
  
and Nikola Tesla The battle was waged in newspapers, the courts and through
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The design contest was administered late in 1904, and on Nov. 11, 1904, James Earle Fraser<ref name="fn9">James Earle Fraser was the leading American sculptor of public monuments of his generation. Today, no other artist has more public sculptures on display in the U.S. He is best known for the U.s. Buffalo Nickel as well as ''Theodore Roosevelt'' at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, ''Benjamin Franklin'' at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, the entry sculptures and pediment reliefs at the U.S. National Archives building in Washington, D.C., ''Alexander Hamilton'' at the U.S. Treasury in Washington, D.C., and the ''End of the Trail'' sculpture now at the National Cowboy &amp;amp;amp;lt; Western Heritage Museum. Fraser also executed the Thomas Edison bust and seated Edison statue at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.<br><br>Semple, E.A. (1910, April). James Earle Fraser, Sculptor. The Century Magazine. New York: The Century Company.<br><br>Freundlich, A.L. (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.</ref>, a New York sculptor and medallion designer, was informed by St. Gaudens that he was the unanimous selection of the jury. St. Gaudens asked Fraser to provide several sketches "showing modifications to your present idea, or of new ones that may occur".<ref name="freundlich">Freundlich, A.L. (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.</ref>
  
various banking and business dealings. Contracts for major lighting and power
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[[Image:Fig 5 Programme.JPG|thumb|left|1904 Programme and Rules for the Edison Medal Design (Documents, 1904c)]]
  
installations such as the Columbian Exposition and propaganda over the first
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The final design featured both Edison and an allegorical symbol of merit. The obverse (face) features Edison's portrait and is inscribed "Awarded By The American Institute of Electrical Engineers for Meritorious Achievement In Electricity". The reverse (back) depicts "The Genius of Electricity Crowned by Fame" showing an angel standing behind a male nude and a glowing Edison light sitting on a pedestal.<ref name="fn10">The original design for the reverse (back) of the Edison Medal depicted a nude male sitting on steps holding a glowing Edison light bulb. Fraser actually cast Edison's own arm holding the light bulb for this version of the medal.<br><br>Freundlich, A.L. (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.</ref><ref name="nyt1909">New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1909, Aug. 1). To Award Edison Medal.</ref><ref name="freundlich" /> The Amended Deed specified that the AIEE would retain a die for future production and reproduction of the gold medal.<ref name="doc4" />
  
electric chair provided the public with numerous newspaper headlines.<br>
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== First Recipient in 1909 ==
<br>
 
Jonnes, J. (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to
 
  
Electrify the World. New York:  Random House, Inc.<br>
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Prior to issuing the Amended Deed which redefined the Edison Medal, five graduate students who had qualified to compete for the medal under the old 1904 rules had submitted their theses. Since the medal had been restructured to focus on lifetime achievement instead of student work, the five candidates were asked to withdraw from the medal competition in 1908. They were allowed to resubmit their theses in a special contest to receive a Diploma of Merit plus a $150 cash award issued by the AIEE.<ref name="edcom1909" /> On May 18, 1909, Trygve Jensen, a graduate student at the University of Illinois, won the Diploma of Merit for his research on the "Operation of a 100,000 Volt Transformer."<ref name="edcom1910" />
<br>
 
McNichol, T.  (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War. San
 
  
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.</ref>
+
Finally, five years after the initial 1904 organization of the Edison Medal Association, the Committee was ready to officially name its first Edison Metal recipient.<ref name="fn11">The Edison Medal award dates in this article are based on the dates each recipient was selected, as reported by the IEEE, and not the dates the awards were presented, as reported by some of the reference materials. Since recipients were selected at the close of each calendar year and the medal presentation was made the following year, there is some inconsistency referring to the year of each award.</ref> Dr. [[Elihu Thomson|Elihu Thomson]] was cited for his "meritorious achievement in electrical science, engineering and arts as exemplified in his contributions thereto during the past 30 years."<ref name="edcom1910" /> <ref name="brittain2004">Brittain, J.S. (2004, Jan.). Hall of fame for electrical engineers-Elihu Thomson. Proceedings of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 92, No. 1.</ref> Thomson's accomplishments included approximately 700 patents, work on electric arc lighting, establishing the Thomson-Houston Electric Company (which would eventually merge with the Edison General Electric Company to become [[General Electric (GE)|General Electric Company]]), the Thomson Electric Meter, alternating current devices, the electric air drill, and methods of electric arc welding. In the 1890s, Thomson investigated X-rays and performed research on fused quartz for use in reflecting astronomical telescopes. Thomson was active in the AIEE, contributed to many other societies and received the John Fritz Medal in 1916. He later become the President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.<ref name="fn12">Dr. Elihu Thomson is not related to Sir William Thomson, known as Lord Kelvin. In addition to the Edison Medal, Thomson was the first American recipient of the Kelvin Gold Medal issued by the Institute of Civil Engineers in Great Britain in 1923. The Kelvin Medal is awarded for "distinguished service in the application of science to engineering."<br><br>Presentation of John Fritz Medal to Professor Elihu Thomson. (1917, Feb.). Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. American Institute of Mining Engineers. No. 122.<br><br>Brittain, J.S. (2004, Jan.). Hall of fame for electrical engineers-Elihu Thomson. Proceedings of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 92, No. 1.<br><br>IEEE Explore. (2008, Sept. 16). Elihu Thomson. IEEE Digital Library. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Elihu_Thomson.<br><br>ICE. (2009, May 5). The Kelvin Medal. Institution of Civil Engineers Terms of Reference For Institution and Inter-Institution Medals. Institution of Civil Engineers Internet Site. See http://www.ice.org.uk/myice/myice_scholarships_inter_institution.asp.</ref> The Edison Medal Association presented Thomson with a parchment certificate constituting official notice of the award at the AIEE's annual dinner on February 24,1910. He received the gold Edison Medal at the AIEE's annual meeting on May 17.<ref name="edcom1910" />  
  
== Origins of the Edison Medal ==
+
== Conflicts and Controversy  ==
  
1904 barked the 25th anniversary of the Edison incandescent lamp. Samuel Insull,
+
[[Image:Fig 6 Edison Medal.jpg|thumb|right|The First Edison Medal Awarded to Elihu Thomson In 1909]]
  
[[Charles Batchelor]] and a group of Edison's friends, former employees and
+
The Edison Medal has been awarded annually since 1909 with the exception of 1915, 1926, 1964 and 2003. The 1926 medal was actually rejected by the named recipient, Dr. [[William Coolidge|William Coolidge]], who refused to accept the medal in light of a U.S. Circuit Court decision invalidating his patent on ductile-tungsten. The decision stated that a patent (for an invention) could not be awarded for a scientific discovery. The Edison Medal Committee still tried to award the medal, but Dr. Coolidge refused to "detract from the luster of that medal which should stand as one of the most coveted prizes for meritorious work in the electrical field."<ref name="nyt1927">New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1927, Feb. 26). Scientist Refuses To Accept Award.</ref>
  
associates decided to commemorate the anniversary on the occasion of Edison's  
+
Ironically, most of the Edison Medal awards in its first ten years went to pioneers or supporters of alternating current and arc lightning technologies even though Edison's long standing opposition to alternating current systems was well known and had garnered many newspaper headlines.<ref name="jonnes2003">Jonnes, J. (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, Inc.</ref><ref name="mcnichol2006">McNichol, T. (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.</ref> The rules did not require Edison to present the award, and he was not involved with the award committee's selection of recipients. The following innovators of alternating current technology received Edison Medals during its first decade: [[Elihu Thomson|Elihu Thomson]] (1909), [[Frank J. Sprague|Frank Sprague]] (1910), [[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]] (1911), [[William Stanley|William Stanley]] (1912), [[Charles F. Brush|Charles Brush]] (1913), [[Nikola Tesla|Nikola Tesla]] (1916) and [[Michael Pupin|Michael Pupin]] (1920).<ref name="fn11" />
  
birthday.<ref name="fn2">A number of these former employees and associates of  
+
[[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]] received the 1911 Edison Medal for his groundbreaking work developing alternating current systems for power distribution and lighting. After nearly 25 years of battling Westinghouse over the alternating current versus direct current systems, Edison offered Westinghouse no congratulations at the ceremony.<ref name="mcnichol2006">McNichol, T. (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.</ref> Westinghouse ignored Edison stating that "If I have had any success in life it has been due to my wife."<ref name="jonnes2003" />
  
Edison would later form the Edison Pioneers in 1918. This group was established to  
+
In 1917, the Edison Medal was presented to another former Edison rival, [[Nikola Tesla|Nikola Tesla]], for his development of polyphase and high frequency electric currents.<ref name="edmedal1">Edison Medal. (2009, April 28). Encyclopedia II - Edison Medal – History. See http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Edison_Medal_-_History/id/5011080.</ref><ref name="ieee2009c">IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009c, April 27). Edison Medal Recipients.</ref> Rumors had circulated in 1915 that both Tesla and Edison might jointly share the [[Nobel Prize|Nobel Prize]] in Physics. Though unconfirmed by the Nobel Committee, Tesla allegedly rejected the award and would have nothing to do with Edison. Contradictory stories followed. Soon thereafter, the 1915 [[Nobel Prize|Nobel Prize]] was presented to two British scientists.<ref name="fn13">See New York Times (1915) for the original article and Cheney (1981 and 2001) for the complete story which involved many unsupported newspaper articles and interviews about the Nobel Prize award. On November 14, 1915, the Nobel Prize Committee announced the 1915 prize for physics would be awarded to Professor William Henry Bragg of the University of Leeds in England and his son W.L. Bragg of Cambridge University for their use of X-rays to determine the structure of crystals.</ref>
  
memorialize Edison through public works including preserving Edison artifacts and  
+
The following year, the Edison Medal Association selected Tesla as its 1916 medal recipient. Although Tesla was listed on the original 1904 Edison Medal General Committee subscription<ref name="doc1" />, he was now unwilling to receive an award named after Edison. Tesla further thought that his contributions to [[Wireless Telegraphy|wireless telegraphy]] and [[Radio|radio]] had been slighted since [[Guglielmo Marconi|Guglielmo Marconi]] had already received the [[Nobel Prize|Nobel Prize]] in 1909 with Carl F. Braun. Tesla initially refused the nomination in anger, but later agreed to accept the Edison Medal after his friends at the AIEE pled with him to overcome years of hostility, bitterness, and competitive rivalry with Edison. <ref name="cheney1981">Cheney, M. (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.</ref> Tesla stunned the audience at the presentation ceremony when he graciously accepted the award and complimented Edison, who did not attend the ceremony, as "this wonderful man, who had had no theoretical training at all, no advantages, who did all himself, getting great results by virtue of his industry and application."<ref name="present1917" />
  
historic places, funding scholarship medals and building memorials. The group met
+
Tesla treasured the Edison Medal during his final years. Poverty stricken, he gave up virtually all of his personal possessions, but kept the medal in a safe at his subsidized Hotel New Yorker apartment. Tesla is reported to have proudly shown the medal to many visitors. After his death on January 7, 1943, Tesla's nephew opened the safe to discover that the medal was missing. It has never been recovered. <ref name="cheney1981" /><ref name="cheney2001">Cheney, M., Uth, R. (2001). TESLA: Master of Lighting. New York: Metro Books.</ref><ref name="tms2009a">Tesla Memorial Society of New York Internet Site. Tesla Memorial Society of New York. See www.teslasociety.com. (2009a, April 28). Vujovic, Dr. L. Missing Tesla Related Items.</ref>
  
annually on Edison's birthday. The original Edison Pioneers included 28 members
+
The Edison Medal for 1947 was presented to [[Lee De Forest|Lee De Forest]] by none other than [[David Sarnoff|David Sarnoff]], President of the powerful [[RCA (Radio Corporation of America)|Radio Corporation of America (RCA)]] and a one-time litigant both with and against De Forest over patent rights. Sarnoff heaped glowing praise on De Forest's grid-controlled [[Electron (or Vacuum) Tubes|electron vacuum tube]] as "one of the twenty great inventions of all time".<ref name="nyt1947">New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1947, Jan. 29). De Forest Honored As Radio Pioneer.</ref>
  
and 230 former associates of Edison. The following are noted in  
+
[[Image:Fig 7 Tesla Diploma.jpg|thumb|left|Nikola Tesla 1916 Edison Medal Award Certificate. Kesler, M.  (2006, June 22).  Nikola Tesla 150 Years of Genius. Exhibition: Diplomas of Nikola Tesla At The Assembly Room in Zagreb‘s Subcommittee of Prosvjeta.  For Tesla’s Edison Medal certificate see www.nikolatesla.hr/slike/Diploma4.jpg. For Exhibition see http://www.nikolatesla.hr/news.aspx?newsID=69&pageID=14.]]
  
particular:<br><br>(1) Edison's 'four principal assistants': Charles Batchelor
+
== Connections  ==
  
(Chairman of the Edison Medal Assn.), Edward Johnson, John Kruesi and Francis
+
The Edison Medal Winners are well represented among the recipients of the John Fritz Medal, and many were also members in the most prestigious national engineering honor society in the U.S., Tau Beta Pi. Of the 1903 John fritz Medal winners from 1902-2008, 52 are also Tau Beta Pi members. Of the 13 people that won both the John Fritz Medal and the Edison Medal, six were Tau Beta Pi members. These include [[Michael Pupin|Michael Pupin]] (who won the Edison Medal in 1920), [[Frank B. Jewett|Frank Jewett]] (1928), [[Vannevar Bush|Vannevar Bush]] (1943), [[Charles F. Kettering|Charles Kettering]] (1958), Walker Cisler (1965) and [[George Brown|George Brown]] (1967). The remaining medalists include [[Elihu Thomson|Elihu Thomson]] (1909), [[Frank J. Sprague|Frank Sprague (1910)]], [[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]] (1911), [[Alexander Graham Bell|Alexander Graham Bell]] (1914), [[John J. Carty|John Carty]] (1917), [[Willis R. Whitney|Willis Whitney]] (1934) and [[Philip Sporn|Philip Sporn]] (1945).<ref name="fn14">See:<br><br>IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009c, April 27). Edison Medal Recipients.<br><br>John Fritz Medal. (2009a, April 28). American Association of Engineering Studies Internet Site. See http://www.aaes.org/communications/john_fritz_medal.asp.<br><br>John Fritz Medal. (2009b, April 28). Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society Internet Site. See http://www.tbp.org/pages/About/People/DistinguishedMembers/Fritz.cfm.<br><br>IEEE Century of Honors. (1984). A Century of Honors 1884-1984: The First 100 Years of Award Winners, Honorary Members, Past Presidents and Fellows of The Institute. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.<br><br>IEEE Edison Medal. (2009, April 27). Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.</ref>
  
Upton (Edison Medal Assn.);<br><br>(2) Edison's 'co-workers': Charles Edgar
+
The Edison Medal was awarded to a number of people for their critical roles in developing radio and television communication, including [[Michael Pupin|Michael Pupin]] (1920) for his work in mathematical physics and its application to the electric transmission of intelligence; [[Frank Conrad|Frank Conrad]] (1930) for radio broadcasting and short wave radio transmission; [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]] (1933) for the theory of electrical transmission and international electrical standards; [[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin Armstrong]] (1942) for the regenerative, super-regenerative and [[Superheterodyne Receiver|super-heterodyne circuits]] and [[FM Radio|frequency modulation FM radio]]; [[Lee De Forest|Lee De Forest]] (1946) for the grid-controlled vacuum tube; and [[Vladimir Zworykin|Vladimir Zworykin]] (1952) for the [[Television|television]].<ref name="edmedal1" /><ref name="ieee2009c" />  
  
(Edison Medal Assn.), William Hammer (Edison Medal Assn.), Samuel Insull
+
== Armstrong and Millikan  ==
  
(Executive Committee of Edison Medal Assn.), Frances Jehl (Edison's assistant at
+
[[Image:Edison medal.jpg|thumb|right|Edwin H. Armstrong's Edison Medal, awarded in 1942. Photo credit: Antique Wireless Association Museum, loaned from the Historical and Interpretive Collections of The Franklin Institute, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.]]
  
Menlo Park and his biographer), Robert Lozier (Edison Medal Assn.), T. Commerford
+
[[Image:Armstrong with Edison Medal.jpg|thumb|right|At the Awards Dinner of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1942 when Edwin Armstrong (right) received the Edison Medal. With him are (left to right) Gerard Swope, the Hoover Medalist, and Dr. Willis Whitney, the John Fritz Medalist. (Courtesy: Fiftieth Anniversary Golden Yearbook: 1909-1959, Radio Club of America, New York.)]]
  
Martin (Edison Medal Assn. and editor of ''Electrical World''), John Ott (Edison
+
[[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin Armstrong]] was particularly introspective upon his receipt of the 1942 Edison Medal after his many years spent in litigation with [[Lee De Forest|De Forest]], [[RCA (Radio Corporation of America)|RCA]] and others over radio patents and public acknowledgement of who invented various radio circuits. The AIEE awarded Armstrong an honorary lifetime membership (the first of which had been extended to Lord Kelvin in 1892) together with the Edison Medal. Armstrong's Edison Medal citation noted the importance of his work stating, "This keystone of radio development was later to become involved in fourteen years of litigation and which, in the end, was decided by lay courts based on errors of fact and judgment which were contrary to the scientific facts."<ref name="lessing1956">Lessing, L. (1956). Man of High Fidelity: Edwin Howard Armstrong. New York: J.B. Lippincott Company.</ref>
  
Medal Assn.);<br><br>(3) Edison's 'associates': Richard Bowker (Edison Medal
+
[[Alan Hazeltine|Alan Hazeltine]] presented the award to Armstrong stating "...one development stands out from all the others... the application of the three-electrode vacuum tube... the original electronic tube was the two-electrode vacuum tube of Edison, in whose honor the Edison Medal was established. Others subsequently applied the "Edison Effect" in radio detection [but] the real foundation for the unlimited development was laid by the Edison Medal recipient, Dr. Edwin Howard Armstrong." <ref name="hazeltine">Hazeltine, A. (1943, April). Presentation of the AIEE Edison Medal. Electrical Engineering. Vol. 62. Reprinted in The Legacies of Edwin Howard Armstrong, (1991), The Radio Club of America.</ref>
  
Association), Henry Ford (founder of the Edison Institute later known as the Henry
+
Armstrong's acceptance speech began, "It is not possible for me to find the words to tell you what this honor means to me. To have belonged to the generation which learned the meaning of volts and amperes when Edison was at the height of his career, to be able to follow in the footsteps of my old instructor - [[Michael Pupin|Michael Pupin]] - who stood here twenty-two years ago, and to have my own work appraised, during these difficult days, as worthy of the Edison Medal, gives it an inspiring meaning that can never be described." <ref name="armstrong1943">Armstrong, E.H. (1943, April). Vagaries and elusiveness of invention. Proceedings, American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Electrical Engineering. Vol. 62. Reprinted in The Legacies of Edwin Howard Armstrong, (1991), The Radio Club of America.</ref>
  
Ford Museum and Greenfield Village); Arthur Kennelly (awarded Edison Medal in
+
In 1922, [[Robert A. Millikan|Robert Millikan]] won the Edison Medal "for his experimental work in electrical science". He was the first recipient to be honored primarily for scientific contributions rather than engineering or invention. The selection committee is rumored to have been influenced by his leading role in the mobilization of science and engineering to carry out military research during World War I. The award proved timely, since the following year he received the [[Nobel Prize|Nobel Prize]] in Physics, becoming the first and only Edison Medalist to win this prestigious recognition. <ref name="brittain2006">Brittain, J.S. (2006, June). Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Robert Millikan. Proceedings of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 94, No. 6.</ref><ref name="ghn">IEEE Global History Network. IEEE Global History Network Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See http://www.ieeeghn.org. (2009, Jan. 28). [[Robert A. Millikan|Robert A. Millikan]].IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org.</ref>
  
1933), Frank Sprague (awarded Edison Medal in 1910), Nikola Tesla (awarded Edison
+
== Edison's 1928 Congressional Medal ==
  
Medal in 1916) and Theodore Vandeventer. <br>
+
[[Thomas Alva Edison|Thomas Edison]] is revered as one of the great American inventors. He is recognized in the applied fields of industrial research, engineering and electronics for his many inventions and in science for his discovery of the "Edison Effect". Edison was long recognized as holding the largest number of U.S. parents awarded to any American, eventually obtaining 1,093 patents.<ref name="fn15">A 2005 study concluded that the largest number of U.S. parents (1,432) belong to Shunpei Yamazaki working at the Semiconductor Energy Laboratory in Tokyo, Japan. The second highest number of patents (1,322) belongs to Donald Weber, primarily involving flower pot and flower bundling technology. Thomas Edison now ranks third with 1,093 patents.<br><br>Maney, K. (2005, Dec. 13). You really can find identities of top patent holders. USA TODAY. Gannett Co. Inc.</ref> The U.S. Congress presented Edison with a gold medal in 1928, three years before his death, for "development and application of inventions that have revolutionized civilization in the last century."<ref name="act2007">Act Commemorating the LITE, or Lifetime Innovations of Thomas Edison. (Introduced in U.S. Senate) S 2329 IS 110th Congress 1st Session S. 2329. To establish the Thomas Edison National Historical Park in the State of New Jersey as the successor to the Edison National Historic Site. In The Senate Of The United States dated November 8, 2007.</ref> Among those who witnessed President Coolidge's presentation of the Congressional Medal were Dr. [[Elihu Thomson|Elihu Thomson]], the Edison Medal's first recipient, and the first chairman of the Edison Medal Association, Samuel Insull.<ref name="nyt1928">New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1928, Oct. 19). Program Completed For Edison Ceremony.</ref>
<br>
 
New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See  
 
  
http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1918, Feb. 12).<br>
+
== The Legacy of the Edison Medal ==
<br>
 
Hammer, W.J. (1920, March 31). Letter from W.J. Hammer to F. Jehl.  Smithsonian
 
  
Institution, National Museum of American History Archives Center, William J.  
+
[[Image:Fig 8 Medal Winners.gif|thumb|left|Edison Medal Winners 1909 through 1922. Tesla Memorial Society of New York Internet Site.  Tesla Memorial Society of New York.  See www.teslasociety.com. (2009b, April 28).  Thomas A. Edison And The Edison Medalists.  Image undated.]]
  
Hammer Collection. Rutgers University Thomas A. Edison Papers Digital Edition
+
In 1963, the [[IRE History 1912-1963|Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)]] and the [[AIEE History 1884-1963|AIEE]] [[Formation of IEEE by the Merger of AIEE and IRE|merged to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)]]. The IRE's former [[IEEE Medal of Honor|Medal of Honor]], its highest award first given to [[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin Armstrong]] in 1917, was selected to be the IEEE's "highest award". The Edison Medal was selected to become the IEEE's "principal medal".<ref name="fn16">The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was founded in 1884. The focus of the AIEE would largely become dominated by topics of electric power generation and wire communications. The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was formed in 1912, modeled on the AIEE, but was devoted to radio, wireless telegraphy and electronics. In the 1940s the interests of the two societies began to significantly overlap and many engineers were members of both societies. A merger occurred in 1963, and the resulting organization was renamed the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).</ref> Its purpose remains the same today as in 1909. As [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]] stated over seventy years ago, the Edison Medal was intended to identify those "great and noteworthy" and those "great and notorious and worthy of merit", serving as a "Who's Who" in the field of electronics and electrical engineering.<ref name="present1917" />
  
Internet Site. Document X098A, X098A082; TAEM 0:0. See  
+
Today, the Edison Medal is the oldest award in the areas of electrical and electronics engineering. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. agreed to sponsor the IEEE Edison Medal in 2006 and is committed to the sponsorship through 2016.<ref name="ieeefoundation">IEEE Foundation. (2005). Samsung to Sponsor IEEE Edison Medal. IEEE Foundation Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See http://www.ieee.org/organizations/foundation/2005news.html.</ref> The Edison Medal is considered the highest American award "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."<ref name="ieee2009b">IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009b, April 27). Edison Medal.</ref><ref name="ieee2009c" />
  
http://edison.rutgers.edu/digital.htm.<br>
+
Nominations and the selection of award recipients are governed by the IEEE Medals Council of the [[IEEE Awards|IEEE Awards]] Board. The award is based on "leadership, individual contributions, originality, breadth, patents/publications, other achievements, honors, duration of dominance, quality of nomination."<ref name="ieee2009c" /><ref name="ieee2009d">IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009d, April 27). Edison Medal Nomination.</ref>
<br>
 
Miller, F.T. (1931). Thomas A. Edison, Benefactor of Mankind.  Chicago: John C.  
 
  
Winston Company.<br>
+
The original award included a gold medal, bronze replica, small gold replica, certificate and honorarium.<ref name="ieeeedison">IEEE Edison Medal. (2009, April 27). Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.</ref> Today's prize includes a $10,000 honorarium, gold medal, gold pendant and certificate.<ref name="ieeefoundation" />
<br>
 
Kennelly, A.E. (1932). Biographical Memoir of Thomas Alva Edison 1847-1931.
 
  
National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs. Vol. XV, 10th Memoir.  
+
The 2009 Edison Medal was awarded to Tingye Li, a retired division manager of the Communications Infrastructure Research Laboratory at the AT&amp;T Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey.<ref name="ieee2009c" /> His work in the field of broadband optical fiber communications seems far removed from Thomas Edison's incandescent light first commemorated by Edison's friends and associates 105 years ago. The tremendous progress achieved in electronics and electrical science of the past century, which is characterized by the recipients of the Edison Medal, has made it a living testament to the life and work of its namesake, Thomas Edison.  
  
Presented at National Academy of Sciences Autumn Meetings, 1932. <br>
+
== Original Sources ==
<br>
 
Edison Pioneers. (2009, April 28).  Wikipedia Internet Site.  See
 
  
www.wikipedia.org.</ref> Edison, 71, Honored By Old Associates. The first meeting
+
This wiki article was originally posted with the assistance of the [http://www.antiquewireless.org/ Antique Wireless Association] and by permission of David and Julia Bart, based on their article that was first published in the[http://www.antiquewireless.org/museum/reviewstofc.htm AWA Review], August, 2009, Vol. 22. The [http://www.antiquewireless.org/museum/reviewstofc.htm AWA Review] is published each year by the [http://www.antiquewireless.org Antique Wireless Association]in conjunction with its Annual Conference. Due to the nature of a wiki like the GHN, this article may evolve over time, therefore [[Media:Edison_medal.pdf|a .pdf of the Barts' original article, is posted here]].
  
of the Executive Committee formed to organize the event were held in December 1903
+
== List of Edison Medal Winners  ==
  
as the group rushed to prepare for Edison's February 11, 1904 birthday.<ref
+
*[[Elihu Thomson|Elihu Thomson]], 1909
 
+
*[[Frank J. Sprague|Frank J. Sprague]], 1910  
name="mins1">Documents.  Edison Medal Association.  Collection of David & Julia
+
*[[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]], 1911
 
+
*[[William Stanley|William Stanley]], 1912
Bart. Minutes of Executive Committee  Dec. 23 and 30, 1903</ref>
+
*[[Charles F. Brush|Charles F. Brush]], 1913
 
+
*[[Alexander Graham Bell|Alexander Graham Bell]], 1914
The Executive Committee quickly prepared a circular to solicit contributions. The
+
*[[Nikola Tesla|Nikola Tesla]], 1916
 
+
*[[John J. Carty|John J. Carty]], 1917  
circular, dated January 1, 1904, identified Samuel Insull as the Chairman and
+
*[[Benjamin G. Lamme|Benjamin G. Lamme]], 1918
 
+
*[[William Emmet|W. L. R. Emmet]], 1919
[[Charles Batchelor]] as Vice-Chairman of the Edison Medal Association. It also
+
*[[Michael Pupin|Michael I. Pupin]], 1920
 
+
*[[Cummings C. Chesney|Cummings C. Chesney]], 1921
named the 30 member Executive Committee and 124 additional members of the Edison
+
*[[Robert A. Millikan|Robert A. Millikan]], 1922  
 
+
*[[John Lieb|John W. Lieb]], 1923  
Association. Among the notables identified were J. Pierpont Morgan, [[Reginald A.
 
 
 
Fessenden|R.A. Fessenden]], W.S. Mallory, [[Frank J. Sprague|Frank Sprague]] and
 
 
 
[[Nikola Tesla]]. The group planned to name an endowed academic medal after Edison
 
 
 
that would be awarded through the [[AIEE History 1884-1963|American Institute of
 
 
 
Electrical Engineers (AIEE)]]. The AIEE would act as trustee of the medal.
 
 
 
The Edison Medal Association intended to raise $7,000 to fund the medal and
 
 
 
expenses of the association, of which $5,000 would represent the principal balance
 
 
 
of the endowment. Annual interest on the balance would fund future expenses and
 
 
 
annual awards. The Executive Committee set an impossibly short time frame of only
 
 
 
30 days to solicit subscriptions. <ref name="doc1">Documents.  Edison Medal
 
 
 
Association.  Collection of David & Julia Bart. (1904a, Jan. 1).  Edison Medal
 
 
 
Association Subscription and Form.</ref>
 
 
 
The Executive Committee faced logistical difficulties in completing all their
 
 
 
preparations before the February celebration. The selected the National Sculpture
 
 
 
Society to assist with the medal design; but, at the close of January 1904, the
 
 
 
subcommittees responsible for the medal design had not selected an appropriate
 
 
 
image of Edison or decided on a sculptor for the Medal.<ref
 
 
 
name="mins2">Documents.  Edison Medal Association.  Collection of David & Julia
 
 
 
Bart. Minutes of Executive Committee Jan. 20, 1904</ref> Given the impending date
 
 
 
of the celebration, the Committee decided it would formally present the legal
 
 
 
agreement establishing the Edison Medal and convey the trusteeship of the Edison
 
 
 
Medal to the AIEE without presenting the medal itself.<ref name="doc2">Documents. 
 
 
 
Edison Medal Association.  Collection of David & Julia Bart. (1904b, Jan. 20). 
 
 
 
Letter from R. Lozier to E.H. Lewis.</ref> The Committee rushed to draft their
 
 
 
Deed of Gift ("Deed") over the next three weeks.
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 2 Subscription.JPG|thumb|right|1904 subscription for Edison Medal
 
 
 
(Documents, 1904a)]]
 
 
 
The Deed and corresponding rules governing the Edison Medal specified that the
 
 
 
Edison Medal Association would annually recognize a student graduating from any
 
 
 
U.S. or Canadian university or military academy who presented the best thesis on
 
 
 
an original topic about theoretical applied electricity and magnetism. Competition
 
 
 
was restricted to no more than two students from any one institution. Each student
 
 
 
had to complete at least two years of residence and coursework at the university
 
 
 
and be no older than 25 years of age. The thesis was restricted to 6,000 words
 
 
 
(approximately 20 typed pages). The award would be presented annually on Edison's
 
 
 
birthday, February 11. The Deed also specified that the Edison Medal Association,
 
 
 
under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society, would host a competition to
 
 
 
finalize the medal's design after Edison's birthday.<ref
 
 
 
name="science1904a">Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science.
 
 
 
(1904a, Jan. 15).  Electrical World. Vol. XIX.</ref><ref
 
 
 
name="science1904c">Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science.
 
 
 
(1904c, May 27).  The Edison Medal. Vol. XIX.</ref>
 
 
 
== Edison Celebration ==
 
 
 
Five hundred people attended the commemorative dinner on February 11, 1904
 
 
 
celebrating Thomas Edison's 57th birthday and the 25th anniversary of the Edison
 
 
 
incandescent light. The affair was held at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York.
 
 
 
Addresses were made by the [[Presidents of the American Institute of Electrical
 
 
 
Engineers (AIEE)|President of the AIEE]], [[Bion J. Arnold|B.J. Arnold]], and
 
 
 
[[Arthur E. Kennelly|A.E. Kennelly]] of Harvard University, C.F. Brackett of
 
 
 
Princeton University, Joseph McCall and C.L. Edgar. Samuel Insull presented the
 
 
 
Deed of Gift inaugurating the Edison Medal. <ref name="science1904b">Science.
 
 
 
American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904b, Feb. 26).  Scientific
 
 
 
notes and news. Vol. XIX.</ref><ref name="nyt1904">New York Times Article
 
 
 
Archives.  New York Times Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1904, Feb. 12).  Edison
 
 
 
Uses Sender For Banquet Speech.</ref>
 
 
 
Edison sat under a display of flags and 57 electric lamps. According to eyewitness
 
 
 
accounts, he was reserved in public and too modest to speak. Sugar models of his
 
 
 
inventions were placed on tables in front of him. Edison's original telegraph key
 
 
 
and quadruplex sender sat on the table in front of Edison positioned at his right
 
 
 
hand. Wires stretched across the room to a Marconi wireless transmitting
 
 
 
apparatus. Thousands of electric bulbs were strung along the galleries. Over one
 
 
 
hundred waiters served ices "contained in models of motors, phonographs,
 
 
 
switchboards, automobiles, incandescent apparatus, dynamos, megaphones, and
 
 
 
batteries, the ices themselves being in the form of incandescent bulbs." Each
 
 
 
guest went home with a small ivory box with a woman bearing a light and inscribed
 
 
 
"Genius with the Lamp" or a miniature incandescent lamp pin. The menus included a
 
 
 
picture of a bronze bust of Edison with the words "The Wizard" with Edison's
 
 
 
autograph below the image.<ref name="jones1908">Jones, F.A. (1908).  Thomas Alva
 
 
 
Edison, Sixty Years of an Inventor’s Life.  New York: Thomas Y. Crowell
 
 
 
Publishers.</ref><ref name="nyt1904" />
 
 
 
Congratulatory messages were received from notables around the world. Andrew
 
 
 
Carnegie called Edison the "King of Telegraphers". President Theodore Roosevelt
 
 
 
congratulated Edison "as one of those Americans to whom America owes much..." Lord
 
 
 
Kelvin cited his "gratitude to Edison [for his] useful and well worked-out
 
 
 
inventions for the public". Finally, Edison's own message of thanks was read
 
 
 
aloud. It stated, in part, "...Your expressions of goodwill gratify me
 
 
 
greatly...This medal is founded to encourage young men to devote their best
 
 
 
thought and work to electrical development. I rejoice in this stimulus to harder
 
 
 
study...God bless them and you, my dear friends, and this American Institute of
 
 
 
Electrical Engineers."<ref name="jones1908" />
 
 
 
The highlight of the evening occurred with Edison telegraphed "73 -
 
 
 
Congratulations and best wishes" on his original quadruplex telegraph instrument.
 
 
 
The message was carried across the wires and broadcast by the Marconi wireless
 
 
 
equipment.<ref name="nyt1904" /><ref name="jones1908" /> Samuel Insull, Chairman
 
 
 
of the Edison Medal Association, then formally presented the Deed of Gift to
 
 
 
Professor [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]] who received it on behalf of the
 
 
 
AIEE.
 
 
 
== The Medal's First Years ==
 
 
 
The medal was intended to "serve as an honorable incentive to the youth of America
 
 
 
to maintain by their works the high standard of accomplishment by the illustrious
 
 
 
man whose name and features shall live while human intelligence continues to
 
 
 
inhabit the world."<ref name="science1904c" /> The annual student award was to
 
 
 
include a parchment certificate and a gold medal funded by the annual interest
 
 
 
earnings on the gift. Unfortunately, after the 104 celebration, little progress
 
 
 
was made.
 
 
 
The gift fund was deposited with the Continental Trust Company of New York. But
 
 
 
three years passed and no medals were awarded. In February 1907, the Edison Medal
 
 
 
Committee appointed a subcommittee "to propose a statement of the difficulties
 
 
 
that the Committee had experienced in obtaining competitors for the medal under
 
 
 
the present Deed of Gift and to recommend to the Medal Committee such
 
 
 
modifications...as might seem proper in their judgment under the circumstances."
 
 
 
<ref name="gherardi">Gherardi, B.  (1907, March 16).  Letter from B. Gherardi to
 
 
 
F.J. Sprague.  New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Frank
 
 
 
Sprague Papers. Rutgers University Thomas A. Edison Papers Digital Edition
 
 
 
Internet Site.  Document X120C, X120CCR, TAEM 0:0. See
 
 
 
http://edison.rutgers.edu/digital.htm.</ref>
 
 
 
== The John Fritz Medal ==
 
 
 
Meanwhile, as the Edison Medal languished, the John Fritz Medal, the highest
 
 
 
American award in the engineering profession, was being presented each year.
 
 
 
Established in 1902, it recognized scientific or industrial achievement in any
 
 
 
field of pure or applied science. Fritz had achieved fame and recognition for his
 
 
 
development of American iron and steel manufacturing. The John Fritz Medal was
 
 
 
established on Fritz's 80th birthday by the American Institute of Mining Engineers
 
 
 
(AIME), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Society of
 
 
 
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
 
 
 
(AIEE).<ref name="fn3">For a complete history of John Fritz and the Fritz Medal
 
 
 
including its winners, see:<br>
 
<br>
 
Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science.
 
(1902, Nov.).  The John Fritz Medal. Vol. XVI.<br>
 
<br>
 
John Fritz Medal. (2009a, April 28).  American Association of Engineering Studies
 
 
 
Internet Site.  See http://www.aaes.org/communications/john_fritz_medal.asp.<br>
 
<br>
 
John Fritz Medal. (2009b, April 28).  Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society
 
 
 
Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.tbp.org/pages/About/People/DistinguishedMembers/Fritz.cfm.<br>
 
<br>
 
The John Fritz Medal.  (1910, Aug.).  Announcements: public meeting for the
 
 
 
presentation of the medal for 1910.  Proceedings of the American Society of Civil
 
 
 
Engineers.  American Society of Civil Engineers.  Vol. XXXVI, No. 8.<br>
 
<br>
 
Trainer, M.  (2008, June).  In Memoriam: Lord Kelvin, recipient of the John Fritz
 
 
 
Medal in 1905. Physics in Perspective.  Birkhäuser Basel.  Vol. 10, No. 2.</ref>
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 3 Fritz Medal.jpg|thumb|left|John Fritz Medal. John Fritz and his
 
 
 
legacy. (2005, March 15 - May 2).  Lehigh University Special Collections
 
 
 
Exhibition. John Fritz Medal: John W. Fisher Medalist For 2000 Program.  See
 
 
 
http://dig.lib.lehigh.edu/projects/exhibits.asp?id=5.]]
 
 
 
The Fritz Medal eventually included the American Association of Engineering
 
 
 
Studies (AAES) as well, and rotated among all five engineering societies that made
 
 
 
up the successor organizations. The first four Fritz Medals were given to John
 
 
 
Fritz (1902), Lord Kelvin (1905), [[George Westinghouse]] (1906) and [[Alexander
 
 
 
Graham Bell]] (1907).
 
 
 
[[Thomas Alva Edison|Thomas Edison]] received the fifth Fritz Medal in 1908 for
 
 
 
his "invention of the duplex and quadruplex telegraph; the
 
 
 
[[Phonograph|phonograph]]; the development of a commercially practical
 
 
 
incandescent lamp; the development of a complete system of electric lighting,
 
 
 
including dynamos, regulating devices, underground system protective devices and
 
 
 
meters."<ref name="johnfritz1910">The John Fritz Medal.  (1910, Aug.). 
 
 
 
Announcements: public meeting for the presentation of the medal for 1910. 
 
 
 
Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.  American Society of Civil
 
 
 
Engineers.  Vol. XXXVI, No. 8.</ref>
 
 
 
== Edison Medal Restructured ==
 
 
 
In 1908, the Executive Committee of the Edison Medal Association now decided to
 
 
 
revamp its medal's rules and intended purpose. [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur
 
 
 
Kennelly]] later explained that between 1904 and 1908 a shortage of applicants led
 
 
 
to the absence of qualified candidates under the existing rules which focused the
 
 
 
award on student recipients.<ref name="present1917">Presentation of the Edison
 
 
 
Medal to Nikola Tesla.  (1917, May 18).  Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the
 
 
 
AIEE, Held at The Engineering Societies Building, New York City.  American
 
 
 
Institute of Electrical Engineers.</ref> The Committee responded by redefining the
 
 
 
medal's purpose and executed an Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating The
 
 
 
Edison Medal ("Amended Deed') in New York on March 26, 1908.<ref name="fn4">The
 
 
 
Amended Deed was executed in triplicate by the full Executive Committee including
 
 
 
William S. Andrews, Charles Batchelor, Richard R. Bowker, Andrew Carnegie, Charles
 
 
 
A. Coffin, Richard N. Dyer, Sherburne B. Eaton, Charles L. Edgar, William E.
 
 
 
Gillmore, William J. Hammer, Frank S. Hastings, Charles T. Hughes, Samuel Insull,
 
 
 
Arthur E. Kennelly, H. Ward Leonard, John W. Lieb Jr., Robert T. Lozier, W.S.
 
 
 
Mallory, T. Commerford Martin, J. Pierpont Morgan, John Ott, Frank J. Sprague,
 
 
 
Francis R. Upton, and Schuyler S. Wheeler. Alex S. Webb signed as Vice President
 
 
 
of the New York Trust Company and Henry G. Stott signed as President of the AIEE.
 
 
 
Eugene H. Lewis, who had executed the original 1904 deed, had since died. John
 
 
 
Ott's signature was omitted from Samuel Insull's copy of the Amended Deed, which
 
 
 
was delivered to the Edison Medal Association's lawyers as the final copy.<br>
 
<br>
 
Documents.  Edison Medal Association. Collection of David & Julia Bart. (1908a,
 
 
 
March 26).  Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating Edison Medal.<br>
 
<br>
 
Documents.  Edison Medal Association.  Collection of David & Julia Bart. (1908b,
 
 
 
May 13).  Letter from S. Insull to Messrs. Eaton, Lewis and Rowe.</ref>
 
 
 
The new deed re-established the Edison Medal in partnership with the New York
 
 
 
Trust Company and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). It
 
 
 
reasserted that the medal "should, during the centuries to come, serve as an
 
 
 
honorable incentive to scientists, engineers and artisans to maintain by their
 
 
 
works the high standard of accomplishment set by the illustrious man whose name
 
 
 
and features shall live while human intelligence continues to inhabit the world."
 
 
 
The Amended Deed also re-wrote the rules and established that the AIEE would
 
 
 
present the medal as its award for "...MERITORIOUS ACHIVEMENT [emphasis in
 
 
 
document] in Electrical Science or Electrical Engineering or the Electrical Arts,
 
 
 
whenever in the judgment of said Committee [there is someone] properly deserving
 
 
 
of such award..."<ref name="doc4">Documents.  Edison Medal Association. 
 
 
 
Collection of David & Julia Bart. (1908a, March 26).  Amended and Substitute Deed
 
 
 
of Gift Creating Edison Medal.</ref> Revisions to the Committee's bylaws commenced
 
 
 
in October 1908, and the final draft was presented to the Board of Directors on
 
 
 
December 11, 1908.<ref name="edcom1909">Edison Medal Committee. (1909, May 18). 
 
 
 
Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.  American
 
 
 
Institute of Electrical Engineers.  June 30-Dec. 31, 1909. Vol. XXVIII Part
 
 
 
II.</ref> The Board approved the minutes on May 18, 1909, making operative the
 
 
 
revised by-laws and new rules.<ref name="edcom1910">Edison Medal Committee. 
 
 
 
(1910, May 17).  Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
 
 
 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers.  May 17-Dec. 31, 1910. Vol. XXIX Part
 
 
 
II.</ref> Later, the AIEE appointed a jury of 24 members to select the recipient
 
 
 
of the award.<ref name="present1917" />
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 4 Deed signatures.jpg|thumb|right|Signature blocks from Amended and
 
 
 
Substituted Deed of Gift Dated 1908 Reestablished Terms for the Edison Medal.
 
 
 
Signatures are in alphabetical order on the Deed of Gift<ref name="fn4" />, but
 
 
 
are shown in the following order in the excerpts: (left column top) Sprague,
 
 
 
Upton, Wheeler; (Left column middle) Webb, Stott; (Left column bottom) Andrews,
 
 
 
Batchelor, Bowker, Carnegie; (Right column) Coffin, Dyer, Eaton, Gillmore, Hammer,
 
 
 
Hastings, Hughes, Insull, Kennelly, Leonard, Lieb, Lozier, Mallory, Martin,
 
 
 
Morgan.]]
 
 
 
== A Design for the Medal ==
 
 
 
The 1904 Edison Medal Committee had initiated a Programme and Rules governing its
 
 
 
competition to select an appropriate design for the medal.<ref
 
 
 
name="doc3">Documents.  Edison Medal Association.  Collection of David & Julia
 
 
 
Bart. (1904c, Feb. 20).  Programme and Rules For A Competition For The Selection
 
 
 
of a Design For And Edison Medal Commemorating The Invention of the Incandescent
 
 
 
Lamp.</ref> Working under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society, designs
 
 
 
were invited within a general scheme that specified Thomas Edison's portrait would
 
 
 
dominate the face of the medal and an allegorical design would appear on the
 
 
 
reverse side. Edison's image would date from the time of his incandescent light,
 
 
 
approximately 25 years earlier. A prize of $1,000 would be awarded to the selected
 
 
 
artist for production of the medal. Designs were due from April 25-30, 1904, with
 
 
 
a decision to be rendered within one month. The jury for the competition included
 
 
 
Daniel C. French<ref name="fn6">Daniel French designed several renowned public
 
 
 
monuments including ''Abraham Lincoln'' at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington,
 
 
 
D.C., the ''Minuteman Statue'' in Concord, Massachusetts and ''Republic'', the
 
 
 
centerpiece of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893.<br>
 
<br>
 
French.  (2009, May 5).  Daniel Chester French. Wikipedia Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
www.wikipedia.org. </ref>, Augustus Saint Gaudens<ref name="fn7">Augustus Saint
 
 
 
Gaudens was a sculptor and artist who designed many public monuments including
 
 
 
''William Tecumseh Sherman'' in New York City's Central Park, ''Diana'' and
 
 
 
''Hiawatha'' at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the ''Robert
 
 
 
Gould Shaw Memorial'' on Boston Common and ''The Puritan'' in Salem,
 
 
 
Massachusetts. He also designed the Double Eagle $20 U.S. gold coin as well as the
 
 
 
$10 Indian Head gold eagle.<br>
 
<br>
 
Gaudens.  (2009, May 5).  Augustus Saint-Gaudens.  Wikipedia Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
www.wikipedia.org.</ref> and J.Q.A. Ward<ref name="fn8">Artist and sculptor John
 
 
 
Quincy Adams Ward is best known for his statue of ''George Washington'' on the
 
 
 
steps of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City.<br>
 
<br>
 
Adams (2009, May 5).  John Quincy Adams Ward.  Wikipedia Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
www.wikipedia.org.</ref> of the National Sculpture Society and Edward Adams and
 
 
 
[[T. Commerford Martin|T. Commerford Martin]] on behalf of the Edison Medal
 
 
 
Association.<ref name="doc3" />
 
 
 
The design contest was administered late in 1904, and on Nov. 11, 1904, James
 
 
 
Earle Fraser<ref name="fn9">James Earle Fraser was the leading American sculptor
 
 
 
of public monuments of his generation. Today, no other artist has more public
 
 
 
sculptures on display in the U.S. He is best known for the U.s. Buffalo Nickel as
 
 
 
well as ''Theodore Roosevelt'' at the American Museum of Natural History in New
 
 
 
York City, ''Benjamin Franklin'' at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, the
 
 
 
entry sculptures and pediment reliefs at the U.S. National Archives building in
 
 
 
Washington, D.C., ''Alexander Hamilton'' at the U.S. Treasury in Washington, D.C.,
 
 
 
and the ''End of the Trail'' sculpture now at the National Cowboy & Western
 
 
 
Heritage Museum. Fraser also executed the Thomas Edison bust and seated Edison
 
 
 
statue at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.<br>
 
<br>
 
Semple, E.A.  (1910, April).  James Earle Fraser, Sculptor.  The Century Magazine.
 
 
 
New York:  The Century Company.<br>
 
<br>
 
Freundlich, A.L.  (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser.  Boca Raton,
 
 
 
Florida: Universal Publishers.</ref>, a New York sculptor and medallion designer,
 
 
 
was informed by St. Gaudens that he was the unanimous selection of the jury. St.
 
 
 
Gaudens asked Fraser to provide several sketches "showing modifications to your
 
 
 
present idea, or of new ones that may occur".<ref name="freundlich">Freundlich,
 
 
 
A.L.  (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser.  Boca Raton, Florida: Universal
 
 
 
Publishers.</ref>
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 5 Programme.JPG|thumb|left|1904 Programme and Rules for the Edison
 
 
 
Medal Design (Documents, 1904c)]]
 
 
 
The final design featured both Edison and an allegorical symbol of merit. The
 
 
 
obverse (face) features Edison's portrait and is inscribed "Awarded By The
 
 
 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers for Meritorious Achievement In
 
 
 
Electricity". The reverse (back) depicts "The Genius of Electricity Crowned by
 
 
 
Fame" showing an angel standing behind a male nude and a glowing Edison light
 
 
 
sitting on a pedestal.<ref name="fn10">The original design for the reverse (back)
 
 
 
of the Edison Medal depicted a nude male sitting on steps holding a glowing Edison
 
 
 
light bulb. Fraser actually cast Edison's own arm holding the light bulb for this
 
 
 
version of the medal.<br>
 
<br>
 
Freundlich, A.L.  (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser.  Boca Raton,
 
 
 
Florida: Universal Publishers.</ref><ref name="nyt1909">New York Times Article
 
 
 
Archives. New York Times Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1909, Aug. 1).  To Award
 
 
 
Edison Medal.</ref><ref name="freundlich" /> The Amended Deed specified that the
 
 
 
AIEE would retain a die for future production and reproduction of the gold
 
 
 
medal.<ref name="doc4" />
 
 
 
== First Recipient in 1909 ==
 
 
 
Prior to issuing the Amended Deed which redefined the Edison Medal, five graduate
 
 
 
students who had qualified to compete for the medal under the old 1904 rules had
 
 
 
submitted their theses. Since the medal had been restructured to focus on lifetime
 
 
 
achievement instead of student work, the five candidates were asked to withdraw
 
 
 
from the medal competition in 1908. They were allowed to resubmit their theses in
 
 
 
a special contest to receive a Diploma of Merit plus a $150 cash award issued by
 
 
 
the AIEE.<ref name="edcom1909" /> On May 18, 1909, Trygve Jensen, a graduate
 
 
 
student at the University of Illinois, won the Diploma of Merit for his research
 
 
 
on the "Operation of a 100,000 Volt Transformer."<ref name="edcom1910" />
 
 
 
Finally, five years after the initial 1904 organization of the Edison Medal
 
 
 
Association, the Committee was ready to officially name its first Edison Metal
 
 
 
recipient.<ref name="fn11">The Edison Medal award dates in this article are based
 
 
 
on the dates each recipient was selected, as reported by the IEEE, and not the
 
 
 
dates the awards were presented, as reported by some of the reference materials.
 
 
 
Since recipients were selected at the close of each calendar year and the medal
 
 
 
presentation was made the following year, there is some inconsistency referring to
 
 
 
the year of each award.</ref> Dr. [[Elihu Thomson]] was cited for his "meritorious
 
 
 
achievement in electrical science, engineering and arts as exemplified in his
 
 
 
contributions thereto during the past 30 years."<ref name="edcom1910" /> <ref
 
 
 
name="brittain2004">Brittain, J.S. (2004, Jan.).  Hall of fame for electrical
 
 
 
engineers-Elihu Thomson.  Proceedings of the IEEE.  Institute of Electrical and
 
 
 
Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 92, No. 1.</ref> Thomson's accomplishments
 
 
 
included approximately 700 patents, work on electric arc lighting, establishing
 
 
 
the Thomson-Houston Electric Company (which would eventually merge with the Edison
 
 
 
General Electric Company to become [[General Electric (GE)|General Electric
 
 
 
Company]]), the Thomson Electric Meter, alternating current devices, the electric
 
 
 
air drill, and methods of electric arc welding. In the 1890s, Thomson investigated
 
 
 
X-rays and performed research on fused quartz for use in reflecting astronomical
 
 
 
telescopes. Thomson was active in the AIEE, contributed to many other societies
 
 
 
and received the John Fritz Medal in 1916. He later become the President of the
 
 
 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.<ref name="fn12">Dr. Elihu Thomson is not
 
 
 
related to Sir William Thomson, known as Lord Kelvin. In addition to the Edison
 
 
 
Medal, Thomson was the first American recipient of the Kelvin Gold Medal issued by
 
 
 
the Institute of Civil Engineers in Great Britain in 1923. The Kelvin Medal is
 
 
 
awarded for "distinguished service in the application of science to
 
 
 
engineering."<br>
 
<br>
 
Presentation of John Fritz Medal to Professor Elihu Thomson.  (1917, Feb.). 
 
 
 
Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. American Institute of
 
 
 
Mining Engineers. No. 122.<br>
 
<br>
 
Brittain, J.S. (2004, Jan.).  Hall of fame for electrical engineers-Elihu Thomson.
 
 
 
Proceedings of the IEEE.  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
 
 
 
Vol. 92, No. 1.<br>
 
<br>
 
IEEE Explore.  (2008, Sept. 16).  Elihu Thomson.  IEEE Digital Library.  Institute
 
 
 
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.  See
 
 
 
http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Elihu_Thomson.<br>
 
<br>
 
ICE.  (2009, May 5).  The Kelvin Medal.  Institution of Civil Engineers Terms of
 
 
 
Reference For Institution and Inter-Institution Medals.  Institution of Civil
 
 
 
Engineers Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.ice.org.uk/myice/myice_scholarships_inter_institution.asp.</ref> The
 
 
 
Edison Medal Association presented Thomson with a parchment certificate
 
 
 
constituting official notice of the award at the AIEE's annual dinner on February
 
 
 
24,1910. He received the gold Edison Medal at the AIEE's annual meeting on May
 
 
 
17.<ref name="edcom1910" />
 
 
 
== Conflicts and Controversy ==
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 6 Edison Medal.jpg|thumb|right|The First Edison Medal Awarded to Elihu
 
 
 
Thomson In 1909]]
 
 
 
The Edison Medal has been awarded annually since 1909 with the exception of 1915,
 
 
 
1926, 1964 and 2003. The 1926 medal was actually rejected by the named recipient,
 
 
 
Dr. [[William Coolidge]], who refused to accept the medal in light of a U.S.
 
 
 
Circuit Court decision invalidating his patent on ductile-tungsten. The decision
 
 
 
stated that a patent (for an invention) could not be awarded for a scientific
 
 
 
discovery. The Edison Medal Committee still tried to award the medal, but Dr.
 
 
 
Coolidge refused to "detract from the luster of that medal which should stand as
 
 
 
one of the most coveted prizes for meritorious work in the electrical field."<ref
 
 
 
name="nyt1927">New York Times Article Archives.  New York Times Internet Site. 
 
 
 
See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1927, Feb. 26). 
 
 
 
Scientist Refuses To Accept Award.</ref>
 
 
 
Ironically, most of the Edison Medal awards in its first ten years went to
 
 
 
pioneers or supporters of alternating current and arc lightning technologies even
 
 
 
though Edison's long standing opposition to alternating current systems was well
 
 
 
known and had garnered many newspaper headlines.<ref name="jonnes2003">Jonnes, J. 
 
 
 
(2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify
 
 
 
the World. New York:  Random House, Inc.</ref><ref name="mcnichol2006">McNichol,
 
 
 
T.  (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War.  San Francisco:
 
 
 
Jossey-Bass.</ref> The rules did not require Edison to present the award, and he
 
 
 
was not involved with the award committee's selection of recipients. The following
 
 
 
innovators of alternating current technology received Edison Medals during its
 
 
 
first decade: [[Elihu Thomson]] (1909), [[Frank J. Sprague|Frank Sprague]] (1910),
 
 
 
[[George Westinghouse]] (1911), [[William Stanley]] (1912), [[Charles F.  
 
 
 
Brush|Charles Brush]] (1913), [[Nikola Tesla]] (1916) and [[Michael Pupin]]
 
 
 
(1920).<ref name="fn11" />
 
 
 
[[George Westinghouse]] received the 1911 Edison Medal for his groundbreaking work
 
 
 
developing alternating current systems for power distribution and lighting. After
 
 
 
nearly 25 years of battling Westinghouse over the alternating current versus
 
 
 
direct current systems, Edison offered Westinghouse no congratulations at the
 
 
 
ceremony.<ref name="mcnichol2006">McNichol, T.  (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of
 
 
 
the First Standards War.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.</ref> Westinghouse ignored
 
 
 
Edison stating that "If I have had any success in life it has been due to my
 
 
 
wife."<ref name="jonnes2003" />
 
 
 
In 1917, the Edison Medal was presented to another former Edison rival, [[Nikola
 
 
 
Tesla]], for his development of polyphase and high frequency electric
 
 
 
currents.<ref name="edmedal1">Edison Medal.  (2009, April 28).  Encyclopedia II -
 
 
 
Edison Medal – History.  See
 
 
 
http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Edison_Medal_-_History/id/5011080.</ref><ref
 
 
 
name="ieee2009c">IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
 
 
 
Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009c, April 27).  Edison Medal 
 
 
 
Recipients.</ref> Rumors had circulated in 1915 that both Tesla and Edison might
 
 
 
jointly share the [[Nobel Prize]] in Physics. Though unconfirmed by the Nobel
 
 
 
Committee, Tesla allegedly rejected the award and would have nothing to do with
 
 
 
Edison. Contradictory stories followed. Soon thereafter, the 1915 [[Nobel Prize]]
 
 
 
was presented to two British scientists.<ref name="fn13">See New York Times (1915)
 
 
 
for the original article and Cheney (1981 and 2001) for the complete story which
 
 
 
involved many unsupported newspaper articles and interviews about the Nobel Prize
 
 
 
award. On November 14, 1915, the Nobel Prize Committee announced the 1915 prize
 
 
 
for physics would be awarded to Professor William Henry Bragg of the University of
 
 
 
Leeds in England and his son W.L. Bragg of Cambridge University for their use of
 
 
 
X-rays to determine the structure of crystals.</ref>
 
 
 
The following year, the Edison Medal Association selected Tesla as its 1916 medal
 
 
 
recipient. Although Tesla was listed on the original 1904 Edison Medal General
 
 
 
Committee subscription<ref name="doc1" />, he was now unwilling to receive an
 
 
 
award named after Edison. Tesla further thought that his contributions to
 
 
 
[[Wireless Telegraphy|wireless telegraphy]] and [[Radio|radio]] had been slighted
 
 
 
since [[Guglielmo Marconi]] had already received the [[Nobel Prize]] in 1909 with
 
 
 
Carl F. Braun. Tesla initially refused the nomination in anger, but later agreed
 
 
 
to accept the Edison Medal after his friends at the AIEE pled with him to overcome
 
 
 
years of hostility, bitterness, and competitive rivalry with Edison. <ref
 
 
 
name="cheney1981">Cheney, M. (1981).  Tesla, Man Out of Time.  Englewood Cliffs,
 
 
 
N.J.: Prentice-Hall.</ref> Tesla stunned the audience at the presentation ceremony
 
 
 
when he graciously accepted the award and complimented Edison, who did not attend
 
 
 
the ceremony, as "this wonderful man, who had had no theoretical training at all,
 
 
 
no advantages, who did all himself, getting great results by virtue of his
 
 
 
industry and application."<ref name="present1917" />
 
 
 
Tesla treasured the Edison Medal during his final years. Poverty stricken, he gave
 
 
 
up virtually all of his personal possessions, but kept the medal in a safe at his
 
 
 
subsidized Hotel New Yorker apartment. Tesla is reported to have proudly shown the
 
 
 
medal to many visitors. After his death on January 7, 1943, Tesla's nephew opened
 
 
 
the safe to discover that the medal was missing. It has never been recovered. <ref
 
 
 
name="cheney1981" /><ref name="cheney2001">Cheney, M., Uth, R.  (2001). TESLA:
 
 
 
Master of Lighting.  New York: Metro Books.</ref><ref name="tms2009a">Tesla
 
 
 
Memorial Society of New York Internet Site.  Tesla Memorial Society of New York. 
 
 
 
See www.teslasociety.com. (2009a, April 28).  Vujovic, Dr. L.  Missing Tesla
 
 
 
Related Items.</ref>
 
 
 
The Edison Medal for 1947 was presented to [[Lee De Forest]] by none other than
 
 
 
[[David Sarnoff]], President of the powerful [[RCA (Radio Corporation of
 
 
 
America)|Radio Corporation of America (RCA)]] and a one-time litigant both with
 
 
 
and against De Forest over patent rights. Sarnoff heaped glowing praise on De
 
 
 
Forest's grid-controlled [[Electron (or Vacuum) Tubes|electron vacuum tube]] as
 
 
 
"one of the twenty great inventions of all time".<ref name="nyt1947">New York
 
 
 
Times Article Archives.  New York Times Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1947, Jan. 29).  De
 
 
 
Forest Honored As Radio Pioneer.</ref>
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 7 Tesla Diploma.jpg|thumb|left|Nikola Tesla 1916 Edison Medal Award
 
 
 
Certificate. Kesler, M.  (2006, June 22).  Nikola Tesla 150 Years of Genius. 
 
 
 
Exhibition: Diplomas of Nikola Tesla At The Assembly Room in Zagreb‘s Subcommittee
 
 
 
of Prosvjeta.  For Tesla’s Edison Medal certificate see
 
 
 
www.nikolatesla.hr/slike/Diploma4.jpg. For Exhibition see
 
 
 
http://www.nikolatesla.hr/news.aspx?newsID=69&pageID=14.]]
 
 
 
== Connections ==
 
 
 
The Edison Medal Winners are well represented among the recipients of the John
 
 
 
Fritz Medal, and many were also members in the most prestigious national
 
 
 
engineering honor society in the U.S., Tau Beta Pi. Of the 1903 John fritz Medal
 
 
 
winners from 1902-2008, 52 are also Tau Beta Pi members. Of the 13 people that won
 
 
 
both the John Fritz Medal and the Edison Medal, six were Tau Beta Pi members.
 
 
 
These include [[Michael Pupin]] (who won the Edison Medal in 1920), [[Frank B.
 
 
 
Jewett|Frank Jewett]] (1928), [[Vannevar Bush]] (1943), [[Charles F.
 
 
 
Kettering|Charles Kettering]] (1958), Walker Cisler (1965) and [[George Brown]]
 
 
 
(1967). The remaining medalists include [[Elihu Thomson]] (1909), [[Frank J.  
 
 
 
Sprague|Frank Sprague (1910)]], [[George Westinghouse|George Westinghouse]]
 
 
 
(1911), [[Alexander Graham Bell]] (1914), [[John J. Carty|John Carty]] (1917),
 
 
 
[[Willis R. Whitney|Willis Whitney]] (1934) and [[Philip Sporn]] (1945).<ref
 
 
 
name="fn14">See:<br>
 
<br>
 
IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See
 
 
 
https://www.ieee.org (2009c, April 27).  Edison Medal  Recipients.<br>
 
<br>
 
John Fritz Medal. (2009a, April 28).  American Association of Engineering Studies
 
 
 
Internet Site.  See http://www.aaes.org/communications/john_fritz_medal.asp.<br>
 
<br>
 
John Fritz Medal. (2009b, April 28).  Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society
 
 
 
Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.tbp.org/pages/About/People/DistinguishedMembers/Fritz.cfm.<br>
 
<br>
 
IEEE Century of Honors. (1984). A Century of Honors 1884-1984: The First 100 Years
 
 
 
of Award Winners, Honorary Members, Past Presidents and Fellows of The Institute. 
 
 
 
New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.<br>
 
<br>
 
IEEE Edison Medal.  (2009, April 27).  Wikipedia Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
www.wikipedia.org.</ref>
 
 
 
The Edison Medal was awarded to a number of people for their critical roles in
 
 
 
developing radio and television communication, including [[Michael Pupin]] (1920)
 
 
 
for his work in mathematical physics and its application to the electric
 
 
 
transmission of intelligence; [[Frank Conrad]] (1930) for radio broadcasting and
 
 
 
short wave radio transmission; [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]] (1933) for
 
 
 
the theory of electrical transmission and international electrical standards;
 
 
 
[[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin Armstrong]] (1942) for the regenerative,  
 
 
 
super-regenerative and [[Superheterodyne Receiver|super-heterodyne circuits]] and
 
 
 
[[FM Radio|frequency modulation FM radio]]; [[Lee De Forest]] (1946) for the
 
 
 
grid-controlled vacuum tube; and [[Vladimir Zworykin]] (1952) for the
 
 
 
[[Television|television]].<ref name="edmedal1" /><ref name="ieee2009c" />
 
 
 
== Armstrong and Millikan ==
 
 
 
[[Image:Edison medal.jpg|thumb|right|Edwin H. Armstrong's Edison Medal, awarded in
 
 
 
1942]]
 
 
 
[[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin Armstrong]] was particularly introspective upon his
 
 
 
receipt of the 1942 Edison Medal after his many years spent in litigation with
 
 
 
[[Lee De Forest|De Forest]], [[RCA (Radio Corporation of America)|RCA]] and others
 
 
 
over radio patents and public acknowledgement of who invented various radio
 
 
 
circuits. The AIEE awarded Armstrong an honorary lifetime membership (the first of
 
 
 
which had been extended to Lord Kelvin in 1892) together with the Edison Medal.
 
 
 
Armstrong's Edison Medal citation noted the importance of his work stating, "This
 
 
 
keystone of radio development was later to become involved in fourteen years of
 
 
 
litigation and which, in the end, was decided by lay courts based on errors of
 
 
 
fact and judgment which were contrary to the scientific facts."<ref
 
 
 
name="lessing1956">Lessing, L. (1956). Man of High Fidelity: Edwin Howard
 
 
 
Armstrong.  New York: J.B. Lippincott Company.</ref>
 
 
 
[[Alan Hazeltine]] presented the award to Armstrong stating "...one development
 
 
 
stands out from all the others... the application of the three-electrode vacuum
 
 
 
tube... the original electronic tube was the two-electrode vacuum tube of Edison,  
 
 
 
in whose honor the Edison Medal was established. Others subsequently applied the
 
 
 
"Edison Effect" in radio detection [but] the real foundation for the unlimited
 
 
 
development was laid by the Edison Medal recipient, Dr. Edwin Howard Armstrong."
 
 
 
<ref name="hazeltine">Hazeltine, A.  (1943, April).  Presentation of the AIEE
 
 
 
Edison Medal. Electrical Engineering.  Vol. 62. Reprinted in The Legacies of Edwin
 
 
 
Howard Armstrong, (1991), The Radio Club of America.</ref>
 
 
 
Armstrong's acceptance speech began, "It is not possible for me to find the words
 
 
 
to tell you what this honor means to me. To have belonged to the generation which
 
 
 
learned the meaning of volts and amperes when Edison was at the height of his
 
 
 
career, to be able to follow in the footsteps of my old instructor - [[Michael  
 
 
 
Pupin]] - who stood here twenty-two years ago, and to have my own work appraised,  
 
 
 
during these difficult days, as worth of the Edison Medal, gives it an inspiring
 
 
 
meaning that can never be described." <ref name="armstrong1943">Armstrong, E.H.
 
 
 
(1943, April).  Vagaries and elusiveness of invention.  Proceedings, American
 
 
 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. Electrical Engineering. Vol. 62.  Reprinted in
 
 
 
The Legacies of Edwin Howard Armstrong, (1991), The Radio Club of America.</ref>
 
 
 
In 1922, [[Robert A. Millikan|Robert Millikan]] won the Edison Medal "for his
 
 
 
experimental work in electrical science". He was the first recipient to be honored
 
 
 
primarily for scientific contributions rather than engineering or invention. The
 
 
 
selection committee is rumored to have been influenced by his leading role in the
 
 
 
mobilization of science and engineering to carry out military research during
 
 
 
World War 1. The award proved timely, since the following year he received the
 
 
 
[[Nobel Prize]] in Physics, becoming the first and only Edison Medalist to win
 
 
 
this prestigious recognition. <ref name="brittain2006">Brittain, J.S. (2006,
 
 
 
June).  Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Robert Millikan.  Proceedings of the
 
 
 
IEEE.  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 94, No.
 
 
 
6.</ref><ref name="ghn">IEEE Global History Network.  IEEE Global History Network
 
 
 
Internet Site.  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.  See
 
 
 
http://www.ieeeghn.org. (2009, Jan. 28).  [[Robert A. Millikan]].
 
IEEE Internet Site.  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.  See
 
 
 
https://www.ieee.org.</ref>
 
 
 
== Edison's 1928 Congressional Medal ==
 
 
 
[[Thomas Alva Edison|Thomas Edison]] is revered as one of the great American
 
 
 
inventors. He is recognized in the applied fields of industrial research,
 
 
 
engineering and electronics for his many inventions and in science for his
 
 
 
discovery of the "Edison Effect". Edison was long recognized as holding the
 
 
 
largest number of U.S. parents awarded to any American, eventually obtaining 1,093
 
 
 
patents.<ref name="fn15">A 2005 study concluded that the largest number of U.S.
 
 
 
parents (1,432) belong to Shunpei Yamazaki working at the Semiconductor Energy
 
 
 
Laboratory in Tokyo, Japan. The second highest number of patents (1,322) belongs
 
 
 
to Donald Weber, primarily involving flower pot and flower bundling technology.
 
 
 
Thomas Edison now ranks third with 1,093 patents.<br>
 
<br>
 
Maney, K.  (2005, Dec. 13). You really can find identities of top patent holders. 
 
 
 
USA TODAY.  Gannett Co. Inc.</ref> The U.S. Congress presented Edison with a gold
 
 
 
medal in 1928, three years before his death, for "development and application of
 
 
 
inventions that have revolutionized civilization in the last century."<ref
 
 
 
name="act2007">Act Commemorating the LITE, or Lifetime Innovations of Thomas
 
 
 
Edison. (Introduced in U.S. Senate) S 2329 IS 110th Congress 1st Session S. 2329.
 
 
 
To establish the Thomas Edison National Historical Park in the State of New Jersey
 
 
 
as the successor to the Edison National Historic Site. In The Senate Of The United
 
 
 
States dated November 8, 2007.</ref> Among those present to witness President
 
 
 
Coolidge's presentation of the Congressional Medal were Dr. [[Elihu Thomson]], the
 
 
 
Edison Medal's first recipient, and the first chairman of the Edison Medal
 
 
 
Association, Samuel Insull.<ref name="nyt1928">New York Times Article Archives. 
 
 
 
New York Times Internet Site.  See
 
 
 
http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1928, Oct. 19).  Program
 
 
 
Completed For Edison Ceremony.</ref>
 
 
 
== The Legacy of the Edison Medal ==
 
 
 
[[Image:Fig 8 Medal Winners.gif|thumb|left|Edison Medal Winners 1909 through 1922.
 
 
 
Tesla Memorial Society of New York Internet Site.  Tesla Memorial Society of New
 
 
 
York.  See www.teslasociety.com. (2009b, April 28).  Thomas A. Edison And The
 
 
 
Edison Medalists.  Image undated.]]
 
 
 
In 1963, the [[IRE History 1912-1963|Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)]] and the
 
 
 
[[AIEE History 1884-1963|AIEE]]] [[Formation of IEEE by the Merger of AIEE and
 
 
 
IRE|merged to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)]].
 
 
 
The IRE's former [[IEEE Medal of Honor|Medal of Honor]], its highest award first
 
 
 
given to [[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin Armstrong]] in 1917, was selected to be the
 
 
 
IEEE's "highest award". The Edison Medal was selected to become the IEEE's
 
 
 
"principal medal".<ref name="fn16">The American Institute of Electrical Engineers
 
 
 
(AIEE) was founded in 1884. The focus of the AIEE would largely become dominated
 
 
 
by topics of electric power generation and wire communications. The Institute of
 
 
 
Radio Engineers (IRE) was formed in 1912, modeled on the AIEE, but was devoted to
 
 
 
radio, wireless telegraphy and electronics. In the 1940s the interests of the two
 
 
 
societies began to significantly overlap and many engineers were members of both
 
 
 
societies. A merger occurred in 1963, and the resulting organization was renamed
 
 
 
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).</ref> Its purpose
 
 
 
remains the same today as in 1909. As [[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur Kennelly]]
 
 
 
stated over seventy years ago, the Edison Medal was intended to identify those
 
 
 
"great and noteworthy" and those "great and notorious and worthy of merit",
 
 
 
serving as a "Who's Who" in the field of electronics and electrical
 
 
 
engineering.<ref name="present1917" />
 
 
 
Today, the Edison Medal is the oldest award in the areas of electrical and
 
 
 
electronics engineering. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. agreed to sponsor the IEEE
 
 
 
Edison Medal in 2006 and is committed to the sponsorship through 2016.<ref
 
 
 
name="ieeefoundation">IEEE Foundation.  (2005).  Samsung to Sponsor IEEE Edison
 
 
 
Medal.  IEEE Foundation Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
 
 
 
Engineers, Inc.  See
 
 
 
http://www.ieee.org/organizations/foundation/2005news.html.</ref> The Edison Medal
 
 
 
is considered the highest American award "for a career of meritorious achievement
 
 
 
in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."<ref
 
 
 
name="ieee2009b">IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
 
 
 
Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009b, April 27).  Edison
 
 
 
Medal.</ref><ref name="ieee2009c" />
 
 
 
Nominations and the selection of award recipients are governed by the IEEE Medals
 
 
 
Council of the [[IEEE Awards]] Board. The award is based on "leadership,
 
 
 
individual contributions, originality, breadth, patents/publications, other
 
 
 
achievements, honors, duration of dominance, quality of nomination."<ref
 
 
 
name="ieee2009c" /><ref name="ieee2009d">IEEE Internet Site. Institute of
 
 
 
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009d, April
 
 
 
27).  Edison Medal Nomination.</ref>
 
 
 
The original award included a gold medal, bronze replica, small gold replica,
 
 
 
certificate and honorarium.<ref name="ieeeedison">IEEE Edison Medal.  (2009, April
 
 
 
27).  Wikipedia Internet Site.  See www.wikipedia.org.</ref> Today's prize
 
 
 
includes a $10,000 honorarium, gold medal, gold pendant and certificate.<ref
 
 
 
name="ieeefoundation" />
 
 
 
The 2009 Edison Medal was awarded to Tingye Li, a retired division manager of the
 
 
 
Communications Infrastructure Research Laboratory at the AT&T Laboratories in
 
 
 
Holmdel, New Jersey.<ref name="ieee2009c" /> His work in the field of broadband
 
 
 
optical fiber communications seems far removed from Thomas Edison's incandescent
 
 
 
light first commemorated by Edison's friends and associates 105 years ago. The
 
 
 
tremendous progress achieved in electronics and electrical science of the past
 
 
 
century, which is characterized by the recipients of the Edison Medal, has made it
 
 
 
a living testament to the life and work of its namesake, Thomas Edison.
 
 
 
== Original Article ==
 
 
 
[[Media:Edison medal.pdf|A .pdf of Bart's original article, originally appearing
 
 
 
in ''The Antique Wireless Association Review'', Volume 22, 2009]]
 
 
 
== List of Edison Medal Winners ==
 
 
 
*Elihu Thomson, 1909
 
*Frank J. Sprague, 1910
 
*George Westinghouse, 1911
 
*William Stanley, 1912
 
*Charles F. Brush, 1913
 
*Alexander Graham Bell, 1914
 
*Nikola Tesla, 1916
 
*John J. Carty, 1917
 
*Benjamin G. Lamme, 1918
 
*W. L. R. Emmet, 1919
 
*Michael I. Pupin, 1920
 
*Cummings C. Chesney, 1921
 
*Robert A. Millikan, 1922
 
*John W. Lieb, 1923  
 
 
*John W. Howell, 1924  
 
*John W. Howell, 1924  
*Harris J. Ryan, 1925  
+
*[[Harris Ryan|Harris J. Ryan]], 1925  
*William D. Coolidge, 1927  
+
*[[William Coolidge|William D. Coolidge]], 1927  
*Frank B. Jewett, 1928  
+
*[[Frank B. Jewett|Frank B. Jewett]], 1928  
*Charles F. Scott, 1929  
+
*[[Charles F. Scott|Charles F. Scott]], 1929  
*Frank Conrad, 1930  
+
*[[Frank Conrad|Frank Conrad]], 1930  
*E. W. Rice, Jr., 1931  
+
*[[Edwin W. Rice, Jr.|E. W. Rice, Jr.]], 1931  
*Bancroft Gherardi, 1932  
+
*[[Bancroft Gherardi|Bancroft Gherardi]], 1932  
*Arthur E. Kennelly, 1933  
+
*[[Arthur E. Kennelly|Arthur E. Kennelly]], 1933  
*Willis R. Whitney, 1934  
+
*[[Willis R. Whitney|Willis R. Whitney]], 1934  
*Lewis B. Stillwell, 1935  
+
*[[Lewis B. Stillwell|Lewis B. Stillwell]], 1935  
*Alex Dow, 1936  
+
*[[Alex Dow|Alex Dow]], 1936  
*Gano Dunn, 1937  
+
*[[Gano Dunn|Gano Dunn]], 1937  
*Dugald C. Jackson, 1938  
+
*[[Dugald C. Jackson|Dugald C. Jackson]], 1938  
*Philip Torchio, 1939  
+
*[[Philip Torchio|Philip Torchio]], 1939  
*George A. Campbell, 1940  
+
*[[George Campbell|George A. Campbell]], 1940  
*John B. Whitehead, 1941  
+
*[[John Whitehead|John B. Whitehead]], 1941  
*Edwin H. Armstrong, 1942  
+
*[[Edwin H. Armstrong|Edwin H. Armstrong]], 1942  
*Vannevar Bush, 1943
+
*[[Vannevar Bush|Vannevar Bush]], 1943  
*E. R. W. Alexanderson, 1944
+
*[[Ernst F. W. Alexanderson|E. F. W. Alexanderson]], 1944  
*Philip Sporn, 1945  
+
*[[Philip Sporn|Philip Sporn]], 1945  
*Lee de Forest, 1946  
+
*[[Lee De Forest|Lee de Forest]], 1946  
 
*Joseph Slepian, 1947  
 
*Joseph Slepian, 1947  
*Morris E. Leeds, 1948  
+
*[[Morris E. Leeds|Morris E. Leeds]], 1948  
*Karl B. McEachron, 1949  
+
*[[Karl B. McEachron|Karl B. McEachron]], 1949  
 
*Otto B. Blackwell, 1950  
 
*Otto B. Blackwell, 1950  
*Charles F. Wagner, 1951  
+
*[[Charles F. Wagner|Charles F. Wagner]], 1951  
*Vladimir K. Zworykin, 1952  
+
*[[Vladimir Zworykin|Vladimir K. Zworykin]], 1952  
 
*John F. Peters, 1953  
 
*John F. Peters, 1953  
*Oliver E. Buckley, 1954  
+
*[[Oliver Buckley|Oliver E. Buckley]], 1954  
 
*Leonid A. Umansky, 1955  
 
*Leonid A. Umansky, 1955  
*Comfort A. Adams, 1956  
+
*[[Comfort Avery Adams|Comfort A. Adams]], 1956  
 
*John K. Hodnette, 1957  
 
*John K. Hodnette, 1957  
*Charles F. Kettering, 1958  
+
*[[Charles F. Kettering|Charles F. Kettering]], 1958  
*James F. Fairman, 1959  
+
*[[James F. Fairman|James F. Fairman]], 1959  
*Harold S. Osborne, 1960  
+
*[[Harold Osborne|Harold S. Osborne]], 1960  
*William B. Kouwenhoven, 1961  
+
*[[William B. Kouwenhoven|William B. Kouwenhoven]], 1961  
*Alexander C. Monteith, 1962  
+
*[[Alexander Monteith|Alexander C. Monteith]], 1962  
*John R. Pierce, 1963  
+
*[[John Pierce|John R. Pierce]], 1963  
 
*Schedule revised, 1964  
 
*Schedule revised, 1964  
 
*Walker L. Cisler, 1965  
 
*Walker L. Cisler, 1965  
*Wilmer L. Barrow, 1966  
+
*[[Wilmer Barrow|Wilmer L. Barrow]], 1966  
*George H. Brown, 1967  
+
*[[George Brown|George H. Brown]], 1967  
*Charles F. Avila, 1968  
+
*[[Charles Francis Avila|Charles F. Avila]], 1968  
*Hendrik W. Bode, 1969  
+
*[[Hendrik W. Bode|Hendrik W. Bode]], 1969  
*Howard H. Aiken, 1970  
+
*[[Howard Aiken|Howard H. Aiken]], 1970  
*John W. Simpson, 1971  
+
*[[John W. Simpson|John W. Simpson]], 1971  
*William H. Pickering, 1972  
+
*[[William Pickering|William H. Pickering]], 1972  
*B. D. H. Tellegen, 1973  
+
*[[Bernard Tellegen|B. D. H. Tellegen]], 1973  
*Jan A. Rajchman, 1974  
+
*[[Jan Rajchman|Jan A. Rajchman]], 1974  
*Sidney Darlington, 1975  
+
*[[Sidney Darlington|Sidney Darlington]], 1975  
*Murray Joslin, 1976  
+
*[[Murray Joslin|Murray Joslin]], 1976  
*Henri Busignies, 1977  
+
*[[Henri Busignies|Henri Busignies]], 1977  
*Daniel E. Noble, 1978  
+
*[[Daniel Noble|Daniel E. Noble]], 1978  
*Albert Rose, 1979  
+
*[[Albert Rose|Albert Rose]], 1979  
*Robert Adler, 1980  
+
*[[Robert Adler|Robert Adler]], 1980  
*C. Chapin Cutler, 1981  
+
*[[C. Chapin Cutler|C. Chapin Cutler]], 1981  
*Nathan Cohn, 1982  
+
*[[Nathan Cohn|Nathan Cohn]], 1982  
*Herman P. Schwan, 1983  
+
*[[Herman P. Schwan|Herman P. Schwan]], 1983  
*Eugene I. Gordon, 1984  
+
*[[Eugene I. Gordon|Eugene I. Gordon]], 1984  
*John D. Kraus, 1985  
+
*[[John D. Kraus|John D. Kraus]], 1985  
*James L. Flanagan, 1986  
+
*[[James L. Flanagan|James L. Flanagan]], 1986  
*Robert A. Henle, 1987  
+
*[[Robert A. Henle|Robert A. Henle]], 1987  
*James Ross Macdonald, 1988  
+
*[[J. Ross Macdonald|James Ross Macdonald]], 1988  
*Nick Holonyak, Jr., 1989  
+
*[[Nicholas Holonyak, Jr.|Nick Holonyak, Jr.]], 1989  
*Archie W. Straiton, 1990  
+
*[[Archie W. Straiton|Archie W. Straiton]], 1990  
*John Louis Moll, 1991  
+
*[[John L. Moll|John Louis Moll]], 1991  
*G. David Forney, Jr., 1992  
+
*[[G. David Forney, Jr.|G. David Forney, Jr.]], 1992  
*James H. Pomerene, 1993  
+
*[[James H. Pomerene|James H. Pomerene]], 1993  
*Leslie A. Geddes, 1994  
+
*[[Leslie A. Geddes|Leslie A. Geddes]], 1994  
*Robert W. Lucky, 1995  
+
*[[Robert W. Lucky|Robert W. Lucky]], 1995  
*Floyd Dunn, 1996  
+
*[[Floyd Dunn|Floyd Dunn]], 1996  
*Esther M. Conwell, 1997  
+
*[[Esther Conwell|Esther M. Conwell]], 1997  
*Rolf Landauer, 1998  
+
*[[Rolf Landauer|Rolf Landauer]], 1998  
*Kees A. Schouhamer Immink, 1999  
+
*[[Kees A. S. Immink|Kees A. Schouhamer Immink]], 1999  
*Jun-ichi Nishizawa, 2000  
+
*[[Jun-ichi Nishizawa|Jun-ichi Nishizawa]], 2000  
*Robert H. Dennard, 2001  
+
*[[Robert H. Dennard|Robert H. Dennard]], 2001  
*Ed Hammer, 2002  
+
*[[Edward E. Hammer|Ed Hammer]], 2002  
 
*No Award, 2003  
 
*No Award, 2003  
*Federico Capasso, 2004  
+
*[[Federico Capasso|Federico Capasso]], 2004  
*Peter Lawrenson, 2005  
+
*[[Peter Lawrenson|Peter Lawrenson]], 2005  
*Fawwaz T. Ulaby, 2006  
+
*[[Fawwaz T. Ulaby|Fawwaz T. Ulaby]], 2006  
*Russell D. Dupuis, 2007  
+
*[[Russell Dean Dupuis|Russell D. Dupuis]], 2007  
*Dov Frohman-Bentchkowsky, 2008
+
*[[Dov Frohman-Bentchkowsky|Dov Frohman-Bentchkowsky]], 2008  
*Tingye Li, 2009
+
*[[Tingye Li|Tingye Li]], 2009
 +
*[[Ray Dolby]], 2010
 +
*Isamu Akasaki, 2011
  
== References ==
+
== References ==
  
<references/>
+
<references />  
  
[[Category:IEEE]] [[Category:Awards_&_fellow_activities|Category:Awards_&amp;_fellow_activities]]
+
[[Category:Awards & fellow activities|Edison]] [[Category:IEEE|Edison]]

Revision as of 21:05, 24 January 2012

IEEE Edison Medal

Origins of the Edison Medal on its 100th Anniversary

By David and Julia Bart, 2010

Introduction

The Edison medal is the most prestigious award given in the United States and Canada recognizing meritorious accomplishments in the fields of electronics and electrical engineering. The year 2009 marks the 100th anniversary of the medal named in honor of America's most famous inventor, Thomas Alva Edison. Edison's work exemplifies the development of large scale industrial research laboratories, the creation of new technology and the installation of the first complete electrical systems in the 19th century. Over its history, many of the most important contributors to the development of electronics have been presented the Edison Medal in recognition of their critical roles in laying the foundations of the modern electrical world. This article presents the story of the Edison Medal, its origins and its legacy of honor.

Fig 1 Edison Photo.JPG

Edison at the Turn of the Century

By the end of the 19th century, Thomas Alva Edison had achieved fame, wealth and notoriety. He was known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park" for the many inventions that originated from his research laboratory in New Jersey; including the phonograph and electric light. In 1886, Edison relocated to a new, larger facility in West Orange, New Jersey. A small laboratory was also set up in 1886 at his new summer home in Fort Myers, Florida. Increasingly, he focused his attention on refining the phonograph and on his new film and motion picture businesses. Edison's work on the alkaline battery and his Portland cement operations also looked promising. The 1903 release of the film The Great Train Robbery put Edison into the headlines again. Edison's list of accomplishments was well established, and he was a household name in America and in Europe. His long standing and well publicized feud with George Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla over the effectiveness of alternating versus direct current did not seem to diminish his public image. And, by the opening years of the 20th century, those battles too were subsiding.[1]

Origins of the Edison Medal

1904 marked the 25th anniversary of the Edison incandescent lamp. Samuel Insull, Charles Batchelor and a group of Edison's friends, former employees and associates decided to commemorate the anniversary on the occasion of Edison's birthday.[2] The first meeting of the Executive Committee formed to organize the event were held in December 1903 as the group rushed to prepare for Edison's February 11, 1904 birthday.[3]

The Executive Committee quickly prepared a circular to solicit contributions. The circular, dated January 1, 1904, identified Samuel Insull as the Chairman and Charles Batchelor as Vice-Chairman of the Edison Medal Association. It also named the 30 member Executive Committee and 124 additional members of the Edison Association. Among the notables identified were J. Pierpont Morgan, R.A. Fessenden, W.S. Mallory, Frank Sprague and Nikola Tesla. The group planned to name an endowed academic medal after Edison that would be awarded through the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). The AIEE would act as trustee of the medal.

The Edison Medal Association intended to raise $7,000 to fund the medal and expenses of the association, of which $5,000 would represent the principal balance of the endowment. Annual interest on the balance would fund future expenses and annual awards. The Executive Committee set an impossibly short time frame of only 30 days to solicit subscriptions. [4]

The Executive Committee faced logistical difficulties in completing all their preparations before the February celebration. The selected the National Sculpture Society to assist with the medal design; but, at the close of January 1904, the subcommittees responsible for the medal design had not selected an appropriate image of Edison or decided on a sculptor for the Medal.[5] Given the impending date of the celebration, the Committee decided it would formally present the legal agreement establishing the Edison Medal and convey the trusteeship of the Edison Medal to the AIEE without presenting the medal itself.[6] The Committee rushed to draft their Deed of Gift ("Deed") over the next three weeks.

1904 subscription for Edison Medal (Documents, 1904a)

The Deed and corresponding rules governing the Edison Medal specified that the Edison Medal Association would annually recognize a student graduating from any U.S. or Canadian university or military academy who presented the best thesis on an original topic about theoretical applied electricity and magnetism. Competition was restricted to no more than two students from any one institution. Each student had to complete at least two years of residence and coursework at the university and be no older than 25 years of age. The thesis was restricted to 6,000 words (approximately 20 typed pages). The award would be presented annually on Edison's birthday, February 11. The Deed also specified that the Edison Medal Association, under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society, would host a competition to finalize the medal's design after Edison's birthday.[7][8]

Edison Celebration

Five hundred people attended the commemorative dinner on February 11, 1904 celebrating Thomas Edison's 57th birthday and the 25th anniversary of the Edison incandescent light. The affair was held at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. Addresses were made by the President of the AIEE, B.J. Arnold, and A.E. Kennelly of Harvard University, C.F. Brackett of Princeton University, Joseph McCall and C.L. Edgar. Samuel Insull presented the Deed of Gift inaugurating the Edison Medal. [9][10]

Edison sat under a display of flags and 57 electric lamps. According to eyewitness accounts, he was reserved in public and too modest to speak. Sugar models of his inventions were placed on tables in front of him. Edison's original telegraph key and quadruplex sender sat on the table in front of Edison positioned at his right hand. Wires stretched across the room to a Marconi wireless transmitting apparatus. Thousands of electric bulbs were strung along the galleries. Over one hundred waiters served ices "contained in models of motors, phonographs, switchboards, automobiles, incandescent apparatus, dynamos, megaphones, and batteries, the ices themselves being in the form of incandescent bulbs." Each guest went home with a small ivory boxthat had picture ofa woman bearing a light and the inscription "Genius with the Lamp" or a miniature incandescent lamp pin. The menus included a picture of a bronze bust of Edison with the words "The Wizard"and Edison's autograph below the image.[11][10]

Congratulatory messages were received from notables around the world. Andrew Carnegie called Edison the "King of Telegraphers". President Theodore Roosevelt congratulated Edison "as one of those Americans to whom America owes much..." Lord Kelvin cited his "gratitude to Edison [for his] useful and well worked-out inventions for the public". Finally, Edison's own message of thanks was read aloud. It stated, in part, "...Your expressions of goodwill gratify me greatly...This medal is founded to encourage young men to devote their best thought and work to electrical development. I rejoice in this stimulus to harder study...God bless them and you, my dear friends, and this American Institute of Electrical Engineers."[11]

The highlight of the evening occurred with Edison telegraphed "73 - Congratulations and best wishes" on his original quadruplex telegraph instrument. The message was carried across the wires and was then broadcast by the Marconi wireless equipment.[10][11] Samuel Insull, Chairman of the Edison Medal Association, then formally presented the Deed of Gift to Professor Arthur Kennelly who received it on behalf of the AIEE.

The Medal's First Years

The medal was intended to "serve as an honorable incentive to the youth of America to maintain by their works the high standard of accomplishment by the illustrious man whose name and features shall live while human intelligence continues to inhabit the world."[8] The annual student award was to include a parchment certificate and a gold medal funded by the annual interest earnings on the gift. Unfortunately, after the 1904 celebration, little progress was made.

The gift fund was deposited with the Continental Trust Company of New York. But three years passed and no medals were awarded. In February 1907, the Edison Medal Committee appointed a subcommittee "to propose a statement of the difficulties that the Committee had experienced in obtaining competitors for the medal under the present Deed of Gift and to recommend to the Medal Committee such modifications...as might seem proper in their judgment under the circumstances." [12]

The John Fritz Medal

Meanwhile, as the Edison Medal languished, the John Fritz Medal, the highest American award in the engineering profession, was being presented each year. Established in 1902, it recognized scientific or industrial achievement in any field of pure or applied science. Fritz had achieved fame and recognition for his development of American iron and steel manufacturing. The John Fritz Medal was established on Fritz's 80th birthday by the American Institute of Mining Engineers (AIME), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE).[13]

John Fritz Medal. John Fritz and his legacy. (2005, March 15 - May 2). Lehigh University Special Collections Exhibition. John Fritz Medal: John W. Fisher Medalist For 2000 Program. See http://dig.lib.lehigh.edu/projects/exhibits.asp?id=5.

The Fritz Medal eventually included the American Association of Engineering Studies (AAES) as well, and rotated among all five engineering societies that made up the successor organizations. The first four Fritz Medals were given to John Fritz (1902), Lord Kelvin (1905), George Westinghouse (1906) and Alexander Graham Bell (1907).

Thomas Edison received the fifth Fritz Medal in 1908 for his "invention of the duplex and quadruplex telegraph; the phonograph; the development of a commercially practical incandescent lamp; the development of a complete system of electric lighting, including dynamos, regulating devices, underground system protective devices and meters."[14]

Edison Medal Restructured

In 1908, the Executive Committee of the Edison Medal Association now decided to revamp its medal's rules and intended purpose. Arthur Kennelly later explained that between 1904 and 1908 a shortage of applicants led to the absence of qualified candidates under the existing rules which focused the award on student recipients.[15] The Committee responded by redefining the medal's purpose and executed an Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating The Edison Medal ("Amended Deed') in New York on March 26, 1908.[16]

The new deed re-established the Edison Medal in partnership with the New York Trust Company and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). It reasserted that the medal "should, during the centuries to come, serve as an honorable incentive to scientists, engineers and artisans to maintain by their works the high standard of accomplishment set by the illustrious man whose name and features shall live while human intelligence continues to inhabit the world." The Amended Deed also re-wrote the rules and established that the AIEE would present the medal as its award for "...MERITORIOUS ACHIVEMENT [emphasis in document] in Electrical Science or Electrical Engineering or the Electrical Arts, whenever in the judgment of said Committee [there is someone] properly deserving of such award..."[17] Revisions to the Committee's bylaws commenced in October 1908, and the final draft was presented to the Board of Directors on December 11, 1908.[18] The Board approved the minutes on May 18, 1909, making operative the revised by-laws and new rules.[19] Later, the AIEE appointed a jury of 24 members to select the recipient of the award.[15]

Signature blocks from Amended and Substituted Deed of Gift Dated 1908 Reestablished Terms for the Edison Medal. Signatures are in alphabetical order on the Deed of Gift, but are shown in the following order in the excerpts: (Left column top) Sprague, Upton, Wheeler; (Left column middle) Webb, Stott; (Left column bottom) Andrews, Batchelor, Bowker, Carnegie; (Right column) Coffin, Dyer, Eaton, Edgar, Gillmore, Hammer, Hastings, Hughes, Insull, Kennelly, Leonard, Lieb, Lozier, Mallory, Martin, Morgan."

A Design for the Medal

The 1904 Edison Medal Committee had initiated a "Programme and Rules" governing its competition to select an appropriate design for the medal.[20] Working under the auspices of the National Sculpture Society, designs were invited within a general scheme that specified Thomas Edison's portrait would dominate the face of the medal, and an allegorical design would appear on the reverse side. Edison's image would date from the time of his incandescent light, approximately 25 years earlier. A prize of $1,000 would be awarded to the selected artist for production of the medal. Designs were due from April 25-30, 1904, with a decision to be rendered within one month. The jury for the competition included Daniel C. French[21], Augustus Saint Gaudens[22] and J.Q.A. Ward[23] of the National Sculpture Society and Edward Adams and T. Commerford Martin on behalf of the Edison Medal Association.[20]

The design contest was administered late in 1904, and on Nov. 11, 1904, James Earle Fraser[24], a New York sculptor and medallion designer, was informed by St. Gaudens that he was the unanimous selection of the jury. St. Gaudens asked Fraser to provide several sketches "showing modifications to your present idea, or of new ones that may occur".[25]

1904 Programme and Rules for the Edison Medal Design (Documents, 1904c)

The final design featured both Edison and an allegorical symbol of merit. The obverse (face) features Edison's portrait and is inscribed "Awarded By The American Institute of Electrical Engineers for Meritorious Achievement In Electricity". The reverse (back) depicts "The Genius of Electricity Crowned by Fame" showing an angel standing behind a male nude and a glowing Edison light sitting on a pedestal.[26][27][25] The Amended Deed specified that the AIEE would retain a die for future production and reproduction of the gold medal.[17]

First Recipient in 1909

Prior to issuing the Amended Deed which redefined the Edison Medal, five graduate students who had qualified to compete for the medal under the old 1904 rules had submitted their theses. Since the medal had been restructured to focus on lifetime achievement instead of student work, the five candidates were asked to withdraw from the medal competition in 1908. They were allowed to resubmit their theses in a special contest to receive a Diploma of Merit plus a $150 cash award issued by the AIEE.[18] On May 18, 1909, Trygve Jensen, a graduate student at the University of Illinois, won the Diploma of Merit for his research on the "Operation of a 100,000 Volt Transformer."[19]

Finally, five years after the initial 1904 organization of the Edison Medal Association, the Committee was ready to officially name its first Edison Metal recipient.[28] Dr. Elihu Thomson was cited for his "meritorious achievement in electrical science, engineering and arts as exemplified in his contributions thereto during the past 30 years."[19] [29] Thomson's accomplishments included approximately 700 patents, work on electric arc lighting, establishing the Thomson-Houston Electric Company (which would eventually merge with the Edison General Electric Company to become General Electric Company), the Thomson Electric Meter, alternating current devices, the electric air drill, and methods of electric arc welding. In the 1890s, Thomson investigated X-rays and performed research on fused quartz for use in reflecting astronomical telescopes. Thomson was active in the AIEE, contributed to many other societies and received the John Fritz Medal in 1916. He later become the President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[30] The Edison Medal Association presented Thomson with a parchment certificate constituting official notice of the award at the AIEE's annual dinner on February 24,1910. He received the gold Edison Medal at the AIEE's annual meeting on May 17.[19]

Conflicts and Controversy

The First Edison Medal Awarded to Elihu Thomson In 1909

The Edison Medal has been awarded annually since 1909 with the exception of 1915, 1926, 1964 and 2003. The 1926 medal was actually rejected by the named recipient, Dr. William Coolidge, who refused to accept the medal in light of a U.S. Circuit Court decision invalidating his patent on ductile-tungsten. The decision stated that a patent (for an invention) could not be awarded for a scientific discovery. The Edison Medal Committee still tried to award the medal, but Dr. Coolidge refused to "detract from the luster of that medal which should stand as one of the most coveted prizes for meritorious work in the electrical field."[31]

Ironically, most of the Edison Medal awards in its first ten years went to pioneers or supporters of alternating current and arc lightning technologies even though Edison's long standing opposition to alternating current systems was well known and had garnered many newspaper headlines.[32][33] The rules did not require Edison to present the award, and he was not involved with the award committee's selection of recipients. The following innovators of alternating current technology received Edison Medals during its first decade: Elihu Thomson (1909), Frank Sprague (1910), George Westinghouse (1911), William Stanley (1912), Charles Brush (1913), Nikola Tesla (1916) and Michael Pupin (1920).[28]

George Westinghouse received the 1911 Edison Medal for his groundbreaking work developing alternating current systems for power distribution and lighting. After nearly 25 years of battling Westinghouse over the alternating current versus direct current systems, Edison offered Westinghouse no congratulations at the ceremony.[33] Westinghouse ignored Edison stating that "If I have had any success in life it has been due to my wife."[32]

In 1917, the Edison Medal was presented to another former Edison rival, Nikola Tesla, for his development of polyphase and high frequency electric currents.[34][35] Rumors had circulated in 1915 that both Tesla and Edison might jointly share the Nobel Prize in Physics. Though unconfirmed by the Nobel Committee, Tesla allegedly rejected the award and would have nothing to do with Edison. Contradictory stories followed. Soon thereafter, the 1915 Nobel Prize was presented to two British scientists.[36]

The following year, the Edison Medal Association selected Tesla as its 1916 medal recipient. Although Tesla was listed on the original 1904 Edison Medal General Committee subscription[4], he was now unwilling to receive an award named after Edison. Tesla further thought that his contributions to wireless telegraphy and radio had been slighted since Guglielmo Marconi had already received the Nobel Prize in 1909 with Carl F. Braun. Tesla initially refused the nomination in anger, but later agreed to accept the Edison Medal after his friends at the AIEE pled with him to overcome years of hostility, bitterness, and competitive rivalry with Edison. [37] Tesla stunned the audience at the presentation ceremony when he graciously accepted the award and complimented Edison, who did not attend the ceremony, as "this wonderful man, who had had no theoretical training at all, no advantages, who did all himself, getting great results by virtue of his industry and application."[15]

Tesla treasured the Edison Medal during his final years. Poverty stricken, he gave up virtually all of his personal possessions, but kept the medal in a safe at his subsidized Hotel New Yorker apartment. Tesla is reported to have proudly shown the medal to many visitors. After his death on January 7, 1943, Tesla's nephew opened the safe to discover that the medal was missing. It has never been recovered. [37][38][39]

The Edison Medal for 1947 was presented to Lee De Forest by none other than David Sarnoff, President of the powerful Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and a one-time litigant both with and against De Forest over patent rights. Sarnoff heaped glowing praise on De Forest's grid-controlled electron vacuum tube as "one of the twenty great inventions of all time".[40]

Nikola Tesla 1916 Edison Medal Award Certificate. Kesler, M. (2006, June 22). Nikola Tesla 150 Years of Genius. Exhibition: Diplomas of Nikola Tesla At The Assembly Room in Zagreb‘s Subcommittee of Prosvjeta. For Tesla’s Edison Medal certificate see www.nikolatesla.hr/slike/Diploma4.jpg. For Exhibition see http://www.nikolatesla.hr/news.aspx?newsID=69&pageID=14.

Connections

The Edison Medal Winners are well represented among the recipients of the John Fritz Medal, and many were also members in the most prestigious national engineering honor society in the U.S., Tau Beta Pi. Of the 1903 John fritz Medal winners from 1902-2008, 52 are also Tau Beta Pi members. Of the 13 people that won both the John Fritz Medal and the Edison Medal, six were Tau Beta Pi members. These include Michael Pupin (who won the Edison Medal in 1920), Frank Jewett (1928), Vannevar Bush (1943), Charles Kettering (1958), Walker Cisler (1965) and George Brown (1967). The remaining medalists include Elihu Thomson (1909), Frank Sprague (1910), George Westinghouse (1911), Alexander Graham Bell (1914), John Carty (1917), Willis Whitney (1934) and Philip Sporn (1945).[41]

The Edison Medal was awarded to a number of people for their critical roles in developing radio and television communication, including Michael Pupin (1920) for his work in mathematical physics and its application to the electric transmission of intelligence; Frank Conrad (1930) for radio broadcasting and short wave radio transmission; Arthur Kennelly (1933) for the theory of electrical transmission and international electrical standards; Edwin Armstrong (1942) for the regenerative, super-regenerative and super-heterodyne circuits and frequency modulation FM radio; Lee De Forest (1946) for the grid-controlled vacuum tube; and Vladimir Zworykin (1952) for the television.[34][35]

Armstrong and Millikan

Edwin H. Armstrong's Edison Medal, awarded in 1942. Photo credit: Antique Wireless Association Museum, loaned from the Historical and Interpretive Collections of The Franklin Institute, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
At the Awards Dinner of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1942 when Edwin Armstrong (right) received the Edison Medal. With him are (left to right) Gerard Swope, the Hoover Medalist, and Dr. Willis Whitney, the John Fritz Medalist. (Courtesy: Fiftieth Anniversary Golden Yearbook: 1909-1959, Radio Club of America, New York.)

Edwin Armstrong was particularly introspective upon his receipt of the 1942 Edison Medal after his many years spent in litigation with De Forest, RCA and others over radio patents and public acknowledgement of who invented various radio circuits. The AIEE awarded Armstrong an honorary lifetime membership (the first of which had been extended to Lord Kelvin in 1892) together with the Edison Medal. Armstrong's Edison Medal citation noted the importance of his work stating, "This keystone of radio development was later to become involved in fourteen years of litigation and which, in the end, was decided by lay courts based on errors of fact and judgment which were contrary to the scientific facts."[42]

Alan Hazeltine presented the award to Armstrong stating "...one development stands out from all the others... the application of the three-electrode vacuum tube... the original electronic tube was the two-electrode vacuum tube of Edison, in whose honor the Edison Medal was established. Others subsequently applied the "Edison Effect" in radio detection [but] the real foundation for the unlimited development was laid by the Edison Medal recipient, Dr. Edwin Howard Armstrong." [43]

Armstrong's acceptance speech began, "It is not possible for me to find the words to tell you what this honor means to me. To have belonged to the generation which learned the meaning of volts and amperes when Edison was at the height of his career, to be able to follow in the footsteps of my old instructor - Michael Pupin - who stood here twenty-two years ago, and to have my own work appraised, during these difficult days, as worthy of the Edison Medal, gives it an inspiring meaning that can never be described." [44]

In 1922, Robert Millikan won the Edison Medal "for his experimental work in electrical science". He was the first recipient to be honored primarily for scientific contributions rather than engineering or invention. The selection committee is rumored to have been influenced by his leading role in the mobilization of science and engineering to carry out military research during World War I. The award proved timely, since the following year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, becoming the first and only Edison Medalist to win this prestigious recognition. [45][46]

Edison's 1928 Congressional Medal

Thomas Edison is revered as one of the great American inventors. He is recognized in the applied fields of industrial research, engineering and electronics for his many inventions and in science for his discovery of the "Edison Effect". Edison was long recognized as holding the largest number of U.S. parents awarded to any American, eventually obtaining 1,093 patents.[47] The U.S. Congress presented Edison with a gold medal in 1928, three years before his death, for "development and application of inventions that have revolutionized civilization in the last century."[48] Among those who witnessed President Coolidge's presentation of the Congressional Medal were Dr. Elihu Thomson, the Edison Medal's first recipient, and the first chairman of the Edison Medal Association, Samuel Insull.[49]

The Legacy of the Edison Medal

Edison Medal Winners 1909 through 1922. Tesla Memorial Society of New York Internet Site. Tesla Memorial Society of New York. See www.teslasociety.com. (2009b, April 28). Thomas A. Edison And The Edison Medalists. Image undated.

In 1963, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) and the AIEE merged to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The IRE's former Medal of Honor, its highest award first given to Edwin Armstrong in 1917, was selected to be the IEEE's "highest award". The Edison Medal was selected to become the IEEE's "principal medal".[50] Its purpose remains the same today as in 1909. As Arthur Kennelly stated over seventy years ago, the Edison Medal was intended to identify those "great and noteworthy" and those "great and notorious and worthy of merit", serving as a "Who's Who" in the field of electronics and electrical engineering.[15]

Today, the Edison Medal is the oldest award in the areas of electrical and electronics engineering. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. agreed to sponsor the IEEE Edison Medal in 2006 and is committed to the sponsorship through 2016.[51] The Edison Medal is considered the highest American award "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."[52][35]

Nominations and the selection of award recipients are governed by the IEEE Medals Council of the IEEE Awards Board. The award is based on "leadership, individual contributions, originality, breadth, patents/publications, other achievements, honors, duration of dominance, quality of nomination."[35][53]

The original award included a gold medal, bronze replica, small gold replica, certificate and honorarium.[54] Today's prize includes a $10,000 honorarium, gold medal, gold pendant and certificate.[51]

The 2009 Edison Medal was awarded to Tingye Li, a retired division manager of the Communications Infrastructure Research Laboratory at the AT&T Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey.[35] His work in the field of broadband optical fiber communications seems far removed from Thomas Edison's incandescent light first commemorated by Edison's friends and associates 105 years ago. The tremendous progress achieved in electronics and electrical science of the past century, which is characterized by the recipients of the Edison Medal, has made it a living testament to the life and work of its namesake, Thomas Edison.

Original Sources

This wiki article was originally posted with the assistance of the Antique Wireless Association and by permission of David and Julia Bart, based on their article that was first published in theAWA Review, August, 2009, Vol. 22. The AWA Review is published each year by the Antique Wireless Associationin conjunction with its Annual Conference. Due to the nature of a wiki like the GHN, this article may evolve over time, therefore a .pdf of the Barts' original article, is posted here.

List of Edison Medal Winners

References

  1. The "War of Currents", or "Battle of Currents", raged from the mid-1880s through the first years of the twentieth century. George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became bitter adversaries due to Edison's ruthless promotion of direct current (D.C.) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (A.C.) systems advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. The battle was waged in newspapers, the courts and through various banking and business dealings. Contracts for major lighting and power installations such as the Columbian Exposition and propaganda over the first electric chair provided the public with numerous newspaper headlines.

    Jonnes, J. (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, Inc.

    McNichol, T. (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  2. A number of these former employees and associates of Edison would later form the Edison Pioneers in 1918. This group was established to memorialize Edison through public works, including preserving Edison artifacts and historic places, funding scholarship medals and building memorials. The group met annually on Edison's birthday. The original Edison Pioneers included 28 members and 230 former associates of Edison. The following are noted in particular:

    (1) Edison's 'four principal assistants': Charles Batchelor (Chairman of the Edison Medal Assn.), Edward Johnson, John Kruesi and Francis Upton (Edison Medal Assn.);

    (2) Edison's 'co-workers': Charles Edgar (Edison Medal Assn.), William Hammer (Edison Medal Assn.), Samuel Insull (Executive Committee of Edison Medal Assn.), Frances Jehl (Edison's assistant at Menlo Park and his biographer), Robert Lozier (Edison Medal Assn.), T. Commerford Martin (Edison Medal Assn. and editor of Electrical World), and John Ott (Edison Medal Assn.);

    (3) Edison's 'associates': Richard Bowker (Edison Medal Association), Henry Ford (founder of the Edison Institute later known as the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village); Arthur Kennelly (awarded Edison Medal in 1933), Frank Sprague (awarded Edison Medal in 1910), Nikola Tesla (awarded Edison Medal in 1916) and Theodore Vandeventer.

    New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1918, Feb. 12).

    Hammer, W.J. (1920, March 31). Letter from W.J. Hammer to F. Jehl. Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History Archives Center, William J. Hammer Collection. Rutgers University Thomas A. Edison Papers Digital Edition Internet Site. Document X098A, X098A082; TAEM 0:0. See http://edison.rutgers.edu/digital.htm.

    Miller, F.T. (1931). Thomas A. Edison, Benefactor of Mankind. Chicago: John C. Winston Company.

    Kennelly, A.E. (1932). Biographical Memoir of Thomas Alva Edison 1847-1931. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs. Vol. XV, 10th Memoir. Presented at National Academy of Sciences Autumn Meetings, 1932.

    Edison Pioneers. (2009, April 28). Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.
  3. Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. Minutes of Executive Committee Dec. 23 and 30, 1903
  4. 4.0 4.1 Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1904a, Jan. 1). Edison Medal Association Subscription and Form.
  5. Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. Minutes of Executive Committee Jan. 20, 1904.
  6. Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1904b, Jan. 20). Letter from R. Lozier to E.H. Lewis.
  7. Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904a, Jan. 15). Electrical World. Vol. XIX.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904c, May 27). The Edison Medal. Vol. XIX.
  9. Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1904b, Feb. 26). Scientific notes and news. Vol. XIX.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1904, Feb. 12). Edison Uses Sender For Banquet Speech.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Jones, F.A. (1908). Thomas Alva Edison, Sixty Years of an Inventor’s Life. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers.
  12. Gherardi, B. (1907, March 16). Letter from B. Gherardi to F.J. Sprague. New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Frank Sprague Papers. Rutgers University Thomas A. Edison Papers Digital Edition Internet Site. Document X120C, X120CCR, TAEM 0:0. See http://edison.rutgers.edu/digital.htm.
  13. For a complete history of John Fritz and the Fritz Medal including its winners, see:

    Science. American Association For The Advancement of Science. (1902, Nov.). The John Fritz Medal. Vol. XVI.

    John Fritz Medal. (2009a, April 28). American Association of Engineering Studies Internet Site. See http://www.aaes.org/communications/john_fritz_medal.asp.

    John Fritz Medal. (2009b, April 28). Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society Internet Site. See http://www.tbp.org/pages/About/People/DistinguishedMembers/Fritz.cfm.

    The John Fritz Medal. (1910, Aug.). Announcements: public meeting for the presentation of the medal for 1910. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. XXXVI, No. 8.

    Trainer, M. (2008, June). In Memoriam: Lord Kelvin, recipient of the John Fritz Medal in 1905. Physics in Perspective. Birkhäuser Basel. Vol. 10, No. 2.
  14. The John Fritz Medal. (1910, Aug.). Announcements: public meeting for the presentation of the medal for 1910. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. XXXVI, No. 8.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Presentation of the Edison Medal to Nikola Tesla. (1917, May 18). Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the AIEE, Held at The Engineering Societies Building, New York City. American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
  16. The Amended Deed was executed in triplicate by the full Executive Committee including William S. Andrews, Charles Batchelor, Richard R. Bowker, Andrew Carnegie, Charles A. Coffin, Richard N. Dyer, Sherburne B. Eaton, Charles L. Edgar, William E. Gillmore, William J. Hammer, Frank S. Hastings, Charles T. Hughes, Samuel Insull, Arthur E. Kennelly, H. Ward Leonard, John W. Lieb Jr., Robert T. Lozier, W.S. Mallory, T. Commerford Martin, J. Pierpont Morgan, John Ott, Frank J. Sprague, Francis R. Upton, and Schuyler S. Wheeler. Alex S. Webb signed as Vice President of the New York Trust Company and Henry G. Stott signed as President of the AIEE. Eugene H. Lewis, who had executed the original 1904 deed, had since died. John Ott's signature was omitted from Samuel Insull's copy of the Amended Deed, which was delivered to the Edison Medal Association's lawyers as the final copy.

    Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1908a, March 26). Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating Edison Medal.

    Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1908b, May 13). Letter from S. Insull to Messrs. Eaton, Lewis and Rowe.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Julia Bart. (1908a, March 26). Amended and Substitute Deed of Gift Creating Edison Medal.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Edison Medal Committee. (1909, May 18). Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. June 30-Dec. 31, 1909. Vol. XXVIII Part II.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Edison Medal Committee. (1910, May 17). Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. May 17-Dec. 31, 1910. Vol. XXIX Part II.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Documents. Edison Medal Association. Collection of David &amp;amp;lt; Julia Bart. (1904c, Feb. 20). Programme and Rules For A Competition For The Selection of a Design For And Edison Medal Commemorating The Invention of the Incandescent Lamp.
  21. Daniel French designed several renowned public monuments including Abraham Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the Minuteman Statue in Concord, Massachusetts and Republic, the centerpiece of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893.

    French. (2009, May 5). Daniel Chester French. Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.
  22. Augustus Saint Gaudens was a sculptor and artist who designed many public monuments including William Tecumseh Sherman in New York City's Central Park, Diana and Hiawatha at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common and The Puritan in Salem, Massachusetts. He also designed the Double Eagle $20 U.S. gold coin as well as the $10 Indian Head gold eagle.

    Gaudens. (2009, May 5). Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.
  23. Artist and sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward is best known for his statue of George Washington on the steps of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City.

    Adams (2009, May 5). John Quincy Adams Ward. Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.
  24. James Earle Fraser was the leading American sculptor of public monuments of his generation. Today, no other artist has more public sculptures on display in the U.S. He is best known for the U.s. Buffalo Nickel as well as Theodore Roosevelt at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, Benjamin Franklin at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, the entry sculptures and pediment reliefs at the U.S. National Archives building in Washington, D.C., Alexander Hamilton at the U.S. Treasury in Washington, D.C., and the End of the Trail sculpture now at the National Cowboy &amp;amp;lt; Western Heritage Museum. Fraser also executed the Thomas Edison bust and seated Edison statue at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.

    Semple, E.A. (1910, April). James Earle Fraser, Sculptor. The Century Magazine. New York: The Century Company.

    Freundlich, A.L. (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Freundlich, A.L. (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.
  26. The original design for the reverse (back) of the Edison Medal depicted a nude male sitting on steps holding a glowing Edison light bulb. Fraser actually cast Edison's own arm holding the light bulb for this version of the medal.

    Freundlich, A.L. (2001). The Sculpture of James Earle Fraser. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers.
  27. New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1909, Aug. 1). To Award Edison Medal.
  28. 28.0 28.1 The Edison Medal award dates in this article are based on the dates each recipient was selected, as reported by the IEEE, and not the dates the awards were presented, as reported by some of the reference materials. Since recipients were selected at the close of each calendar year and the medal presentation was made the following year, there is some inconsistency referring to the year of each award.
  29. Brittain, J.S. (2004, Jan.). Hall of fame for electrical engineers-Elihu Thomson. Proceedings of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 92, No. 1.
  30. Dr. Elihu Thomson is not related to Sir William Thomson, known as Lord Kelvin. In addition to the Edison Medal, Thomson was the first American recipient of the Kelvin Gold Medal issued by the Institute of Civil Engineers in Great Britain in 1923. The Kelvin Medal is awarded for "distinguished service in the application of science to engineering."

    Presentation of John Fritz Medal to Professor Elihu Thomson. (1917, Feb.). Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. American Institute of Mining Engineers. No. 122.

    Brittain, J.S. (2004, Jan.). Hall of fame for electrical engineers-Elihu Thomson. Proceedings of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 92, No. 1.

    IEEE Explore. (2008, Sept. 16). Elihu Thomson. IEEE Digital Library. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Elihu_Thomson.

    ICE. (2009, May 5). The Kelvin Medal. Institution of Civil Engineers Terms of Reference For Institution and Inter-Institution Medals. Institution of Civil Engineers Internet Site. See http://www.ice.org.uk/myice/myice_scholarships_inter_institution.asp.
  31. New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1927, Feb. 26). Scientist Refuses To Accept Award.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Jonnes, J. (2003). Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, Inc.
  33. 33.0 33.1 McNichol, T. (2006). AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Edison Medal. (2009, April 28). Encyclopedia II - Edison Medal – History. See http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Edison_Medal_-_History/id/5011080.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009c, April 27). Edison Medal Recipients.
  36. See New York Times (1915) for the original article and Cheney (1981 and 2001) for the complete story which involved many unsupported newspaper articles and interviews about the Nobel Prize award. On November 14, 1915, the Nobel Prize Committee announced the 1915 prize for physics would be awarded to Professor William Henry Bragg of the University of Leeds in England and his son W.L. Bragg of Cambridge University for their use of X-rays to determine the structure of crystals.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Cheney, M. (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  38. Cheney, M., Uth, R. (2001). TESLA: Master of Lighting. New York: Metro Books.
  39. Tesla Memorial Society of New York Internet Site. Tesla Memorial Society of New York. See www.teslasociety.com. (2009a, April 28). Vujovic, Dr. L. Missing Tesla Related Items.
  40. New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1947, Jan. 29). De Forest Honored As Radio Pioneer.
  41. See:

    IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009c, April 27). Edison Medal Recipients.

    John Fritz Medal. (2009a, April 28). American Association of Engineering Studies Internet Site. See http://www.aaes.org/communications/john_fritz_medal.asp.

    John Fritz Medal. (2009b, April 28). Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society Internet Site. See http://www.tbp.org/pages/About/People/DistinguishedMembers/Fritz.cfm.

    IEEE Century of Honors. (1984). A Century of Honors 1884-1984: The First 100 Years of Award Winners, Honorary Members, Past Presidents and Fellows of The Institute. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

    IEEE Edison Medal. (2009, April 27). Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.
  42. Lessing, L. (1956). Man of High Fidelity: Edwin Howard Armstrong. New York: J.B. Lippincott Company.
  43. Hazeltine, A. (1943, April). Presentation of the AIEE Edison Medal. Electrical Engineering. Vol. 62. Reprinted in The Legacies of Edwin Howard Armstrong, (1991), The Radio Club of America.
  44. Armstrong, E.H. (1943, April). Vagaries and elusiveness of invention. Proceedings, American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Electrical Engineering. Vol. 62. Reprinted in The Legacies of Edwin Howard Armstrong, (1991), The Radio Club of America.
  45. Brittain, J.S. (2006, June). Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Robert Millikan. Proceedings of the IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Vol. 94, No. 6.
  46. IEEE Global History Network. IEEE Global History Network Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See http://www.ieeeghn.org. (2009, Jan. 28). Robert A. Millikan.IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org.
  47. A 2005 study concluded that the largest number of U.S. parents (1,432) belong to Shunpei Yamazaki working at the Semiconductor Energy Laboratory in Tokyo, Japan. The second highest number of patents (1,322) belongs to Donald Weber, primarily involving flower pot and flower bundling technology. Thomas Edison now ranks third with 1,093 patents.

    Maney, K. (2005, Dec. 13). You really can find identities of top patent holders. USA TODAY. Gannett Co. Inc.
  48. Act Commemorating the LITE, or Lifetime Innovations of Thomas Edison. (Introduced in U.S. Senate) S 2329 IS 110th Congress 1st Session S. 2329. To establish the Thomas Edison National Historical Park in the State of New Jersey as the successor to the Edison National Historic Site. In The Senate Of The United States dated November 8, 2007.
  49. New York Times Article Archives. New York Times Internet Site. See http://www.nytimes.com/ref/membercenter/nytarchive.html. (1928, Oct. 19). Program Completed For Edison Ceremony.
  50. The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was founded in 1884. The focus of the AIEE would largely become dominated by topics of electric power generation and wire communications. The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was formed in 1912, modeled on the AIEE, but was devoted to radio, wireless telegraphy and electronics. In the 1940s the interests of the two societies began to significantly overlap and many engineers were members of both societies. A merger occurred in 1963, and the resulting organization was renamed the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  51. 51.0 51.1 IEEE Foundation. (2005). Samsung to Sponsor IEEE Edison Medal. IEEE Foundation Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See http://www.ieee.org/organizations/foundation/2005news.html.
  52. IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009b, April 27). Edison Medal.
  53. IEEE Internet Site. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. See https://www.ieee.org (2009d, April 27). Edison Medal Nomination.
  54. IEEE Edison Medal. (2009, April 27). Wikipedia Internet Site. See www.wikipedia.org.