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The M7 Anti Aircraft Trajectory Predictor, an example of anti-aircraft fire control, an early application of cybernetics

Cybernetics encompasses the development of systems engineering technology including problem definition methods, modeling, and simulation, methods of system experimentation, human factors engineering, data and methods, systems design techniques and test and evaluation methods.

The IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society represents IEEE's interests in the cybernetics field and publishes journals and holds conferences.


  • Adaptive systems - interdependent entities that form an integrated whole yet are able to respond to changes in environmental conditions or interrelated parts of the whole
  • Cognitive science - the study of mental processes and the mind
  • Control theory - an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with dynamic systems and the use of controllers to manipulate inputs for a desired output
  • Decision theory - a theory interested in demonstrating the values and uncertainties inherent in decisions and the potential "optimal decision"
  • Econophysics - the use of theories and methods originally used in physics to solve economic problems
  • Emergent phenomena - complex systems and entities that arise out of simpler entities and interactions
  • Intelligent control - control techniques that use artificial intelligence computing approaches
  • Linear feedback control systems - systems that attempt to regulate a variable at a stable setpoint or reference value using feedback, contrasted with logic or sequential control systems