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Innovation Map

The Innovation Map displays the physical locations of all the dedicated IEEE Milestones. You can click on any of the points to see an abstract of the Milestone, which will contain a link to the Milestone page. Use the tools on the left hand side of the map to navigate and zoom.

The Milestone program is made possible by donations. Please consider supporting the IEEE History Center’s work by making a donation to IEEE Foundation - History Center Fund

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42.162019, -77.094137, Milestones:World's First Low-Loss Optical Fiber for Telecommunications

In 1970, Corning scientists Dr. Robert Maurer, Dr. Peter Schultz, and Dr. Donald Keck developed a highly pure optical glass that effectively transmitted light signals over long distances. This astounding medium, which is thinner than a human hair, revolutionized global communications. By 2011, the world depended upon the continuous transmission of voice, data, and video along more than 1.6 billion kilometers of optical fiber installed around the globe.

35.657403, 139.752515, Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.


34.981091, 135.728056, Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.

34.977733, 135.723327, Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.

34.739220, 135.572667, Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.

34.727641, 135.566782, Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.

34.343814, 134.860671, Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.

49.1753696, -123.0704193, Milestones:First Digitally Processed Image from a Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1978

In November 1978, a team from MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) became the first to use a digital processor to reconstruct an image from Seasat-A, the first civilian spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). MDA engineers subsequently developed three of the four most important SAR digital processing algorithms that replaced the optical processing methods used previously.

34.043404, -118.696016, Milestones:First Working Laser

Hughes Laboratories, 3011 Malibu Canyon Rd, Malibu, CA On this site in May 1960 Theodore Maiman built and operated the first laser. A number of teams around the world were trying to construct this theoretically anticipated device from different materials. Maiman’s was based on a ruby rod optically pumped by a flash lamp. The laser was a transformative technology in the 20th century and continues to enjoy wide application in many fields of human endeavor.

40.328114, -74.633493, Milestones:TIROS-1

Sarnoff Library, Princeton, NJ On 1 April 1960, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration launched TIROS I, the world's first meteorological satellite, to capture and transmit video images of the Earth's weather patterns. RCA staff at Defense Electronics Products, the David Sarnoff Research Center, and Astro-Electronics Division designed and constructed the satellite and ground station systems. TIROS I pioneered meteorological and environmental satellite television for an expanding array of purposes.

49.320883, -119.620364, Milestones:First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry

Algonquin Radio Observatory, Kaleden, B.C., Canada On the morning of 17 April 1967, radio astronomers used this radiotelescope at DRAO and a second one at the Algonquin Radio Observatory located 3074 km away to make the first successful radio astronomical observations using Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Today, VLBI networks span the globe, extend into space and continue to make significant contributions to both radio astronomy and geodesy.

48.849016, 2.32968, Milestones:Discovery of Radioconduction by Edouard Branly, 1890

Institut Catholique de Paris, Paris, France In this building, Edouard Branly discovered radioconduction, now called the Branly Effect. On 24 November 1890, he observed that an electromagnetic wave changes the ability of metal filings to conduct electricity. Branly used his discovery to make a very sensitive detector called a coherer, improved versions of which became the first practical wireless signal receivers.

51.415214, 5.457115, Milestones:Compact Disc Audio Player, 1979

High Tech Campus, Eindhoven, the Netherlands On 8 March 1979, N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken demonstrated for the international press a Compact Disc Audio Player. The demonstration showed that it is possible by using digital optical recording and playback to reproduce audio signals with superb stereo quality. This research at Philips established the technical standard for digital optical recording systems.

32.925383, -96.756635, Milestones:Speak & Spell, the First Use of a Digital Signal Processing IC for Speech Generation, 1978

Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX In December 1976, Richard Wiggins demonstrated the Speak & Spell concept to Paul Breedlove, Larry Brantingham and Gene Frantz in Texas Instruments' Dallas research laboratory. This group led the team that created Speak & Spell in April 1978. The key device was the industry's first digital signal processing integrated processor, the TMS5100. This innovation in audio processing began the huge digital signal processing consumer market.

35.548045, 139.69094, Milestones:The First Word Processor for the Japanese Language, 1971-1978

Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Japan At this site, between 1971 and 1978, the first Japanese-language word processor was developed. Researchers headed by Ken-ichi Mori created a wholly new concept of Japanese word processing. Their first practical system, JW-10, was publicly unveiled on 3 October 1978. The JW-10, and improved versions, played a major role in advancing the Information Age in Japan, and provided the basis for Japanese-language word-processing software in personal computers.

36.697371, 140.708953, Milestones:First Transpacific Reception of a Television (TV) Signal via Satellite, 1963

Ishitaki, Takahagi-city, Ibaraki, Japan On 23 November 1963, this site received the first transpacific transmission of a TV signal from Mojave earth station in California, U.S.A., via the Relay 1 communications satellite. The Ibaraki earth station used a 20m Cassegrain antenna, the first use of this type of antenna for commercial telecommunications. This event demonstrated the capability and impact of satellite communications and helped open a new era of intercontinental live TV programming relayed via satellite.

41.216193, -73.806002, Milestones:IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 1960 - 1984

Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY In its first quarter century, the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center produced numerous seminal advances having sustained worldwide impact in electrical engineering and computing. Semiconductor device innovations include dynamic random access memory (DRAM), superlattice crystals, and field effect transistor (FET) scaling laws. Computing innovations include reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architecture, integer programming, amorphous magnetic films for optical storage technology, and thin-film magnetic recording heads.

47.554166, 8.050339, Milestones:Star of Laufenburg Interconnection, 1958

UCTE, Laufenburg, Switzerland This is the original location of the electric-power interconnection of three countries: Switzerland, Germany and France. The Union for Production and Transmission of Electricity (now UCTE) was formed to manage this interconnection. This installation pioneered international connections, and technical and political cooperation for European integration. UCTE coordinated one of the largest synchronously connected power networks serving almost all of continental Europe.

32.924951, -96.756635, Milestones:First Semiconductor Integrated Circuit (IC), 1958

Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX On 12 September 1958, Jack S. Kilby demonstrated the first working integrated circuit to managers at Texas Instruments. This was the first time electronic components were integrated onto a single substrate. This seminal device consisted of a phase shift oscillator circuit on a tiny bar of germanium measuring 7/16” by 1/16” (11.1 mm by 1.6 mm). Today, integrated circuits are the fundamental building blocks of virtually all electronic equipment.

40.684153, -74.401174, Milestones:Invention of the First Transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1947

Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ At this site, in Building 1, Room 1E455, from 17 November to 23 December 1947, Walter H. Brattain and John A. Bardeen -- under the direction of William B. Shockley -- discovered the transistor effect, and developed and demonstrated a point-contact germanium transistor. This led directly to developments in solid-state devices that revolutionized the electronics industry and changed the way people around the world lived, learned, worked, and played.

35.606685, 139.684789, Milestones:Development of Ferrite Materials and Their Applications, 1930-1945

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan In 1930, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Drs. Yogoro Kato and Takeshi Takei invented ferrite, a magnetic ceramic compound containing oxides of iron and of other metals with properties useful in electronics. TDK Corporation began mass production of ferrite cores in 1937 for use in radio equipment. The electric and electronics industries use ferrites in numerous applications today.

34.974173, 137.016871, Milestones:Yosami Radio Transmitting Station, 1929

Kariya, Aichi pref., Japan In April 1929, the Yosami Station established the first wireless communications between Japan and Europe with a long wave operating at 17.442 kHz. An inductor-type high-frequency alternator provided output power at 500 kW. The antenna system used eight towers, each 250m high. The facilities were used for communicating with submarines by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1941 to 1945 and by the United States Navy from 1950 to 1993.

34.725319, 137.717485, Milestones:Development of Electronic Television, 1924-1941

Hamamatsu, Japan Professor Kenjiro Takayanagi started his research program in television at Hamamatsu Technical College (now Shizuoka University) in 1924. He transmitted an image of the Japanese character イ(i) on a cathode-ray tube on 25 December 1926 and broadcast video over an electronic television system in 1935. His work, patents, articles, and teaching helped lay the foundation for the rise of Japanese television and related industries to global leadership.

40.783824, -74.233825, Milestones:Thomas A. Edison West Orange Laboratories and Factories, 1887

West Orange, NJ Thomas Alva Edison, a West Orange resident from 1886 until his death in 1931, established his final and most comprehensive laboratory and factory complex about one-half mile (0.8 km) north of here in 1887. Edison's visionary combination in one organization of basic and applied research, development, and manufacturing became the prototype for industrial enterprises worldwide. Work here resulted in more than half of Edison's 1,093 patents.

55.032499, -3.945293, Milestones:Maxwell's Equations, 1860-1871

Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.

51.512011, -0.116622, Milestones:Maxwell's Equations, 1860-1871

King's Building, Strand Campus, King's College London, London WC2R 2lS, England Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.


59.934011, 30.30213, Milestones:Shilling's Pioneering Contribution to Practical Telegraphy, 1828-1837

Central Museum of Communications, St. Petersburg, Russia In this building, Shilling`s original electromagnetic telegraph is exhibited. P. L. Shilling, a Russian scientist, successfully transmitted messages over different distances by means of an electric current’s effect on a magnetic needle, using two signs and a telegraph dictionary for transferring letters and digits. Shilling`s demonstrations in St. Petersburg and abroad provided an impetus to scientists in different countries and influenced the invention of more advanced electromagnetic telegraphs.

39.948849, -75.147622, Milestones:Book "Experiments and Observations on Electricity" by Benjamin Franklin, 1751

American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, PA In April 1751 the Royal Society published Benjamin Franklin's book, "Experiments and Observations on Electricity: Made in Philadelphia in America." A collection of letters to London's Peter Collinson, it described Franklin's ideas about the nature of electricity and how electrical devices worked, and new experiments to investigate lightning.

37.459237, -122.174149, Milestones:Inception of the ARPANET, 1969

Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA SRI was one of the first two nodes, with the University of California at Los Angeles, on the ARPANET, the first digital global network based on packet switching and demand access. The first documented ARPANET connection was from UCLA to SRI on 29 October 1969 at 10:30 p.m. The ARPANET’s technology and deployment laid the foundation for the development of the Internet.

34.07104, -118.441157, Milestones:Birthplace of the Internet, 1969

University of California, Los Angeles, CA At 10:30 p.m., 29 October 1969, the first ARPANET message was sent from this UCLA site to the Stanford Research Institute. Based on packet switching and dynamic resource allocation, the sharing of information digitally from this first node of ARPANET launched the Internet revolution.

37.423497, -122.104325, Milestones:Semiconductor Planar Process and Integrated Circuit, 1959

Fairchild Semiconductor Offices, Palo Alto, CA The 1959 invention of the Planar Process by Jean A. Hoerni and the Integrated Circuit (IC) based on planar technology by Robert N. Noyce catapulted the semiconductor industry into the silicon IC era. This pair of pioneering inventions led to the present IC industry, which today supplies a wide and growing variety of advanced semiconductor products used throughout the world.

37.4118, -122.1478, Milestones:Development of the HP-35, the First Handheld Scientific Calculator, 1972

Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, CA The HP-35 was the first handheld calculator to perform transcendental functions (such as trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions). Most contemporary calculators could only perform the four basic operations – addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The HP-35 and subsequent models have replaced the slide rule, used by generations of engineers and scientists. The HP-35 performed all the functions of the slide rule to ten-digit precision over a full two-hundred-decade range.

39.70652, -105.69792, Milestones:Georgetown Steam Hydro Generating Plant, 1900

Georgetown Steam Hydro plant.jpg
Georgetown, Colorado, on South Clear Creek at east end of 6th Street

Dedication: July 1999 - IEEE Denver Section

Electric generating plants, through their high-voltage lines, provided critical power to the isolated mines in this region. Georgetown, completed in 1900, was unusual in employing both steam and water power. Its owner, United Light and Power Company, was a pioneer in using three-phase, 60-Hertz alternating current and in being interconnected with other utilities.

42.081973, -70.640951, Milestones:First Wireless Radio Broadcast by Reginald A. Fessenden, 1906

Blackman’s Point, Brant Rock, in the County of Plymouth Massachusetts On 24 December 1906, the first radio broadcast for entertainment and music was transmitted from Brant Rock, Massachusetts to the general public. This pioneering broadcast was achieved after years of development work by Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (1866-1932) who built a complete system of wireless transmission and reception using amplitude modulation (AM) of continuous electromagnetic waves. This technology was a revolutionary departure from transmission of dots and dashes widespread at the time.

40.752193, -73.993465, Milestones:Largest Private (dc) Generating Plant in the U.S.A., 1929

Hotel New Yorker, 8th Avenue and 34th st. New York, New York The Direct Current (dc) generating plant installed at the New Yorker Hotel in 1929, capable of supplying electric power sufficient for a city of 35,000 people, was the largest private generating plant in the U.S.A. Steam engines drove electric generators, with exhaust steam used for heating and other facilities. The installation used more than two hundred dc motors, and was controlled from a seven-foot (two-meter) high, sixty-foot (eighteen-meter) long switchboard.

49.855809, -97.154215, Milestones:Pinawa Hydroelectric Power Project, 1906

Manitoba Electrical Museum and Education Centre, 680 Harrow St, Winnipeg, MB R3M On 9 June 1906 the Winnipeg Electric Railway Co. transmitted electric power from the Pinawa generating station on the Winnipeg River to the city of Winnipeg at 60,000 volts. It was the first year-round hydroelectric plant in Manitoba and one of the first to be developed in such a cold climate anywhere in the world.


40.45418, -79.890567, Milestones:Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA, 1920

Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA.jpg
Keystone Commons, 700 Braddock Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Dedication: June 1994 - IEEE Pittsburgh Section

Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting. Transmitting with a power of 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters, KDKA began scheduled programming with the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, 1920. A shed, housing studio and transmitter, was atop the K Building of the Westinghouse East Pittsburgh works. Conceived by C.P. Davis, broadcasting as a public service evolved from Frank Conrad's weekly experimental broadcasts over his amateur radio station 8XK, attracting many regular listeners who had wireless receiving sets.

28.523314, -80.68206, Milestones:Electronic Technology for Space Rocket Launches, 1950-1969

Kennedy Space Center, Orsino, Florida

Dedication: February 2001 - IEEE Canaveral Section

The demonstrated success in space flight is the result of electronic technology developed at Cape Canaveral, the J. F. Kennedy Space Center, and other sites, and applied here. A wide variety of advances in radar tracking, data telemetry, instrumentation, space-to-ground communications, on-board guidance, and real-time computation were employed to support the U.S. space program. These and other electronic developments provided infrastructure necessary for the successful landing of men on the moon in July 1969 and their safe return to earth.

42.202069, -104.565302, Milestones:Transcontinental Telegraph, 1861

Fort Laramie, Wyoming, U.S.A.

Dedication: August 1990 - IEEE Denver Section

Between July 4 and October 24, 1861, a telegraph line was constructed by the Western Union Company between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California, thereby completing the first high-speed communications link between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. This service met the critical demand for fast communications between these two areas. The telegraph line operated until May 1869, when it was replaced by a multi-wire system constructed with the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railway lines.

40.328114, -74.633393, Milestones:Liquid Crystal Display, 1968

David Sarnoff Library, 201 Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Dedication: 30 September 06

Between 1964 and 1968, at the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey, a team of engineers and scientists led by George H. Heilmeier with Louis A. Zanoni and Lucian A. Barton, devised a method for electronic control of light reflected from liquid crystals and demonstrated the first liquid crystal display. Their work launched a global industry that now produces millions of LCDs annually for watches, calculators, flat-panel displays in televisions, computers and instruments.

32.800045, 34.999952, Milestones:Lempel-Ziv Data Compression Algorithm, 1977

Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

Dedication: September 2004, IEEE Israel Section

The data compression algorithm developed at this site in 1977 by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv became a basis for enabling data transmission via the internet in an efficient way. It contributed significantly in making the internet a global communications medium.

51.50749, -0.124899, Milestones:Benjamin Franklin's work in London, 1757-1775

Benjamin Franklin's Work in London.jpg
36 Craven Street, London, England

Dedication: 31 March 2003 - IEEE UKRI Section

Benjamin Franklin, American electrician, printer, and diplomat, spent many years on Craven Street. He lived at No. 7 between 1772 and 1775 and at No. 36 from 1757-1762 and again from 1764-1772. During these years, Franklin popularized the study of electricity, performed experiments, and served as an advisor on lightning conductors.

46.12164, 7.02161, Milestones:Marconi's Early Wireless Experiments, 1895

Marconi Switzerland plaque.jpg
Salvan, Wallis, Switzerland

Dedication: 26 September 2003, IEEE Switzerland Section

On this spot in 1895, with local assistance, Guglielmo Marconi carried out some of the first wireless experiments. He first transmitted a signal from this "Shepherdess Stone" over a few meters and later, following one and a half months of careful adjustments, over a distance of up to one and a half kilometers. This was the beginning of Marconi's pivotal involvement in wireless radio.

40.56503, -74.33743, Milestones:Thomas Alva Edison Historic Site at Menlo Park, 1876

Menlo Park, Edison, NJ

Dedication: 9 September 2006

Between 1876 and 1882 at Menlo Park, New Jersey, Thomas Edison developed the world's first industrial research and development laboratory devoted to developing new technology. At this laboratory. Edison and his staff developed the first system of incandescent electric lighting and electric power generation, and invented recorded sound and a commercially successful telephone transmitter.

35.686871, 139.756363, Milestones:Mount Fuji Radar System, 1964

Mount Fuji, Shizouka Prefecture, Japan

Dedication: March 2000, IEEE Nagoya Section The plaque is in a display case at the Meterological Museum, 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

Completed in 1964 as the highest weather radar in the world in the pre-satellite era, the Mount Fuji Radar System almost immediately warned of a major storm over 800 km away. In addition to advancing the technology of weather radar, it pioneered aspects of remote-control and low-maintenance of complex electronic systems. The radar was planned by the Japan Meteorological Agency and constructed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.

46.228442, 6.072216, Milestones:CERN Experimental Instrumentation, 1968

CERN Laboratories, Geneva, Switzerland,

Dedication: 26 September 2005, IEEE France Section, endorsed by the IEEE Switzerland Section

At CERN laboratories the invention of multiple-wire proportional chambers and drift chambers revolutionized the domain of electronic particle detectors, leading to new research on the constitution of matter. The development of unique electrical and electronic devices made possible the major high-energy physics experiments which have been recognized worldwide.

45.508095, -73.562355, Milestones:First 735 kV AC Transmission System, 1965

Quebec, Canada,

Dedication: November 2005

Hydro-Quebec's 735,000 volt electric power transmission system was the first in the world to be designed, built and operated at an alternating-current voltage above 700 kV. This development extended the limits of long-distance transmission of electrical energy. On 29 November 1965 the first 735 kV line was inaugurated. Power was transmitted from the Manicouagan-Outardes hydro-electric generating complex to Montreal, a distance of 600 km.

37.421012, -122.206082, Milestones:Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 1962

Stanford, Stanford, California, U.S.A.

Dedication: February 1984 - IEEE San Francisco Bay Area Council (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE)

The Stanford two-mile accelerator, the longest in the world, accelerates electrons to the very high energy needed in the study of subatomic particles and forces. Experiments performed here have shown that the proton, one of the building blocks of the atom, is in turn composed of smaller particles now called quarks. Other research here has uncovered new families of particles and demonstrated subtle effects of the weak nuclear force. This research requires the utmost precision in the large and unique electromechanical devices and systems that accelerate, define, deliver and store the beams of particles, and in the detectors that analyze the results of the particle interactions.

43.081784, -79.042946, Milestones:Adams Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 1895

Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A.

Dedication: June 1990 - IEEE Buffalo Section Only the 1895 transformer house,(long, grey-roofed building in center of satellite photo) designed by the famous architects McKim, Mead and White, remains at the original location. The entrance to the first Adams plant has been re-erected in the park on Goats Island (between the falls).

When the Adams Plant went into operation on August 26, 1895, it represented a key victory for alternating-current systems over direct-current. The clear advantage of high voltage AC for long distance power transmission and the unprecedented size of the plant (it reached its full capacity of ten 5,000-HP generators in May 1900) influenced the future of the electrical industry worldwide.

42.809949, -73.951549, Milestones:Alexanderson Radio Alternator, 1904

General Electric Co., 1 River Rd, Building 37, Schenectady, New York, U.S.A.

Dedication: February 1992 - IEEE Schenectady Section

The Alexanderson radio alternator was a high-power, radio-frequency source which provided reliable transoceanic radiotelegraph communication during and after World War I. Ernst F.W. Alexanderson (1878-1975), a General Electric engineer, designed radio alternators with a frequency range to 100 kHz and a power capability from 2 kW to 200 kW. These machines, developed during the period 1904 to 1918, were used in research on high-frequency properties of materials as well as for international communications.

45.351207, -75.853531, Milestones:Alouette-ISIS Satellite Program, 1962

Shirley's Bay Research Centre, Nepean, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Driven by the need to understand the characteristics of radio communication in Canada's North, Canadian researchers focused on the exploration of the earth's upper atmosphere, the ionosphere. Canada's satellite program commenced with the launch of Alouette-I on September 29, 1962. Alouette-II followed in 1965, ISIS-I in 1969, ISIS-II in 1971. The Alouette/ISIS tracking antenna serves as a reminder of Canada's contribution to this international effort in space science.

42.198443, -73.361209, Milestones:Alternating Current Electrification, 1886

1886 Corner of Cottage and Main Streets, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Dedication: 2 October 2004, IEEE Berkshire Section

On 20 March 1886 William Stanley provided alternating current electrification to offices and stores on Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He thus demonstrated the first practical system for providing electrical illumination using alternating current with transformers to adjust voltage levels of the distribution system.

37.865501, -107.881683, Milestones:Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 1891

Colorado State Highway 145, near Ophir, Colorado, U.S.A.

Dedication: July 1988 - IEEE Pikes Peak Section

Electricity produced here in the spring of 1891 was transmitted 2.6 miles over rugged and at times inaccessible terrain to provide power for operating the motor-driven mill at the Gold King Mine. This pioneering demonstration of the practical value of transmitting electrical power was a significant precedent in the United States for much larger plants at Niagara Falls (in 1895) and elsewhere. Electricity at Ames was generated at 3000 volts, 133 Hertz, single-phase AC, by a 100-hp Westinghouse alternator.

18.344424, -66.753144, Milestones:NAIC/Arecibo Radiotelescope, 1963

Arecibo Observatory, Arecibo, Puerto Rico

Dedication: November 2001 - IEEE Puerto Rico & Caribbean Section

The Arecibo Observatory, the world's largest radiotelescope, was dedicated in 1963. Its design and implementation led to advances in the electrical engineering areas of antenna design, signal processing, and electronic instrumentation, and in the mechanical engineering areas of antenna suspension and drive systems. The drive system positions all active parts of the antenna with millimeter precision, regardless of temperature changes, enabling the telescope to maintain an accurate focus. Its subsequent operation led to advances in the scientific fields of radioastronomy, planetary studies, and space and atmospheric sciences.

42.024, -93.6392, Milestones:Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 1939

226 Atanasoff Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

Dedication: April 1990 - IEEE Central Iowa Section

John Vincent Atanasoff conceived basic design principles for the first electronic-digital computer in the winter of 1937 and, assisted by his graduate student, Clifford E. Berry, constructed a prototype here in October 1939. It used binary numbers, direct logic for calculation, and a regenerative memory. It embodied concepts that would be central to the future development of computers.

40.434703, -79.890567, Milestones:Westinghouse Atom Smasher, 1937

Avenue A and West Street, Forest Hills Borough, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Dedication May 1985 - IEEE Pittsburgh Section

The five million volt van de Graaff generator represents the first large-scale program in nuclear physics established in industry. Constructed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1937, it made possible precise measurements of nuclear reactions and provided valuable research experience for the company's pioneering work in nuclear power.

52.005855, -0.727749, Milestones:Code-breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, 1939-1945

Bletchley Park, Milton Keynes, England

Dedication: 1 April 2003 - IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section

On this site during the 1939-45 World War, 12,000 men and women broke the German Lorenz and Enigma ciphers, as well as Japanese and Italian codes and ciphers. They used innovative mathematical analysis and were assisted by two computing machines developed here by teams led by Alan Turing: the electro-mechanical Bombe developed with Gordon Welchman, and the electronic Colossus designed by Tommy Flowers. These achievements greatly shortened the war, thereby saving countless lives.

42.351588, -71.068988, Milestones:Power System of Boston's Rapid Transit, 1889

Dedication: 10 November 2004, IEEE Boston Section

Ten Park Plaza, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Boston was the first city to build electric traction for a large-scale rapid transit system. The engineering challenge to design and construct safe, economically viable, and reliable electric power for Boston's rapid transit was met by the West End Street Railway Company, beginning in 1889. The company's pioneering efforts provided an important impetus to the adoption of mass transit systems nationwide.

43.532745, -112.942801, Milestones:Experimental Breeder Reactor I, 1951

US Highway 20, 60 miles west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.

Dedication: 4 June 2004, IEEE Eastern Idaho Section

At this facility on 20 December 1951 electricity was first generated from the heat produced by a sustained nuclear reaction providing steam to a turbine generator. This event inaugurated the nuclear power industry in the United States. On 4 June 1953 EBR-I provided the first proof of breeding capability, producing one atom of nuclear fuel for each atom burned, and later produced electricity using a plutonium core reactor.

34.602976, 135.858976, Milestones:Pioneering Work on Electronic Calculators, 1964-1973

Sharp Memorial Hall, Tenri Factory, Nara Prefecture, Japan

Dedication: December 2005

A Sharp Corporation project team designed and produced several families of electronic calculators on the basis of all-transistor (1964), bipolar and MOS integrated circuit (1967), MOS Large Scale Integration (1969) and CMOS-LSI/Liquid Crystal Display (1973). The integration of CMOS-LSI and LCD devices onto a single glass substrate yielded battery-powered calculators. These achievements made possible the widespread personal use of hand-held calculators.

53.38172, -6.590429, Milestones:Callan's Pioneering Contributions to Electrical Science and Technology, 1836

Electronic Engineering and Biosciences Building, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland

Dedication: September 2006

Reverend Nicholas Callan (1799 - 1864), professor of Natural Philosophy at Saint Patrick's College Maynooth, contributed significantly to the understanding of electrical induction and the development of the induction coil. He did this through a series of experiments that made the inductive transient phenomena visibly clear. The apparatus used in these experiments was replicated in other laboratories.

32.77771, -79.933403, Milestones:First Central Station in South Carolina, 1882

94 Queen Street, Charleston, South Carolina

Dedication: July 1986 - IEEE Coastal South Carolina Section

The United States Electric Illuminating Company started up South Carolina's first central station for incandescent electric lighting in this building in October 1882. This was just one month after Thomas Edison opened his central station on New York City's Pearl Street. In the following years, the pioneering firm of United States Electric was one of Edison's main competitors.

-37.090514, -73.159676, Milestones:Chivilingo Hydroelectric Plant, 1897

14km south of Lota, Chile

Dedication: October 2001, IEEE Chile Section

The 1897 430 kW Chivilingo Plant was the first hydroelectric plant in Chile and the second in South America. A 10 km line fed the Lota coal mines and the railway extracting minerals 12 km from shore under the sea. It represented a new key technology and a new source of electrical energy in the region as a tool for economic development. Chivilingo demonstrated the advantages of industrial use of electricity and hastened its widespread adoption in Chile.

42.028337, -91.638685, Milestones:Long-Range Shortwave Voice Transmissions from Byrd's Antarctic Expedition, 1934

Rockwell Collins, 400 Collins Rd, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.A.

Dedication: February 2001 - IEEE Cedar Rapids Section

Beginning 3 February 1934, Vice Admiral Richard E. Byrd's Antarctic Expedition transmitted news releases to New York via short-wave radio voice equipment. From New York, the US nationwide CBS network broadcast the news releases to the public. Previous expeditions had been limited to dot-dash telegraphy, but innovative equipment from the newly formed Collins Radio Company made this long-range voice transmission feasible.

51.826819, -10.172038, Milestones:County Kerry Transatlantic Cable Stations, 1866

Milestones-Landing of transatlantic cable.jpg
Cable Station, Waterville, County Kerry, Ireland

July 2000 - IEEE UKRI Section

On July 13, 1866 the Great Eastern steamed westward from Valentia, laying telegraph cable behind her. The successful landing at Heart's Content, Newfoundland on July 27 established a permanent electrical communications link that altered for all time personal, commercial and political relations between people across the Atlantic Ocean. Later, additional cables were laid from Valentia and new stations opened at Ballinskelligs (1874) and Waterville (1884), making County Kerry a major focal point for global communications.

43.116335, -79.248669, Milestones:Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Plant, 1898

DeCew Falls, Ontario, Canada

Dedication: 2 May 2004, IEEE Hamilton Section

The Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Development was a pioneering project in the generation and transmission of electrical energy at higher voltages and at greater distances in Canada. On 25 August 1898 this station transmitted power at 22,500 Volts, 66 2/3 Hz, two-phase, a distance of 56 km to Hamilton, Ontario. Using the higher voltage permitted efficient transmission over that distance.

43.193841, -80.384127, Milestones:First Distant Speech Transmission in Canada, 1876

91, Grand River St. N, Paris, Ontario, Canada

The location is now "The River Lilly" store Dedication: 4 May 2008

On 10 August 1876, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated on this site that the human voice could be transmitted electrically over distance. While family members spoke into a transmitter in Brantford, 13 km away, Bell was able to hear them at a receiver located here. This test convinced Bell that the invention could be used for communication between towns and could compete successfully with the telegraph.

42.343968, -71.090885, Milestones:Electric Fire Alarm System, 1852

59 Fenway, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. On 28 April 1852 the first municipal electric fire alarm system using call boxes with automatic signaling to indicate the location of a fire was placed into operation in Boston. Invented by William Channing and Moses Farmer, this system was highly successful in reducing property loss and deaths due to fire and was subsequently adopted throughout the United States and in Canada.

42.359377, -71.058043, Milestones:First Intelligible Voice Transmission over Electric Wire, 1876

City Hall Plaza, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Dedication: 10 March 2006

The first transmission of intelligible speech over electrical wires took place on March 10, 1876. Inventor Alexander Graham Bell called out to his assistant Thomas Watson, "Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you." This transmission took place in their attic laboratory located in a building near here at 5 Exeter Place.

51.523033, -0.131607, Milestones:Fleming Valve, 1904

University College, London, England

Dedication: 1 July 2004, IEEE UKRI Section

Beginning in the 1880s Professor John Ambrose Fleming of University College London investigated the Edison effect, electrical conduction within a glass bulb from an incandescent filament to a metal plate. In 1904 he constructed such a bulb and used it to rectify high frequency oscillations and thus detect wireless signals. The same year Fleming patented the device, later known as the Fleming valve.

45.813525, 9.075411, Milestones:Volta's Electrical Battery Invention, 1799

Milestones-Volta's Electrical Battery.jpg
Tempio Voltiano, Guglielmo Marconi, Como, Italy

Dedication: September 1999 - IEEE North Italy Section

In 1799, Alessandro Volta developed the first electrical battery. This battery, known as the Voltaic Cell, consisted of two plates of different metals immersed in a chemical solution. Volta's development of the first continuous and reproducible source of electrical current was an important step in the study of electromagnetism and in the development of electrical equipment.

34.087878, -117.0395, Milestones:Mill Creek No. 1 Hydroelectric Plant, 1893

Near Redlands in San Bernardino County, California, U.S.A.

Dedication February 1997 - IEEE Foothills Section (ASCE California Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE)

Built by the Redlands Electric Light and Power Company, the Mill Creek hydroelectric generating plant began operating on 7 September 1893. This powerhouse was foremost in the use of three-phase alternating current power for commercial application and was influential in the widespread adoption of three-phase power throughout the United States.

42.37447, -71.105759, Milestones:MIT Radiation Laboratory, 1940-1945

Original Radiation Lab, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Dedication: October 1990 - IEEE Boston Section

The MIT Radiation Laboratory, operated on this site between 1940 and 1945, advanced the allied war effort by making fundamental contributions to the design and deployment of microwave radar systems. Used on land, sea, and in the air, in many adaptations, radar was a decisive factor in the outcome of the conflict. The laboratory's 3900 employees made lasting contributions to microwave theory and technology, operational radar, systems engineering, long-range navigation, and control equipment.

40.328114, -74.633393, Milestones:Monochrome-Compatible Electronic Color Television, 1946-1953

Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Dedication: November 2001, IEEE Princeton/Central New Jersey Section

On this site between 1946 and 1950 the research staff of RCA Laboratories invented the world's first electronic, monochrome-compatible, color television system. They worked with other engineers in the industry for three years to develop a national analog standard based on this system, which lasted until the transition to digital broadcasting.

39.75877, -84.191658, Milestones:US Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, 1942-1945

Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A.

Dedication: October 2001 - IEEE Dayton Section

In 1942, the United States Navy joined with the National Cash Register Company to design and manufacture a series of code-breaking machines. This project was located at the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory in Building 26, near this site. The machines built here, including the American "Bombes", incorporated advanced electronics and significantly influenced the course of World War II.

54.218428, -97.613096, Milestones:Nelson River HVDC Transmission System, 1972

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada,

Dedication: 3 June 2005, IEEE Winnipeg Section

On 17 June 1972, the Nelson River High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system began delivery of electric power. It used the highest operating voltage to deliver the largest amount of power from a remote site to a city. The bipolar scheme gave superior line reliability and the innovative use of the controls added significantly to the overall system capabilities. Finally, the scheme used the largest mercury arc valves ever developed for such an application.

41.030191, -73.598839, Milestones:Alternating-Current Electrification of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 1907

Cos Cob, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Dedicated May 1982 - IEEE Connecticut Section (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE)

This was a pioneering venture in mainline railroad electrification. It established single-phase alternating current as a technical and economical alternative to direct current. This concept exerted considerable influence over subsequent systems both in the United States and abroad. The major components of the system were developed by the engineering staffs of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

39.952810, -75.190048, Milestones:Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, 1946

Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia

Dedication: September 1987 - IEEE Philadelphia Section

A major advance in the history of computing occurred at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946 when engineers put the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) into operation. Designed and constructed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering under a U. S. Army contract during World War II, the ENIAC established the practicality of large scale, electronic digital computers and strongly influenced the development of the modern, stored-program, general-purpose computer.

42.335699, -83.043004, Milestones:One-Way Police Radio Communication, 1928

1300 Beaubien, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

Dedicated May 1987 - IEEE Southeastern Michigan Section

At this site on April 7, 1928 the Detroit Police Department commenced regular one-way radio communication with its patrol cars. Developed by personnel of the department's radio bureau, the system was the product of seven years of experimentation under the direction of police commissioner, William P. Rutledge. Their work proved the practicality of land-mobile radio for police work and led to its adoption throughout the country.

21.2049, -156.96958, Milestones:Opana Radar Site, 1941

Kuhuku, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Dedication: February 2000 - IEEE Hawaii Section

On December 7, 1941, an SCR-270b radar located at this site tracked incoming Japanese aircraft for over 30 minutes until they were obscured by the island ground clutter. This was the first wartime use of radar by the United States military, and led to its successful application throughout the theater.

-33.979012, 18.4823, Milestones:First Operational Use Of Wireless Telegraphy, 1899-1902

Telkom Museum, Victoria and Albert Waterfront, Cape Town, South Africa

Dedication: September 1999 - IEEE South Africa Section

The first use of wireless telegraphy in the field occurred during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). The British Army experimented with Marconi's system and the British Navy successfully used it for communication among naval vessels in Delagoa Bay, prompting further development of Marconi's wireless telegraph system for practical uses.

44.93875, -93.321602, Milestones:First Wearable Cardiac Pacemaker, 1957-1958

Bakken Library and Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Dedication: October 1999 - IEEE Twin Cities Section

During the winter of 1957-58, Earl E. Bakken developed the first wearable transistorized pacemaker, the request of heart surgeon, Dr. C. Walton Lillehei. As earlier pacemakers were AC-powered, this battery-powered device liberated patients from their power-cord tethers. The wearable pacemaker was a significant step in the evolution to fully-implantable units.

8.934253, -79.565392, Milestones:Panama Canal Electrical and Control Installations, 1914

Panama Canal, Southern End, Panama

Dedication: 4 April 2003 - IEEE Panama Section

The Panama Canal project included one of the largest and most important electrical installations in the world early in the 20th century. The use of 1022 electric motors with an installed capacity of 28,290 horsepower largely replaced the steam and water powered equipment then in common use. Reliability and safety were also engineered into the innovative electrical control system, enabling remote lock operation from a central location.

50.03238, -5.255764, Milestones:Transmission of Transatlantic Radio Signals, 1901

National Trust Visitor Center, Poldhu, England

Dedication: 12 December 2001 - IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section

On December 12, 1901, a radio transmission of the Morse code letter 'S' was broadcast from this site, using equipment built by John Ambrose Fleming. At Signal Hill in Newfoundland, Guglielmo Marconi, using a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, confirmed the reception of these first transatlantic radio signals. These experiments showed that radio signals could propagate far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communications in the twentieth century.

41.759612, -72.681905, Milestones:FM Police Radio Communication, 1940

Department of Public Safety, State Police, 100 Washington St., Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Dedication: June 1987 - IEEE Connecticut Section

A major advance in police radio occurred in 1940 when the Connecticut state police began operating a two-way, frequency modulated (FM) system in Hartford. The statewide system developed by Daniel E. Noble of the University of Connecticut and engineers at the Fred M. Link Company greatly reduced static, the main problem of the amplitude modulated (AM) system. FM mobile radio became standard throughout the country following the success of the Connecticut system.

59.943371, 30.378571, Milestones:Popov's Contribution to the Development of Wireless Communication, 1895

St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Professor Popov str. 5, St. Petersburg, Russia

IEEE Russia (Northwest) Section, Dedication: May 2005

On 7 May 1895, A. S. Popov demonstrated the possibility of transmitting and receiving short, continuous signals over a distance up to 64 meters by means of electromagnetic waves with the help of a special portable device responding to electrical oscillation which was a significant contribution to the development of wireless communication.

55.676285, 12.56928, Milestones:Poulsen-Arc Radio Transmitter, 1902

Lyngby Radio, Northern Copenhagen, Denmark

Dedication: May 1994 - IEEE Denmark Section

Valdemar Poulsen, a Danish engineer, invented an arc converter as a generator of continuous-wave radio signals in 1902. Beginning in 1904, Poulsen used the arc for experimental radio transmission from Lyngby to various receiving sites in Denmark and Great Britain. Poulsen-arc transmitters were used internationally until they were superseded by vacuum-tube transmitters.

46.999851, 6.953389, Milestones:Pioneering Work on the Quartz Electronic Wristwatch, 1962-1967

Observatoire Cantonal de Neuchâtel, Rue de l'Observatoire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland,

Dedication: 28 September 2002, IEEE Switzerland Section

A key milestone in development of the quartz electronic wristwatch in Switzerland was the creation in 1962 of the Centre Electronique Horloger of Neuchâtel. The Centre produced the first prototypes incorporating dedicated integrated circuits that set new timekeeping performance records at the International Chronometric Competition held at this observatory in 1967. Since then quartz watches, with hundreds of millions of units produced, became an extremely successful electronic system.

35.713322, 139.809265, Milestones:Electronic Quartz Wristwatch, 1969

Seiko Institute of Horology, Tokyo, Japan

Dedication: 25 November 2004, IEEE Tokyo Section

After ten years of research and development at Suwa Seikosha, a manufacturing company of Seiko Group, a team of engineers headed by Tsuneya Nakamura produced the first quartz wristwatch to be sold to the public. The Seiko Quartz-Astron 35SQ was introduced in Tokyo on December 25, 1969. Crucial elements included a quartz crystal oscillator, a hybrid integrated circuit, and a miniature stepping motor to turn the hands. It was accurate to within five seconds per month.

34.69978, 135.46958, Milestones:Railroad Ticketing Examining System, 1965-1971

Dedication: 27 November 2007, IEEE Kansai Section Pioneering ticket examining machines, designed to speed commuter railroad use substantially, were first installed in 1965, based on work by a joint research team of Osaka University and Kintetsu Corporation. Following this work, an improved version -- based on joint work by Omron, Kintetsu, and Hankyu corporations using punched cards and magnetic cards -- was first deployed in 1967 and at nineteen stations in 1971.

37.352729, -121.938178, Milestones:RAMAC, 1956

Santa Clara University, Bannan Engineering Center, Room 323, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A.

Dedication: 26 May 2005, IEEE Santa Clara Valley Section

Developed by IBM in San Jose, California at 99 Notre Dame Street from 1952 until 1956, the Random Access Method of Accounting and Control (RAMAC) was the first computer system conceived around a radically new magnetic disk storage device. The extremely large capacity, rapid access, and low cost of magnetic disk storage revolutionized computer architecture, performance, and applications.

40.443877, -3.727198, Milestones:Early Developments in Remote-Control, 1901

Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain

Dedication: 15 March 2007, IEEE Spain Section

In 1901, the Spanish engineer, Leonardo Torres-Quevedo began the development of a system, which he called Telekine, which was able to do "mechanical movements at a distance." The system was a way of testing dirigible balloons of his own creation without risking human lives. In 1902 and 1903 he requested some patents for the system. With the Telekine, Torres-Quevedo laid down modern wireless remote-control operation principles.

37.548715, -77.432755, Milestones:Richmond Union Passenger Railway, 1888

North 5th St., between Marshall and Leigh, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A.

Richmond, VA Dedicated February 1992 - IEEE Richmond Section

In February 1888, the electric street railway system designed by Frank Julian Sprague for the Richmond Union Passenger Railway began operating in Richmond, Virginia. Sprague's Richmond system became the lasting prototype for electric street railways because of its large-scale practicality and operating superiority. This system, which combined Sprague's engineering innovations with other proven technical features, helped shape urban growth worldwide.

48.773925, -3.517225, Milestones:First Transatlantic Reception of a Television Signal via Satellite, 1962

Musee des Telecoms, Pleumeur-Bodou, France

Dedicated July 2002 - IEEE France Section (Pleumeur-Bodou)

On 11 July 1962 this site received the first transatlantic transmission of a TV signal from a twin station in Andover, Maine, USA via the TELSTAR satellite. The success of TELSTAR and the earth stations, the first built for active satellite communications, illustrated the potential of a future world-wide satellite system to provide communications between continents.

50.056679, -5.18539, Milestones:First Transatlantic Television Signal via Satellite, 1962

Doonhilly Downs, Cornwall, England,

Dedication: July 2002 - IEEE United Kingdom Republic of Ireland Section

On 11 July 1962 this site transmitted the first live television signal across the Atlantic from Europe to the USA, via TELSTAR. This Satellite Earth Station was designed and built by the British Post Office Engineering Department. Known as 'Arthur' (of "Knights of the Round Table" fame), its open-dish design became a model for satellite television earth stations throughout the world.

52.663857, -8.626772, Milestones:Shannon Scheme for the Electrification of the Irish Free State, 1929

Ardnacrusha Power Station, Ardnacrusha, County Limerick, Ireland

Dedicated 29 July 2002. IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section (IEEE Milestone and ASCE International Historic Engineering Landmark)

The Shannon Scheme was officially opened at Parteen Weir on 22 July 1929. One of the largest engineering projects of its day, it was successfully executed by Siemens to harness the Shannon River. It subsequently served as a model for large-scale electrification projects worldwide. Operated by the Electricity Board of Ireland, it had an immediate impact on the social, economic and industrial development of Ireland and continues to supply significant power beyond the end of the 20th century.

35.107772, 136.885567, Milestones:Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train), 1964

Tokai Nagoya Station, 1-1-4 Meieki, Nakamura-Ku, Nagoya, Japan. Plaque is at West Side of station on concourse wall

Dedication: July 2000 - IEEE Tokyo Section (IEEE Milestone and ASME Landmark)

Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train) was designed with the world's most advanced electrical and mechanical train technologies to operate at speeds up to 210 km/hr, a world record when it began service in 1964. It has carried more than 80 million passengers per year for many years with an excellent safety record.

38.271629, 140.859116, Milestones:Directive Short Wave Antenna, 1924

The laboratories have been remodelled, so the plaque is on a monument in the center of Katahira Campus, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Dedication: June 1995 - IEEE Tokyo Section 
In these laboratories, beginning in 1924, Professor Hidetsugu Yagi and his assistant, Shintaro Uda, designed and constructed a sensitive and highly-directional antenna using closely-coupled parasitic elements. The antenna, which is effective in the higher-frequency ranges, has been important for radar, television, and amateur radio.

42.866667, 21.916667, Milestones:Vucje Hydroelectric Plant, 1903

Leskovac, Yugoslavia

Dedication: 25 June 2005, IEEE Yugoslavia Section

The Vucje hydroelectric plant began operation in 1903. It was the first in southern Serbia and the largest in the broader region. By transmitting alternating electric current of 50 Hz at 7000 volts -- high for the period -- over a distance of 16 km , it helped to transform the regional economy. It remained in continual use for more than a century.

56.407980, -5.469119, Milestones:The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 1956

Oban, Scotland,

Dedication: 24 September 2006

Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.

44.816528, 20.46369, Milestones:Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), Electrical Pioneer

Belgrade, Yugoslavia,

Dedication: October 2006, IEEE Serbia Section

On the 150th anniversary of his birth, the IEEE is pleased to recognize the seminal work of Nikola Tesla in the field of electrical engineering. Among his many accomplishments, those that stand out are his innovative contributions to the applications of polyphase current to electric power systems, his pioneering work with electromagnetic waves, and his experiments with very high voltages. The Tesla Museum in Beograd is to be commended for its successful efforts to preserve artifacts and documents related to Tesla and to make them accessible to scholars throughout the world.

47.870647, -53.364887, Milestones:Landing of the Transatlantic Cable, 1866

Cable Museum, Heart's Content, Newfoundland, Canada

Dedication: June 1985 - IEEE Newfoundland-Labrador Section

A permanent electrical communications link between the old world and the new was initiated at this site with the landing of a transatlantic cable on July 27, 1866. This achievement altered for all time personal, commercial, and political relations between peoples on the two sides of the ocean. Five more cables between Heart's Content and Valentia, Ireland were completed between 1866 and 1894. This station continued in operation until 1965.

39.54602, -107.32363, Milestones:Shoshone Transmission Line, 1909

Shoshone Hydroelectric Plant near Glenwood Springs, Colorado, U.S.A.

Dedication: June 1991 - IEEE Denver Section

July 17, 1909, the Shoshone Transmission Line began service carrying power, generated by the Shoshone Hydroelectric Generating Station, to Denver. The Line operated at 90 kV, was 153.4 miles long, and crossed the Continental Divide three times reaching an altitude of 13,500 feet. Its design and construction represented an outstanding electrical engineering accomplishment due to its length, the mountainous country over which it was constructed, and the unusually severe weather conditions under which it operated.

40.8120, -74.4812, Milestones:Demonstration of Practical Telegraphy, 1838

Milestones-demonstration of practical telegraphy.jpg
333 Speedwell Avenue, Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Dedication: May 1988 - IEEE North Jersey Section

In this building in January 1838, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alfred Vail first demonstrated publicly crucial elements of their telegraph system, using instruments that Vail had constructed during the previous months. Electrical pulses, transmitted through two miles of wire, caused an electromagnet to ink dots and dashes (grouped to represent letters and words) on a strip of paper. Commercialization began in 1844 when funding became available.

48.14626, -53.9641, Milestones:The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 1956

Clarenville, Newfoundland, Canada

Dedication: 24 September 2006

Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.


46.2317, -60.222119, Milestones:The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 1956

Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia, Canada

Dedication: 24 September 2006

Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.

37.32703, -91.02427, Milestones:Taum Sauk Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant, 1963

Taum Sauk Power Plant, Reynolds County, Missouri, U.S.A.

Dedication: September 2005

The Taum Sauk Plant, when it came on-line in 1963, was the largest pure pumped-storage electric power plant in North America. Other pioneering features for this pumped-storage plant were its high capacity turbine-generators and its ability to be operated remotely, 90 miles away, from St. Louis, Missouri.

44.93875, -70.75005, Milestones:First Transatlantic Transmission of a Television Signal via Satellite, 1962

Andover, Maine, U.S.A.

Dedication: July 2002 - IEEE Maine Section

On 11 July 1962 this site transmitted the first transatlantic TV signal to a twin station in Pleumeur-Bodou, France via the TELSTAR satellite. The success of TELSTAR and the earth stations, the first built for active satellite communications, illustrated the potential of a future world-wide satellite system to provide communications between continents.

47.571849, -52.689165, Milestones:Reception of Transatlantic Radio Signals, 1901

Signal Hill, Newfoundland

Dedication: October 1985 - IEEE Newfoundland-Labrador Section

At Signal Hill on December 12, 1901, Guglielmo Marconi and his assistant, George Kemp, confirmed the reception of the first transatlantic radio signals. With a telephone receiver and a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, they heard Morse code for the letter "S" transmitted from Poldhu, Cornwall. Their experiments showed that radio signals extended far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communication in the twentieth century.

40.622791, -75.451035, Milestones:Manufacture of Transistors, 1951

AT&T Technologies, 555 Union Blvd, Allentown, Pennsylvania

Dedication: April 1989 - IEEE Lehigh Valley Section

The commercial manufacture of transistors began here in October 1951. Smaller, more efficient, and more reliable than the vacuum tubes they replaced, transistors revolutionized the electronics industry.

40.667603, -74.11844, Milestones:Two-Way Police Radio Communication, 1933

26th Street and Avenue C, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Dedication: May 1987 - IEEE North Jersey Section

In 1933, the police department in Bayonne, New Jersey initiated regular two-way communications with its patrol cars, a major advance over previous one-way systems. The very high frequency system developed by radio engineer Frank A. Gunther and station operator Vincent J. Doyle placed transmitters in patrol cars to enable patrolmen to communicate with headquarters and other cars instead of just receiving calls. Two-way police radio became standard throughout the country following the success of the Bayonne system.

35.224517, 139.706075, Milestones:Development of VHS, a World Standard for Home Video Recording, 1976

58-4, Shinmei-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan

Dedication: 11 October 2006

At the Yokohama Plant of Victor Company of Japan, Limited, a team of engineers headed by Shizuo Takano and Yuma Shiraishi developed VHS (Video Home System) format. They looked ahead to the need for home video tape recorders and embodied their idea in unique inventions. The first model JVC HR-3300 was announced on 9 September 1976. Their basic design with subsequent improvement gained wide customer acceptance. VHS became the world standard for home video tape recorders.

44.24764, -88.40412, Milestones:Vulcan Street Plant, 1882

807 S. Oneida St., Appleton, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Dedicated September 1977 - IEEE Northeastern Wisconsin Section (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with ASCE and IEEE)

Near this site on September 30, 1882, the world's first hydroelectric central station began operation. The station, here reproduced, was known as the Vulcan Street Plant and had a direct current generator capable of lighting 250 sixteen candle power lamps each equivalent to 50 watts. The generator operated at 110 volts and was driven through gears and belts by a water wheel operating under a ten foot fall of water.

31.892571, 34.797821, Milestones:WEIZAC Computer, 1955

Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Dedication: 5 December 2006

The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, built the Weizmann Automatic Computer (WEIZAC) during 1954-1955 with the scientific vision of Chaim Pekeris and the engineering leadership of Gerald Estrin. The WEIZAC was based on drawings from the IAS computer at Princeton University and built with much ingenuity. The machine was the first digital electronic computer constructed in the Middle East and it became an indispensable scientific computing resource for many scientists and engineers worldwide.

39.741665, -105.083721, Milestones:Merrill Wheel-Balancing System, 1945

7800 W 16th Avenue, Lakewood, Colorado, U.S.A. (Building and plaque no longer there)

Dedication:September 1999 - IEEE Denver Section (IEEE Milestone and ASME Landmark)

In 1945, Marcellus Merrill first implemented an electronic dynamic wheel-balancing system. Previously, all mechanical methods were static in nature and required removing the wheels from the vehicle. Merrill's innovative balancing system came to be widely used internationally. Elements of the dynamic balancing systems are still used today, primarily for industrial and automotive production applications.

36.56644, 137.66213, Milestones:Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, 1956-63

Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Unazuki-machi, Kurobe-shi, Toyama, Japan Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., completed the innovative Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, including the subterranean power station and Kurobe Dam, in 1963. The 275kV long-distance transmission system delivered the generated electric power to the Kansai region and solved serious power shortages, contributing to industrial development and enhancing living standards for the population.

37.875344, -122.257976, Milestones:SPICE Circuit Simulation Program

Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley

SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) was created at UC Berkeley as a class project in 1969-1970. It evolved to become the worldwide standard integrated circuit simulator. SPICE has been used to train many students in the intricacies of circuit simulation. SPICE and its descendants have become essential tools employed by virtually all integrated circuit designers.

38.749716, -90.347239, Milestones:Mercury Spacecraft MA-6, 1962

Boeing Company Building 100, Prologue Hall, St. Louis, MO

Col. John Glenn piloted the Mercury Friendship 7 spacecraft in the first United States human orbital flight on 20 February 1962. Electrical and electronic systems invented by McDonnell engineers, including IRE members, made his and future spaceflights possible. Among the key contributions were navigation and control instruments, autopilot, rate stabilization and control, and fly-by-wire (FBW) systems.


48.010504, -66.374000, Milestones:Eel River High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station

Dalhousie Power Station, Eel River, New Brunswick, Canada

Eel River High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station, 1972

Operating since 1972, Eel River, New Brunswick is home to the world's first commercial solid state High Voltage Direct Current converter station. This 320 MW interconnection facility, built by Canadian General Electric and NB Power, incorporates high current silicon solid state thyristors to convert alternating current from Hydro Quebec to direct current and back to alternating, allowing asynchronous, stable power transfers to serve NB Power's customers.

52.156062, 4.490498, Milestones:Discovery of Superconductivity, 1911

Kamerlingh Onnes Building, Leiden University, Leiden, Nederland


DISCOVERY OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 1911 On 8 April 1911, in this building, Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators, Cornelis Dorsman, Gerrit Jan Flim, and Gilles Holst, discovered superconductivity. They observed that the resistance of mercury approached "practically zero" as its temperature was lowered to 3 kelvins. Today, superconductivity makes many electrical technologies possible, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and high-energy particle accelerators.

44.431296, 11.26719, Milestones:Marconi's Early Experiments in Wireless Telegraphy, 1895

Villa Griffone, Via Celestini, 1, 40037 Sasso Marconi, Bologna, Italy

MARCONI’S EARLY EXPERIMENTS IN WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, 1895 In this garden, after the experiments carried out between 1894 and 1895 in the “Silkworm Room” in the attic of Villa Griffone, Guglielmo Marconi connected a grounded antenna to its transmitter. With this apparatus the young inventor was able to transmit radiotelegraphic signals beyond a physical obstacle, the Celestini hill, at a distance of about two kilometres. The experiment heralded the birth of the era of wireless communication.

MARCONI’S EARLY EXPERIMENTS IN WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, 1895 On this hill, during the summer of 1895, the radiotelegraphic signals sent by Guglielmo Marconi from the garden of Villa Griffone were received. The reception was communicated to Marconi with a gunshot. This event marked the beginning of the new era of wireless communication


34.47574, 135.741507, Milestones:Commercialization and Industrialization of Photovoltaic Cells, 1959

SHARP Corporation, Katsuragi-shi, Nara, Japan Sharp Corporation pioneered the development and commercialization of photovoltaic (PV) cells for applications ranging from satellites to lighthouses to residential uses. From the beginning of research into monocrystal PV-cells in 1959, to the mass production of amorphous PV-cells in 1983, this work contributed greatly toward the industrialization of photovoltaic technologies and toward the mitigation of global warming.

40.734135, -73.988637, Milestones:Pearl Street Station

ConEd Building, 4 Irving Place, New York, NY, U.S.A. Thomas Alva Edison established the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York, now Consolidated Edison, to commercialize his 1879 incandescent lamp invention. On 4 September 1882, Edison’s direct current (dc) generating station at 257 Pearl Street, began supplying electricity to customers in the First District, a one-quarter square mile (0.65 square km) area. This installation was the forerunner of all central electric generating stations.

32.21713, -110.87787, Milestones:16-bit Monolithic DAC, 1981

Texas Instruments, 5411 East Williams Blvd, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A.

World’s First Monolithic 16-Bit Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) for Digital Audio, 1981

In early 1982, Burr-Brown Research Corporation, later part of Texas Instruments, Inc., demonstrated a 16-bit monolithic digital-to-analog converter. Coupled with earlier compact disc development by Philips and Sony, it enabled affordable high-quality compact disc players, helped transform music distribution and playback from analog phonograph records to digital compact discs, and ushered in digital media playback.

40.751609, -73.501845, Milestones:Grumman Lunar Module

Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, 600 Grumman Road West, Bethpage, New York, U.S.A.

Grumman Lunar Module, 1962 - 1972

The Grumman Lunar Module was the first vehicle to land man on an extraterrestrial body, the Moon. Because it was designed to fly solely in space, its design, construction and testing continuously pushed the technology envelope for lightweight metals and unique electrical and electronic systems resulting in one of the most important and successful engineering achievements of mankind.


49.363611, -122.956667, Milestones:First Television Broadcast in Western Canada.

On 16 December 1953, the first television broadcast in Western Canada was transmitted from this site by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's CBUT Channel 2. The engineering experience gained here was instrumental in the subsequent establishment of the more than one thousand public and private television broadcasting sites that serve Western Canada today.

49.247806, -123.229566, Milestones:First 500 MeV Proton Beam from the TRIUMF Cyclotron, 1974

TRIUMF Meson Facility, 4004 Wesbrook Mall

Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3, Canada

At 3:30 pm on 15 December 1974, the first 500 MeV proton beam was extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron. Since then, TRIUMF has used proton beams from its cyclotron (and secondary beams of pions, muons, neutrons and radioactive ions produced in its experimental halls) to conduct pioneering studies that have advanced nuclear physics, particle physics, molecular and materials science, and nuclear medicine.

The plaque will be installed on a wall outside the cyclotron main control room near the site dedication plaque. (The first successful beam extraction was manually controlled from the main console in that room.)

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37.417158,-121.920927, Milestones:The Floating Gate EEPROM, 1976 - 1978

SanDisk Headquarters, Bldg. 6, which includes the main Visitors' Lobby.

601 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035 From 1976-1978, at Hughes Microelectronics in Newport Beach, California, the practicality, reliability, manufacturability and endurance of the Floating Gate EEPROM -- an electrically erasable device using a thin gate oxide and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for writing and erasing -- was proven. As a significant foundation of data storage in flash memory, this fostered new classes of portable computing and communication devices which allow ubiquitous personal access to data.

42.36150,-71.09200, Milestones:Loran, 1940 - 1946

211 Massachusetts Ave, Boston, viewable by pedestrians from street.

The rapid development of Loran -- long range navigation -- under wartime conditions at MIT’s Radiation Lab was not only a significant engineering feat but also transformed navigation, providing the world’s first near-real-time positioning information. Beginning in June 1942, the United States Coast Guard helped develop, install and operate Loran until 2010.


43.6604,-79.389428, Milestones:First External Cardiac Pacemaker, 1950

112 College Street, Toronto, beside the front entrance of the C. H. Best Institute.

In 1950, in Room 64 of the Bantling Institute of the University of Toronto, Drs. Wilfred Bigelow and John Callaghan successfully paced the heart of a dog using an external electronic pacemaker-defibrillator having implanted electrodes. The device was developed by Dr. John Hopps at the National Research Council of Canada. This pioneering work led to the use of cardiac pacemakers in humans and helped establish the importance of electronic devices in medicine.


22.575507,88.363515, Milestones:First Millimeter-wave Communication Experiments by J.C. Bose

Main corridor of the A.J.C. Bose Auditorium in the Main Building of Presidency College, Kolkata, India.

Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, in 1895, first demonstrated at Presidency College, Calcutta, India, transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves at 60 GHz, over a distance of 23 meters, through two intervening walls by remotely ringing a bell and detonating gunpowder. For his communication system, Bose developed entire millimeter-wave components such as: a spark transmitter, coherer, dielectric lens, polarizer, horn antenna and cylindrical diffraction grating.

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22.498889,88.368668, Milestones:Raman Effect

Plaque may be viewed at the main entrance gate of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Raja Subodh Mullick Road, Kolkata, 700032, INDIA.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Nobel-laureate (Physics-1930), assisted by K S Krishnan at IACS, Calcutta, India, discovered on 28 February 1928, that when a beam of coloured light entered a liquid, a fraction of the light scattered was of a different colour, dependent on material property. This radiation effect of molecular scattering of light bears his name as ‘Raman Effect’, from which many applications in photonic communications and spectroscopy evolved.

39.954923,-75.186342, Milestones:Birthplace of the Bar Code

Plaque may be viewed at Drexel University's Bossone Research Center, 31st Street and Market Street, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.

In an attempt to automate the reading of product information in a local grocery store, Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland at the Drexel Institute of Technology developed a solution that became the ubiquitous Barcode Identification System. Patented in 1952, the Barcode has become a key technology for product identification and inventory control in industry and daily life.


42.075022,-72.026767, Milestones:First Optical Fiber Laser and Amplifier, 1961-1964

Plaque may be viewed on the Southbridge, Massachusetts town common across from the old American Optical building and next to the Eyeglass Sculpture, Southbridge, MA, U.S.A.

In 1961, Elias Snitzer and colleagues constructed and operated the world's first optical fiber laser in the former American Optical complex at 14 Mechanic Street. Three years later this team demonstrated the first optical fiber amplifier. Fiber lasers that can cut and weld steel have since become powerful industrial tools and fiber amplifiers routinely boost signals in the global optical fiber network allowing messages to cross oceans and continents without interruption.

-32.833515,-56.423206, Milestones:Rincón del Bonete

The plaque may be viewed on the outside wall near the entrance to the Rincon del Bonete Powerhouse, which is still in operation. GPS coordinates are: 56° 25' 18.6" S, 32° 49' 55.5" W. The plaque will be affixed to an outside wall, where the frequent public/student touristic/educational tours make a stop.)

In December, 1945, much-needed hydroelectric power began flowing from here to other parts of Uruguay. World War II had interrupted the work begun by a German consortium, but Uruguayan engineers reformulated and completed the project using United States-supplied equipment. The large artificial lake spurred further Rio Negro electrification; availability of abundant, clean hydroelectricity was a turning point in Uruguay's development, quality of life, and engineering profession.

51.498766,-0.174522, Milestones:Invention of Holography

The plaque may be viewed on or in the building of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, England, UK.

The Invention of Holography, 1947

In 1947 Dennis Gabor conceived the idea of wavefront reconstruction for improving the performance of the electron microscope. This became the basis for the invention of optical holography for three-dimensional imaging but implementation required coherent light sources and had to await the emergence of the laser some years later. Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize for his invention in 1971.


43.8047,15.9633, Milestones:Krka-Šibenik Electric Power System, 1895

The plaques (English and Croatian) may be viewed at the Jaruga I power plant.

Krka-Šibenik Electric Power System, 1895

On 28 August 1895 electricity generated at this location was transmitted to the city of Šibenik, where six power transformers supplied a large number of street lamps. This early system of power generation, transmission and distribution was one of the first complete multiphase alternating current systems in the world and it remained in operation until World War I.


35.780745,139.308393, Milestones:Toshiba T1100, a Pioneering Contribution to the Development of Laptop PC, 1985

The plaque may be viewed at the Toshiba Factory, 2-9 Suehiro-cho, Ome-shi, Tokyo 198-8710, Japan

The Toshiba T1100, an IBM PC compatible laptop computer that shipped in 1985, made an invaluable contribution to the development of the laptop PC and portable personal computers. With the T1100, Toshiba demonstrated and promoted the emergence and importance of true portability for PCs running packaged software, with the result that T1100 won acceptance not only among PC experts but by the business community.


39.958139,-75.172626, Milestones:First Technical Meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1884

The plaque may be viewed at the Franklin Institute, 222 North 20th St., Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.

As part of the landmark International Electrical Exhibition organized by the Franklin Institute and held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a predecessor of IEEE, held its first conference on 7-8 October 1884. This meeting was the first formal technical conference on electrical engineering held in the United States.

42.012411,-87.772694, Milestones:Single-element Unidirectional Microphone - Shure Unidyne, 1939

The plaque may be viewed at 5800 W. Touhy Ave, Niles, IL, U.S.A.

In 1939, Shure Incorporated introduced the Unidyne microphone. Using the Uniphase acoustical system, the patented Unidyne was the first microphone to provide directional characteristics using a single dynamic element. This breakthrough offered lower cost, greater reliability and improved performance for communication and public address systems. Shure Unidyne microphones are still manufactured and used worldwide in numerous audio applications.

36.623549,-121.923315, Milestones:The CP/M Microcomputer Operating System, 1974

The plaque may be viewed at 801 Lighthouse Avenue, Pacific Grove, California, U.S.A.

Dr. Gary A. Kildall demonstrated the first working prototype of CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) in Pacific Grove in 1974. Together with his invention of the BIOS (Basic Input Output System), Kildall’s operating system allowed a microprocessor-based computer to communicate with a disk drive storage unit and provided an important foundation for the personal computer revolution.

35.720150,139.562135, Milestones:Line Spectrum Pair (LSP) for high-compression speech coding, 1975

The plaque may be viewed in the reception hall NTT Musashino R&D center  9-11, Midori-cho 3-Chome Musashino-Shi, Tokyo 180-8585 Japan

Line Spectrum Pair, invented at NTT in 1975, is an important technology for speech synthesis and coding. A speech synthesizer chip was designed based on Line Spectrum Pair in 1980. In the 1990s, this technology was adopted in almost all international speech coding standards as an essential component and has contributed to the enhancement of digital speech communication over mobile channels and the Internet worldwide.

34.621672,135.817852, Milestones:Sharp 14-inch Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) for TV, 1988

The plaque may be viewed at the Sharp Technology Innovation Museum, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567 Japan

Sharp demonstrated a fourteen-inch TFT-LCD for TV in 1988 when the display size of the mass-produced TFT-LCD was three inches. The high display quality in Cathode Ray Tube size convinced other electronic companies to join the infant TFT-LCD industry aimed at emerging full-color portable PCs. Two decades later, TFT-LCDs replaced CRTs, making the vision of RCA's LCD group in the 1960s a reality.


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