Difference between revisions of "Map"

 
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=== Legend ===
[[Milestones:World's First Low-Loss Optical Fiber for Telecommunications]] ~
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In 1970, Corning scientists Dr. Robert Maurer, Dr. Peter Schultz, and Dr. Donald Keck developed a highly pure optical glass that effectively transmitted light signals over long distances. This astounding medium, which is thinner than a human hair, revolutionized global communications. By 2011, the world depended upon the continuous transmission of voice, data, and video along more than 1.6 billion kilometers of optical fiber installed around the globe.;
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<tr><th class="active">Description</th><th>Marker</th></tr>
[[Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893]] ~
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<tr><td>[[Milestones:List_of_IEEE_Milestones|IEEE Milestones]]</td><td>[[Image:Purplemarker.png]]</td></tr>
Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.;
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<tr><td>[[ASME_Landmarks|ASME Landmarks]]</td><td>[[Image:Orangemarker.png]]</td></tr>
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<tr><td>[[ASCE_Landmarks|ASCE Landmarks]]</td><td>[[Image:Greenmarker.png]]</td></tr>
[[Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893]] ~
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Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.;
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[[Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893]] ~
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=== Innovation Map ===
Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.;
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[[Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893]] ~
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    |[[Category:ASME Landmarks]];?GeoLoc;?Description=;icon=Orangemarker.png;limit=9999
Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.;
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    |[[Category:ASCE Landmarks]];?GeoLoc;?Description=;icon=Greenmarker.png;limit=9999
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[[Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893]] ~
 
Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.;
 
34.343814, 134.860671 ~
 
[[Milestones:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan, 1893]] ~
 
Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company received a patent for Yai's battery invention in 1893, giving birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, and contributing to its growth. Following this success, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of both primary and secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment and in home appliances. It advanced Japanese battery industries and consumer electronics.;
 
49.1753696, -123.0704193 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Digitally Processed Image from a Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1978]] ~
 
In November 1978, a team from MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) became the first to use a digital processor to reconstruct an image from Seasat-A, the first civilian spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). MDA engineers subsequently developed three of the four most important SAR digital processing algorithms that replaced the optical processing methods used previously.;
 
34.043404, -118.696016 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Working Laser]] ~
 
Hughes Laboratories, 3011 Malibu Canyon Rd, Malibu, CA. On this site in May 1960 Theodore Maiman built and operated the first laser. A number of teams around the world were trying to construct this theoretically anticipated device from different materials. Maiman’s was based on a ruby rod optically pumped by a flash lamp. The laser was a transformative technology in the 20th century and continues to enjoy wide application in many fields of human endeavor.;
 
40.328114, -74.633493 ~
 
[[Milestones:TIROS-1]] ~
 
Sarnoff Library, Princeton, NJ. On 1 April 1960, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration launched TIROS I, the world's first meteorological satellite, to capture and transmit video images of the Earth's weather patterns. RCA staff at Defense Electronics Products, the David Sarnoff Research Center, and Astro-Electronics Division designed and constructed the satellite and ground station systems. TIROS I pioneered meteorological and environmental satellite television for an expanding array of purposes.;
 
49.320883, -119.620364 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry]] ~
 
Algonquin Radio Observatory, Kaleden, B.C., Canada. On the morning of 17 April 1967, radio astronomers used this radiotelescope at DRAO and a second one at the Algonquin Radio Observatory located 3074 km away to make the first successful radio astronomical observations using Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Today, VLBI networks span the globe, extend into space and continue to make significant contributions to both radio astronomy and geodesy.;
 
48.849016, 2.32968 ~
 
[[Milestones:Discovery of Radioconduction by Edouard Branly, 1890]] ~
 
Institut Catholique de Paris, Paris, France. In this building, Edouard Branly discovered radioconduction, now called the Branly Effect. On 24 November 1890, he observed that an electromagnetic wave changes the ability of metal filings to conduct electricity. Branly used his discovery to make a very sensitive detector called a coherer, improved versions of which became the first practical wireless signal receivers.;
 
51.415214, 5.457115 ~
 
[[Milestones:Compact Disc Audio Player, 1979]] ~
 
High Tech Campus, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. On 8 March 1979, N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken demonstrated for the international press a Compact Disc Audio Player. The demonstration showed that it is possible by using digital optical recording and playback to reproduce audio signals with superb stereo quality. This research at Philips established the technical standard for digital optical recording systems.;
 
32.925383, -96.756635 ~
 
[[Milestones:Speak & Spell, the First Use of a Digital Signal Processing IC for Speech Generation, 1978]] ~
 
Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX. In December 1976, Richard Wiggins demonstrated the Speak & Spell concept to Paul Breedlove, Larry Brantingham and Gene Frantz in Texas Instruments' Dallas research laboratory. This group led the team that created Speak & Spell in April 1978. The key device was the industry's first digital signal processing integrated processor, the TMS5100. This innovation in audio processing began the huge digital signal processing consumer market.;
 
35.548045, 139.69094 ~
 
[[Milestones:The First Word Processor for the Japanese Language, 1971-1978]] ~
 
Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Japan. At this site, between 1971 and 1978, the first Japanese-language word processor was developed. Researchers headed by Ken-ichi Mori created a wholly new concept of Japanese word processing. Their first practical system, JW-10, was publicly unveiled on 3 October 1978. The JW-10, and improved versions, played a major role in advancing the Information Age in Japan, and provided the basis for Japanese-language word-processing software in personal computers.;
 
36.697371, 140.708953 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Transpacific Reception of a Television (TV) Signal via Satellite, 1963]] ~
 
Ishitaki, Takahagi-city, Ibaraki, Japan. On 23 November 1963, this site received the first transpacific transmission of a TV signal from Mojave earth station in California, U.S.A., via the Relay 1 communications satellite. The Ibaraki earth station used a 20m Cassegrain antenna, the first use of this type of antenna for commercial telecommunications. This event demonstrated the capability and impact of satellite communications and helped open a new era of intercontinental live TV programming relayed via satellite.;
 
41.216193, -73.806002 ~
 
[[Milestones:IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 1960 - 1984]] ~
 
Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY. In its first quarter century, the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center produced numerous seminal advances having sustained worldwide impact in electrical engineering and computing. Semiconductor device innovations include dynamic random access memory (DRAM), superlattice crystals, and field effect transistor (FET) scaling laws. Computing innovations include reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architecture, integer programming, amorphous magnetic films for optical storage technology, and thin-film magnetic recording heads.;
 
47.554166, 8.050339 ~
 
[[Milestones:Star of Laufenburg Interconnection, 1958]] ~
 
UCTE, Laufenburg, Switzerland. This is the original location of the electric-power interconnection of three countries: Switzerland, Germany and France. The Union for Production and Transmission of Electricity (now UCTE) was formed to manage this interconnection. This installation pioneered international connections, and technical and political cooperation for European integration. UCTE coordinated one of the largest synchronously connected power networks serving almost all of continental Europe.;
 
32.924951, -96.756635 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Semiconductor Integrated Circuit (IC), 1958]] ~
 
Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX. On 12 September 1958, Jack S. Kilby demonstrated the first working integrated circuit to managers at Texas Instruments. This was the first time electronic components were integrated onto a single substrate. This seminal device consisted of a phase shift oscillator circuit on a tiny bar of germanium measuring 7/16” by 1/16” (11.1 mm by 1.6 mm). Today, integrated circuits are the fundamental building blocks of virtually all electronic equipment.;
 
40.684153, -74.401174 ~
 
[[Milestones:Invention of the First Transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1947]] ~
 
Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ. At this site, in Building 1, Room 1E455, from 17 November to 23 December 1947, Walter H. Brattain and John A. Bardeen -- under the direction of William B. Shockley -- discovered the transistor effect, and developed and demonstrated a point-contact germanium transistor. This led directly to developments in solid-state devices that revolutionized the electronics industry and changed the way people around the world lived, learned, worked, and played.;
 
35.606685, 139.684789 ~
 
[[Milestones:Development of Ferrite Materials and Their Applications, 1930-1945]] ~
 
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. In 1930, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Drs. Yogoro Kato and Takeshi Takei invented ferrite, a magnetic ceramic compound containing oxides of iron and of other metals with properties useful in electronics. TDK Corporation began mass production of ferrite cores in 1937 for use in radio equipment. The electric and electronics industries use ferrites in numerous applications today.;
 
34.974173, 137.016871 ~
 
[[Milestones:Yosami Radio Transmitting Station, 1929]] ~
 
Kariya, Aichi pref., Japan. In April 1929, the Yosami Station established the first wireless communications between Japan and Europe with a long wave operating at 17.442 kHz. An inductor-type high-frequency alternator provided output power at 500 kW. The antenna system used eight towers, each 250m high. The facilities were used for communicating with submarines by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1941 to 1945 and by the United States Navy from 1950 to 1993.;
 
34.725319, 137.717485 ~
 
[[Milestones:Development of Electronic Television, 1924-1941]] ~
 
Hamamatsu, Japan. Professor Kenjiro Takayanagi started his research program in television at Hamamatsu Technical College (now Shizuoka University) in 1924. He transmitted an image of the Japanese character イ(i) on a cathode-ray tube on 25 December 1926 and broadcast video over an electronic television system in 1935. His work, patents, articles, and teaching helped lay the foundation for the rise of Japanese television and related industries to global leadership.;
 
40.783824, -74.233825 ~
 
[[Milestones:Thomas A. Edison West Orange Laboratories and Factories, 1887]] ~
 
West Orange, NJ. Thomas Alva Edison, a West Orange resident from 1886 until his death in 1931, established his final and most comprehensive laboratory and factory complex about one-half mile (0.8 km) north of here in 1887. Edison's visionary combination in one organization of basic and applied research, development, and manufacturing became the prototype for industrial enterprises worldwide. Work here resulted in more than half of Edison's 1,093 patents.;
 
55.032499, -3.945293 ~
 
[[Milestones:Maxwell's Equations, 1860-1871]] ~
 
Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.;
 
51.512011, -0.116622 ~
 
[[Milestones:Maxwell's Equations, 1860-1871]] ~
 
King's Building, Strand Campus, King's College London, London WC2R 2lS, England. Between 1860 and 1871, at his family home Glenlair and at King’s College London, where he was Professor of Natural Philosophy, James Clerk Maxwell conceived and developed his unified theory of electricity, magnetism and light. A cornerstone of classical physics, the Theory of Electromagnetism is summarized in four key equations that now bear his name. Maxwell’s equations today underpin all modern information and communication technologies.;
 
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[[Milestones:Shilling's Pioneering Contribution to Practical Telegraphy, 1828-1837]] ~
 
Central Museum of Communications, St. Petersburg, Russia. In this building, Shilling`s original electromagnetic telegraph is exhibited. P. L. Shilling, a Russian scientist, successfully transmitted messages over different distances by means of an electric current’s effect on a magnetic needle, using two signs and a telegraph dictionary for transferring letters and digits. Shilling`s demonstrations in St. Petersburg and abroad provided an impetus to scientists in different countries and influenced the invention of more advanced electromagnetic telegraphs.;
 
39.948849, -75.147622 ~
 
[[Milestones:Book "Experiments and Observations on Electricity" by Benjamin Franklin, 1751]] ~
 
American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, PA. In April 1751 the Royal Society published Benjamin Franklin's book, "Experiments and Observations on Electricity: Made in Philadelphia in America." A collection of letters to London's Peter Collinson, it described Franklin's ideas about the nature of electricity and how electrical devices worked, and new experiments to investigate lightning.;
 
37.459237, -122.174149 ~
 
[[Milestones:Inception of the ARPANET, 1969]] ~
 
Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA. SRI was one of the first two nodes, with the University of California at Los Angeles, on the ARPANET, the first digital global network based on packet switching and demand access. The first documented ARPANET connection was from UCLA to SRI on 29 October 1969 at 10:30 p.m. The ARPANET’s technology and deployment laid the foundation for the development of the Internet.;
 
34.07104, -118.441157 ~
 
[[Milestones:Birthplace of the Internet, 1969]] ~
 
University of California, Los Angeles, CA. At 10:30 p.m., 29 October 1969, the first ARPANET message was sent from this UCLA site to the Stanford Research Institute. Based on packet switching and dynamic resource allocation, the sharing of information digitally from this first node of ARPANET launched the Internet revolution.;
 
37.423497, -122.104325 ~
 
[[Milestones:Semiconductor Planar Process and Integrated Circuit, 1959]] ~
 
Fairchild Semiconductor Offices, Palo Alto, CA. The 1959 invention of the Planar Process by Jean A. Hoerni and the Integrated Circuit (IC) based on planar technology by Robert N. Noyce catapulted the semiconductor industry into the silicon IC era. This pair of pioneering inventions led to the present IC industry, which today supplies a wide and growing variety of advanced semiconductor products used throughout the world.;
 
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[[Milestones:Development of the HP-35, the First Handheld Scientific Calculator, 1972]] ~
 
Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, CA. The HP-35 was the first handheld calculator to perform transcendental functions (such as trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions). Most contemporary calculators could only perform the four basic operations – addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The HP-35 and subsequent models have replaced the slide rule, used by generations of engineers and scientists. The HP-35 performed all the functions of the slide rule to ten-digit precision over a full two-hundred-decade range.;
 
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[[Milestones:Georgetown Steam Hydro Generating Plant, 1900]] ~
 
Georgetown, Colorado, on South Clear Creek at east end of 6th Street. Dedication: July 1999 - IEEE Denver Section. Electric generating plants, through their high-voltage lines, provided critical power to the isolated mines in this region. Georgetown, completed in 1900, was unusual in employing both steam and water power. Its owner, United Light and Power Company, was a pioneer in using three-phase, 60-Hertz alternating current and in being interconnected with other utilities.;
 
42.081973, -70.640951 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Wireless Radio Broadcast by Reginald A. Fessenden, 1906]] ~
 
Blackman’s Point, Brant Rock, in the County of Plymouth Massachusetts. On 24 December 1906, the first radio broadcast for entertainment and music was transmitted from Brant Rock, Massachusetts to the general public. This pioneering broadcast was achieved after years of development work by Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (1866-1932) who built a complete system of wireless transmission and reception using amplitude modulation (AM) of continuous electromagnetic waves. This technology was a revolutionary departure from transmission of dots and dashes widespread at the time.;
 
40.752193, -73.993465 ~
 
[[Milestones:Largest Private (dc) Generating Plant in the U.S.A., 1929]] ~
 
Hotel New Yorker, 8th Avenue and 34th st. New York, New York. The Direct Current (dc) generating plant installed at the New Yorker Hotel in 1929, capable of supplying electric power sufficient for a city of 35,000 people, was the largest private generating plant in the U.S.A. Steam engines drove electric generators, with exhaust steam used for heating and other facilities. The installation used more than two hundred dc motors, and was controlled from a seven-foot (two-meter) high, sixty-foot (eighteen-meter) long switchboard.;
 
49.855809, -97.154215 ~
 
[[Milestones:Pinawa Hydroelectric Power Project, 1906]] ~
 
Manitoba Electrical Museum and Education Centre, 680 Harrow St, Winnipeg, MB R3M. On 9 June 1906 the Winnipeg Electric Railway Co. transmitted electric power from the Pinawa generating station on the Winnipeg River to the city of Winnipeg at 60,000 volts. It was the first year-round hydroelectric plant in Manitoba and one of the first to be developed in such a cold climate anywhere in the world.;
 
40.45418, -79.890567 ~
 
[[Milestones:Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA, 1920]] ~
 
Keystone Commons, 700 Braddock Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1994 - IEEE Pittsburgh Section. Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting. Transmitting with a power of 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters, KDKA began scheduled programming with the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, 1920. A shed, housing studio and transmitter, was atop the K Building of the Westinghouse East Pittsburgh works. Conceived by C.P. Davis, broadcasting as a public service evolved from Frank Conrad's weekly experimental broadcasts over his amateur radio station 8XK, attracting many regular listeners who had wireless receiving sets.;
 
28.523314, -80.68206 ~
 
[[Milestones:Electronic Technology for Space Rocket Launches, 1950-1969]] ~
 
Kennedy Space Center, Orsino, Florida. Dedication: February 2001 - IEEE Canaveral Section. The demonstrated success in space flight is the result of electronic technology developed at Cape Canaveral, the J. F. Kennedy Space Center, and other sites, and applied here. A wide variety of advances in radar tracking, data telemetry, instrumentation, space-to-ground communications, on-board guidance, and real-time computation were employed to support the U.S. space program. These and other electronic developments provided infrastructure necessary for the successful landing of men on the moon in July 1969 and their safe return to earth.;
 
42.202069, -104.565302 ~
 
[[Milestones:Transcontinental Telegraph, 1861]] ~
 
Fort Laramie, Wyoming, U.S.A. Dedication: August 1990 - IEEE Denver Section. Between July 4 and October 24, 1861, a telegraph line was constructed by the Western Union Company between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California, thereby completing the first high-speed communications link between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. This service met the critical demand for fast communications between these two areas. The telegraph line operated until May 1869, when it was replaced by a multi-wire system constructed with the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railway lines.;
 
40.328114, -74.633393 ~
 
[[Milestones:Liquid Crystal Display, 1968]] ~
 
David Sarnoff Library, 201 Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: 30 September 06. Between 1964 and 1968, at the RCA David Sarnoff Research Center in Princeton, New Jersey, a team of engineers and scientists led by George H. Heilmeier with Louis A. Zanoni and Lucian A. Barton, devised a method for electronic control of light reflected from liquid crystals and demonstrated the first liquid crystal display. Their work launched a global industry that now produces millions of LCDs annually for watches, calculators, flat-panel displays in televisions, computers and instruments.;
 
32.800045, 34.999952 ~
 
[[Milestones:Lempel-Ziv Data Compression Algorithm, 1977]] ~
 
Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. Dedication: September 2004, IEEE Israel Section. The data compression algorithm developed at this site in 1977 by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv became a basis for enabling data transmission via the internet in an efficient way. It contributed significantly in making the internet a global communications medium.;
 
51.50749, -0.124899 ~
 
[[Milestones:Benjamin Franklin's work in London, 1757-1775]] ~
 
36 Craven Street, London, England. Dedication: 31 March 2003 - IEEE UKRI Section. Benjamin Franklin, American electrician, printer, and diplomat, spent many years on Craven Street. He lived at No. 7 between 1772 and 1775 and at No. 36 from 1757-1762 and again from 1764-1772. During these years, Franklin popularized the study of electricity, performed experiments, and served as an advisor on lightning conductors.;
 
46.12164, 7.02161 ~
 
[[Milestones:Marconi's Early Wireless Experiments, 1895]] ~
 
Salvan, Wallis, Switzerland. Dedication: 26 September 2003, IEEE Switzerland Section. On this spot in 1895, with local assistance, Guglielmo Marconi carried out some of the first wireless experiments. He first transmitted a signal from this "Shepherdess Stone" over a few meters and later, following one and a half months of careful adjustments, over a distance of up to one and a half kilometers. This was the beginning of Marconi's pivotal involvement in wireless radio.;
 
40.56503, -74.33743 ~
 
[[Milestones:Thomas Alva Edison Historic Site at Menlo Park, 1876]] ~
 
Menlo Park, Edison, NJ. Dedication: 9 September 2006. Between 1876 and 1882 at Menlo Park, New Jersey, Thomas Edison developed the world's first industrial research and development laboratory devoted to developing new technology. At this laboratory. Edison and his staff developed the first system of incandescent electric lighting and electric power generation, and invented recorded sound and a commercially successful telephone transmitter.;
 
35.686871, 139.756363 ~
 
[[Milestones:Mount Fuji Radar System, 1964]] ~
 
Mount Fuji, Shizouka Prefecture, Japan. Dedication: March 2000, IEEE Nagoya Section. The plaque is in a display case at the Meterological Museum, 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. Completed in 1964 as the highest weather radar in the world in the pre-satellite era, the Mount Fuji Radar System almost immediately warned of a major storm over 800 km away. In addition to advancing the technology of weather radar, it pioneered aspects of remote-control and low-maintenance of complex electronic systems. The radar was planned by the Japan Meteorological Agency and constructed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.;
 
46.228442, 6.072216 ~
 
[[Milestones:CERN Experimental Instrumentation, 1968]] ~
 
CERN Laboratories, Geneva, Switzerland, Dedication: 26 September 2005, IEEE France Section, endorsed by the IEEE Switzerland Section. At CERN laboratories the invention of multiple-wire proportional chambers and drift chambers revolutionized the domain of electronic particle detectors, leading to new research on the constitution of matter. The development of unique electrical and electronic devices made possible the major high-energy physics experiments which have been recognized worldwide.;
 
45.508095, -73.562355 ~
 
[[Milestones:First 735 kV AC Transmission System, 1965]] ~
 
Quebec, Canada, Dedication: November 2005. Hydro-Quebec's 735,000 volt electric power transmission system was the first in the world to be designed, built and operated at an alternating-current voltage above 700 kV. This development extended the limits of long-distance transmission of electrical energy. On 29 November 1965 the first 735 kV line was inaugurated. Power was transmitted from the Manicouagan-Outardes hydro-electric generating complex to Montreal, a distance of 600 km.;
 
37.421012, -122.206082 ~
 
[[Milestones:Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 1962]] ~
 
Stanford, Stanford, California, U.S.A. Dedication: February 1984 - IEEE San Francisco Bay Area Council. (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE). The Stanford two-mile accelerator, the longest in the world, accelerates electrons to the very high energy needed in the study of subatomic particles and forces. Experiments performed here have shown that the proton, one of the building blocks of the atom, is in turn composed of smaller particles now called quarks. Other research here has uncovered new families of particles and demonstrated subtle effects of the weak nuclear force. This research requires the utmost precision in the large and unique electromechanical devices and systems that accelerate, define, deliver and store the beams of particles, and in the detectors that analyze the results of the particle interactions.;
 
43.081784, -79.042946 ~
 
[[Milestones:Adams Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 1895]] ~
 
Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1990 - IEEE Buffalo Section. Only the 1895 transformer house,(long, grey-roofed building in center of satellite photo) designed by the famous architects McKim, Mead and White, remains at the original location. The entrance to the first Adams plant has been re-erected in the park on Goats Island (between the falls). When the Adams Plant went into operation on August 26, 1895, it represented a key victory for alternating-current systems over direct-current. The clear advantage of high voltage AC for long distance power transmission and the unprecedented size of the plant (it reached its full capacity of ten 5,000-HP generators in May 1900) influenced the future of the electrical industry worldwide.;
 
42.809949, -73.951549 ~
 
[[Milestones:Alexanderson Radio Alternator, 1904]] ~
 
General Electric Co., 1 River Rd, Building 37, Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: February 1992 - IEEE Schenectady Section. The Alexanderson radio alternator was a high-power, radio-frequency source which provided reliable transoceanic radiotelegraph communication during and after World War I. Ernst F.W. Alexanderson (1878-1975), a General Electric engineer, designed radio alternators with a frequency range to 100 kHz and a power capability from 2 kW to 200 kW. These machines, developed during the period 1904 to 1918, were used in research on high-frequency properties of materials as well as for international communications.;
 
45.351207, -75.853531 ~
 
[[Milestones:Alouette-ISIS Satellite Program, 1962]] ~
 
Shirley's Bay Research Centre, Nepean, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Driven by the need to understand the characteristics of radio communication in Canada's North, Canadian researchers focused on the exploration of the earth's upper atmosphere, the ionosphere. Canada's satellite program commenced with the launch of Alouette-I on September 29, 1962. Alouette-II followed in 1965, ISIS-I in 1969, ISIS-II in 1971. The Alouette/ISIS tracking antenna serves as a reminder of Canada's contribution to this international effort in space science.;
 
42.198443, -73.361209 ~
 
[[Milestones:Alternating Current Electrification, 1886]] ~
 
1886 Corner of Cottage and Main Streets, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dedication: 2 October 2004, IEEE Berkshire Section. On 20 March 1886 William Stanley provided alternating current electrification to offices and stores on Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He thus demonstrated the first practical system for providing electrical illumination using alternating current with transformers to adjust voltage levels of the distribution system.;
 
37.865501, -107.881683 ~
 
[[Milestones:Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 1891]] ~
 
Colorado State Highway 145, near Ophir, Colorado, U.S.A. Dedication: July 1988 - IEEE Pikes Peak Section. Electricity produced here in the spring of 1891 was transmitted 2.6 miles over rugged and at times inaccessible terrain to provide power for operating the motor-driven mill at the Gold King Mine. This pioneering demonstration of the practical value of transmitting electrical power was a significant precedent in the United States for much larger plants at Niagara Falls (in 1895) and elsewhere. Electricity at Ames was generated at 3000 volts, 133 Hertz, single-phase AC, by a 100-hp Westinghouse alternator.;
 
18.344424, -66.753144 ~
 
[[Milestones:NAIC/Arecibo Radiotelescope, 1963]] ~
 
Arecibo Observatory, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Dedication: November 2001 - IEEE Puerto Rico & Caribbean Section. The Arecibo Observatory, the world's largest radiotelescope, was dedicated in 1963. Its design and implementation led to advances in the electrical engineering areas of antenna design, signal processing, and electronic instrumentation, and in the mechanical engineering areas of antenna suspension and drive systems. The drive system positions all active parts of the antenna with millimeter precision, regardless of temperature changes, enabling the telescope to maintain an accurate focus. Its subsequent operation led to advances in the scientific fields of radioastronomy, planetary studies, and space and atmospheric sciences.;
 
42.024, -93.6392 ~
 
[[Milestones:Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 1939]] ~
 
226 Atanasoff Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Dedication: April 1990 - IEEE Central Iowa Section. John Vincent Atanasoff conceived basic design principles for the first electronic-digital computer in the winter of 1937 and, assisted by his graduate student, Clifford E. Berry, constructed a prototype here in October 1939. It used binary numbers, direct logic for calculation, and a regenerative memory. It embodied concepts that would be central to the future development of computers.;
 
40.434703, -79.890567 ~
 
[[Milestones:Westinghouse Atom Smasher, 1937]] ~
 
Avenue A and West Street, Forest Hills Borough, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Dedication May 1985 - IEEE Pittsburgh Section. The five million volt van de Graaff generator represents the first large-scale program in nuclear physics established in industry. Constructed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1937, it made possible precise measurements of nuclear reactions and provided valuable research experience for the company's pioneering work in nuclear power.;
 
52.005855, -0.727749 ~
 
[[Milestones:Code-breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, 1939-1945]] ~
 
Bletchley Park, Milton Keynes, England. Dedication: 1 April 2003 - IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section. On this site during the 1939-45 World War, 12,000 men and women broke the German Lorenz and Enigma ciphers, as well as Japanese and Italian codes and ciphers. They used innovative mathematical analysis and were assisted by two computing machines developed here by teams led by Alan Turing: the electro-mechanical Bombe developed with Gordon Welchman, and the electronic Colossus designed by Tommy Flowers. These achievements greatly shortened the war, thereby saving countless lives.;
 
42.351588, -71.068988 ~
 
[[Milestones:Power System of Boston's Rapid Transit, 1889]] ~
 
Dedication: 10 November 2004, IEEE Boston Section. Ten Park Plaza, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Boston was the first city to build electric traction for a large-scale rapid transit system. The engineering challenge to design and construct safe, economically viable, and reliable electric power for Boston's rapid transit was met by the West End Street Railway Company, beginning in 1889. The company's pioneering efforts provided an important impetus to the adoption of mass transit systems nationwide.;
 
43.532745, -112.942801 ~
 
[[Milestones:Experimental Breeder Reactor I, 1951]] ~
 
US Highway 20, 60 miles west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A. Dedication: 4 June 2004, IEEE Eastern Idaho Section. At this facility on 20 December 1951 electricity was first generated from the heat produced by a sustained nuclear reaction providing steam to a turbine generator. This event inaugurated the nuclear power industry in the United States. On 4 June 1953 EBR-I provided the first proof of breeding capability, producing one atom of nuclear fuel for each atom burned, and later produced electricity using a plutonium core reactor.;
 
34.602976, 135.858976 ~
 
[[Milestones:Pioneering Work on Electronic Calculators, 1964-1973]] ~
 
Sharp Memorial Hall, Tenri Factory, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Dedication: December 2005. A Sharp Corporation project team designed and produced several families of electronic calculators on the basis of all-transistor (1964), bipolar and MOS integrated circuit (1967), MOS Large Scale Integration (1969) and CMOS-LSI/Liquid Crystal Display (1973). The integration of CMOS-LSI and LCD devices onto a single glass substrate yielded battery-powered calculators. These achievements made possible the widespread personal use of hand-held calculators.;
 
53.38172, -6.590429 ~
 
[[Milestones:Callan's Pioneering Contributions to Electrical Science and Technology, 1836]] ~
 
Electronic Engineering and Biosciences Building, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland. Dedication: September 2006. Reverend Nicholas Callan (1799 - 1864), professor of Natural Philosophy at Saint Patrick's College Maynooth, contributed significantly to the understanding of electrical induction and the development of the induction coil. He did this through a series of experiments that made the inductive transient phenomena visibly clear. The apparatus used in these experiments was replicated in other laboratories.;
 
32.77771, -79.933403 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Central Station in South Carolina, 1882]] ~
 
94 Queen Street, Charleston, South Carolina. Dedication: July 1986 - IEEE Coastal South Carolina Section. The United States Electric Illuminating Company started up South Carolina's first central station for incandescent electric lighting in this building in October 1882. This was just one month after Thomas Edison opened his central station on New York City's Pearl Street. In the following years, the pioneering firm of United States Electric was one of Edison's main competitors.;
 
-37.090514, -73.159676 ~
 
[[Milestones:Chivilingo Hydroelectric Plant, 1897]] ~
 
14km south of Lota, Chile. Dedication: October 2001, IEEE Chile Section. The 1897 430 kW Chivilingo Plant was the first hydroelectric plant in Chile and the second in South America. A 10 km line fed the Lota coal mines and the railway extracting minerals 12 km from shore under the sea. It represented a new key technology and a new source of electrical energy in the region as a tool for economic development. Chivilingo demonstrated the advantages of industrial use of electricity and hastened its widespread adoption in Chile.;
 
42.028337, -91.638685 ~
 
[[Milestones:Long-Range Shortwave Voice Transmissions from Byrd's Antarctic Expedition, 1934]] ~
 
Rockwell Collins, 400 Collins Rd, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S.A. Dedication: February 2001 - IEEE Cedar Rapids Section. Beginning 3 February 1934, Vice Admiral Richard E. Byrd's Antarctic Expedition transmitted news releases to New York via short-wave radio voice equipment. From New York, the US nationwide CBS network broadcast the news releases to the public. Previous expeditions had been limited to dot-dash telegraphy, but innovative equipment from the newly formed Collins Radio Company made this long-range voice transmission feasible.;
 
51.826819, -10.172038 ~
 
[[Milestones:County Kerry Transatlantic Cable Stations, 1866]] ~
 
Cable Station, Waterville, County Kerry, Ireland. July 2000 - IEEE UKRI Section. On July 13, 1866 the Great Eastern steamed westward from Valentia, laying telegraph cable behind her. The successful landing at Heart's Content, Newfoundland on July 27 established a permanent electrical communications link that altered for all time personal, commercial and political relations between people across the Atlantic Ocean. Later, additional cables were laid from Valentia and new stations opened at Ballinskelligs (1874) and Waterville (1884), making County Kerry a major focal point for global communications.;
 
43.116335, -79.248669 ~
 
[[Milestones:Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Plant, 1898]] ~
 
DeCew Falls, Ontario, Canada. Dedication: 2 May 2004, IEEE Hamilton Section. The Decew Falls Hydro-Electric Development was a pioneering project in the generation and transmission of electrical energy at higher voltages and at greater distances in Canada. On 25 August 1898 this station transmitted power at 22,500 Volts, 66 2/3 Hz, two-phase, a distance of 56 km to Hamilton, Ontario. Using the higher voltage permitted efficient transmission over that distance.;
 
43.193841, -80.384127 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Distant Speech Transmission in Canada, 1876]] ~
 
91, Grand River St. N, Paris, Ontario, Canada. The location is now "The River Lilly" store. Dedication: 4 May 2008. On 10 August 1876, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated on this site that the human voice could be transmitted electrically over distance. While family members spoke into a transmitter in Brantford, 13 km away, Bell was able to hear them at a receiver located here. This test convinced Bell that the invention could be used for communication between towns and could compete successfully with the telegraph.;
 
42.343968, -71.090885 ~
 
[[Milestones:Electric Fire Alarm System, 1852]] ~
 
59 Fenway, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. On 28 April 1852 the first municipal electric fire alarm system using call boxes with automatic signaling to indicate the location of a fire was placed into operation in Boston. Invented by William Channing and Moses Farmer, this system was highly successful in reducing property loss and deaths due to fire and was subsequently adopted throughout the United States and in Canada.;
 
42.359377, -71.058043 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Intelligible Voice Transmission over Electric Wire, 1876]] ~
 
City Hall Plaza, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dedication: 10 March 2006. The first transmission of intelligible speech over electrical wires took place on March 10, 1876. Inventor Alexander Graham Bell called out to his assistant Thomas Watson, "Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you." This transmission took place in their attic laboratory located in a building near here at 5 Exeter Place.;
 
51.523033, -0.131607 ~
 
[[Milestones:Fleming Valve, 1904]] ~
 
University College, London, England. Dedication: 1 July 2004, IEEE UKRI Section. Beginning in the 1880s Professor John Ambrose Fleming of University College London investigated the Edison effect, electrical conduction within a glass bulb from an incandescent filament to a metal plate. In 1904 he constructed such a bulb and used it to rectify high frequency oscillations and thus detect wireless signals. The same year Fleming patented the device, later known as the Fleming valve.;
 
45.813525, 9.075411 ~
 
[[Milestones:Volta's Electrical Battery Invention, 1799]] ~
 
Tempio Voltiano, Guglielmo Marconi, Como, Italy. Dedication: September 1999 - IEEE North Italy Section. In 1799, Alessandro Volta developed the first electrical battery. This battery, known as the Voltaic Cell, consisted of two plates of different metals immersed in a chemical solution. Volta's development of the first continuous and reproducible source of electrical current was an important step in the study of electromagnetism and in the development of electrical equipment.;
 
34.087878, -117.0395 ~
 
[[Milestones:Mill Creek No. 1 Hydroelectric Plant, 1893]] ~
 
Near Redlands in San Bernardino County, California, U.S.A. Dedication February 1997 - IEEE Foothills Section. (ASCE California Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE). Built by the Redlands Electric Light and Power Company, the Mill Creek hydroelectric generating plant began operating on 7 September 1893. This powerhouse was foremost in the use of three-phase alternating current power for commercial application and was influential in the widespread adoption of three-phase power throughout the United States.;
 
42.37447, -71.105759 ~
 
[[Milestones:MIT Radiation Laboratory, 1940-1945]] ~
 
Original Radiation Lab, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Dedication: October 1990 - IEEE Boston Section. The MIT Radiation Laboratory, operated on this site between 1940 and 1945, advanced the allied war effort by making fundamental contributions to the design and deployment of microwave radar systems. Used on land, sea, and in the air, in many adaptations, radar was a decisive factor in the outcome of the conflict. The laboratory's 3900 employees made lasting contributions to microwave theory and technology, operational radar, systems engineering, long-range navigation, and control equipment.;
 
40.328114, -74.633393 ~
 
[[Milestones:Monochrome-Compatible Electronic Color Television, 1946-1953]] ~
 
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: November 2001, IEEE Princeton/Central New Jersey Section. On this site between 1946 and 1950 the research staff of RCA Laboratories invented the world's first electronic, monochrome-compatible, color television system. They worked with other engineers in the industry for three years to develop a national analog standard based on this system, which lasted until the transition to digital broadcasting.;
 
39.75877, -84.191658 ~
 
[[Milestones:US Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, 1942-1945]] ~
 
Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A. Dedication: October 2001 - IEEE Dayton Section. In 1942, the United States Navy joined with the National Cash Register Company to design and manufacture a series of code-breaking machines. This project was located at the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory in Building 26, near this site. The machines built here, including the American "Bombes", incorporated advanced electronics and significantly influenced the course of World War II.;
 
54.218428, -97.613096 ~
 
[[Milestones:Nelson River HVDC Transmission System, 1972]] ~
 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Dedication: 3 June 2005, IEEE Winnipeg Section. On 17 June 1972, the Nelson River High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system began delivery of electric power. It used the highest operating voltage to deliver the largest amount of power from a remote site to a city. The bipolar scheme gave superior line reliability and the innovative use of the controls added significantly to the overall system capabilities. Finally, the scheme used the largest mercury arc valves ever developed for such an application.;
 
41.030191, -73.598839 ~
 
[[Milestones:Alternating-Current Electrification of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 1907]] ~
 
Dedicated May 1982 - IEEE Connecticut Section. (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with IEEE). This was a pioneering venture in mainline railroad electrification. It established single-phase alternating current as a technical and economical alternative to direct current. This concept exerted considerable influence over subsequent systems both in the United States and abroad. The major components of the system were developed by the engineering staffs of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.;
 
39.952810, -75.190048 ~
 
[[Milestones:Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, 1946]] ~
 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia. Dedication: September 1987 - IEEE Philadelphia Section. A major advance in the history of computing occurred at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946 when engineers put the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) into operation. Designed and constructed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering under a U. S. Army contract during World War II, the ENIAC established the practicality of large scale, electronic digital computers and strongly influenced the development of the modern, stored-program, general-purpose computer.;
 
42.335699, -83.043004 ~
 
[[Milestones:One-Way Police Radio Communication, 1928]] ~
 
1300 Beaubien, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. Dedicated May 1987 - IEEE Southeastern Michigan Section. At this site on April 7, 1928 the Detroit Police Department commenced regular one-way radio communication with its patrol cars. Developed by personnel of the department's radio bureau, the system was the product of seven years of experimentation under the direction of police commissioner, William P. Rutledge. Their work proved the practicality of land-mobile radio for police work and led to its adoption throughout the country.;
 
21.2049, -156.96958 ~
 
[[Milestones:Opana Radar Site, 1941]] ~
 
Kuhuku, Hawaii, U.S.A. Dedication: February 2000 - IEEE Hawaii Section. On December 7, 1941, an SCR-270b radar located at this site tracked incoming Japanese aircraft for over 30 minutes until they were obscured by the island ground clutter. This was the first wartime use of radar by the United States military, and led to its successful application throughout the theater.;
 
-33.979012, 18.4823 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Operational Use Of Wireless Telegraphy, 1899-1902]] ~
 
Telkom Museum, Victoria and Albert Waterfront, Cape Town, South Africa. Dedication: September 1999 - IEEE South Africa Section. The first use of wireless telegraphy in the field occurred during the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). The British Army experimented with Marconi's system and the British Navy successfully used it for communication among naval vessels in Delagoa Bay, prompting further development of Marconi's wireless telegraph system for practical uses.;
 
44.93875, -93.321602 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Wearable Cardiac Pacemaker, 1957-1958]] ~
 
Bakken Library and Museum, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. Dedication: October 1999 - IEEE Twin Cities Section. During the winter of 1957-58, Earl E. Bakken developed the first wearable transistorized pacemaker, the request of heart surgeon, Dr. C. Walton Lillehei. As earlier pacemakers were AC-powered, this battery-powered device liberated patients from their power-cord tethers. The wearable pacemaker was a significant step in the evolution to fully-implantable units.;
 
8.934253, -79.565392 ~
 
[[Milestones:Panama Canal Electrical and Control Installations, 1914]] ~
 
Panama Canal, Southern End, Panama. Dedication: 4 April 2003 - IEEE Panama Section. The Panama Canal project included one of the largest and most important electrical installations in the world early in the 20th century. The use of 1022 electric motors with an installed capacity of 28,290 horsepower largely replaced the steam and water powered equipment then in common use. Reliability and safety were also engineered into the innovative electrical control system, enabling remote lock operation from a central location.;
 
50.03238, -5.255764 ~
 
[[Milestones:Transmission of Transatlantic Radio Signals, 1901]] ~
 
National Trust Visitor Center, Poldhu, England. Dedication: 12 December 2001 - IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section. On December 12, 1901, a radio transmission of the Morse code letter 'S' was broadcast from this site, using equipment built by John Ambrose Fleming. At Signal Hill in Newfoundland, Guglielmo Marconi, using a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, confirmed the reception of these first transatlantic radio signals. These experiments showed that radio signals could propagate far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communications in the twentieth century.;
 
41.759612, -72.681905 ~
 
[[Milestones:FM Police Radio Communication, 1940]] ~
 
Department of Public Safety, State Police, 100 Washington St., Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1987 - IEEE Connecticut Section. A major advance in police radio occurred in 1940 when the Connecticut state police began operating a two-way, frequency modulated (FM) system in Hartford. The statewide system developed by Daniel E. Noble of the University of Connecticut and engineers at the Fred M. Link Company greatly reduced static, the main problem of the amplitude modulated (AM) system. FM mobile radio became standard throughout the country following the success of the Connecticut system.;
 
59.943371, 30.378571 ~
 
[[Milestones:Popov's Contribution to the Development of Wireless Communication, 1895]] ~
 
St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Professor Popov str. 5, St. Petersburg, Russia. IEEE Russia (Northwest) Section, Dedication: May 2005. On 7 May 1895, A. S. Popov demonstrated the possibility of transmitting and receiving short, continuous signals over a distance up to 64 meters by means of electromagnetic waves with the help of a special portable device responding to electrical oscillation which was a significant contribution to the development of wireless communication.;
 
55.676285, 12.56928 ~
 
[[Milestones:Poulsen-Arc Radio Transmitter, 1902]] ~
 
Lyngby Radio, Northern Copenhagen, Denmark. Dedication: May 1994 - IEEE Denmark Section. Valdemar Poulsen, a Danish engineer, invented an arc converter as a generator of continuous-wave radio signals in 1902. Beginning in 1904, Poulsen used the arc for experimental radio transmission from Lyngby to various receiving sites in Denmark and Great Britain. Poulsen-arc transmitters were used internationally until they were superseded by vacuum-tube transmitters.;
 
46.999851, 6.953389 ~
 
[[Milestones:Pioneering Work on the Quartz Electronic Wristwatch, 1962-1967]] ~
 
Observatoire Cantonal de Neuchâtel, Rue de l'Observatoire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Dedication: 28 September 2002, IEEE Switzerland Section. A key milestone in development of the quartz electronic wristwatch in Switzerland was the creation in 1962 of the Centre Electronique Horloger of Neuchâtel. The Centre produced the first prototypes incorporating dedicated integrated circuits that set new timekeeping performance records at the International Chronometric Competition held at this observatory in 1967. Since then quartz watches, with hundreds of millions of units produced, became an extremely successful electronic system.;
 
35.713322, 139.809265 ~
 
[[Milestones:Electronic Quartz Wristwatch, 1969]] ~
 
Seiko Institute of Horology, Tokyo, Japan. Dedication: 25 November 2004, IEEE Tokyo Section. After ten years of research and development at Suwa Seikosha, a manufacturing company of Seiko Group, a team of engineers headed by Tsuneya Nakamura produced the first quartz wristwatch to be sold to the public. The Seiko Quartz-Astron 35SQ was introduced in Tokyo on December 25, 1969. Crucial elements included a quartz crystal oscillator, a hybrid integrated circuit, and a miniature stepping motor to turn the hands. It was accurate to within five seconds per month.;
 
34.69978, 135.46958 ~
 
[[Milestones:Railroad Ticketing Examining System, 1965-1971]] ~
 
Dedication: 27 November 2007, IEEE Kansai Section. Pioneering ticket examining machines, designed to speed commuter railroad use substantially, were first installed in 1965, based on work by a joint research team of Osaka University and Kintetsu Corporation. Following this work, an improved version -- based on joint work by Omron, Kintetsu, and Hankyu corporations using punched cards and magnetic cards -- was first deployed in 1967 and at nineteen stations in 1971.;
 
37.352729, -121.938178 ~
 
[[Milestones:RAMAC, 1956]] ~
 
Santa Clara University, Bannan Engineering Center, Room 323, Santa Clara, California, U.S.A. Dedication: 26 May 2005, IEEE Santa Clara Valley Section. Developed by IBM in San Jose, California at 99 Notre Dame Street from 1952 until 1956, the Random Access Method of Accounting and Control (RAMAC) was the first computer system conceived around a radically new magnetic disk storage device. The extremely large capacity, rapid access, and low cost of magnetic disk storage revolutionized computer architecture, performance, and applications.;
 
40.443877, -3.727198 ~
 
[[Milestones:Early Developments in Remote-Control, 1901]] ~
 
Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain. Dedication: 15 March 2007, IEEE Spain Section. In 1901, the Spanish engineer, Leonardo Torres-Quevedo began the development of a system, which he called Telekine, which was able to do "mechanical movements at a distance." The system was a way of testing dirigible balloons of his own creation without risking human lives. In 1902 and 1903 he requested some patents for the system. With the Telekine, Torres-Quevedo laid down modern wireless remote-control operation principles.;
 
37.548715, -77.432755 ~
 
[[Milestones:Richmond Union Passenger Railway, 1888]] ~
 
North 5th St., between Marshall and Leigh, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A. Richmond, VA Dedicated February 1992 - IEEE Richmond Section. In February 1888, the electric street railway system designed by Frank Julian Sprague for the Richmond Union Passenger Railway began operating in Richmond, Virginia. Sprague's Richmond system became the lasting prototype for electric street railways because of its large-scale practicality and operating superiority. This system, which combined Sprague's engineering innovations with other proven technical features, helped shape urban growth worldwide.;
 
48.773925, -3.517225 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Transatlantic Reception of a Television Signal via Satellite, 1962]] ~
 
Musee des Telecoms, Pleumeur-Bodou, France. Dedicated July 2002 - IEEE France Section (Pleumeur-Bodou). On 11 July 1962 this site received the first transatlantic transmission of a TV signal from a twin station in Andover, Maine, USA via the TELSTAR satellite. The success of TELSTAR and the earth stations, the first built for active satellite communications, illustrated the potential of a future world-wide satellite system to provide communications between continents.;
 
50.056679, -5.18539 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Transatlantic Television Signal via Satellite, 1962]] ~
 
Doonhilly Downs, Cornwall, England, Dedication: July 2002 - IEEE United Kingdom Republic of Ireland Section. On 11 July 1962 this site transmitted the first live television signal across the Atlantic from Europe to the USA, via TELSTAR. This Satellite Earth Station was designed and built by the British Post Office Engineering Department. Known as 'Arthur' (of "Knights of the Round Table" fame), its open-dish design became a model for satellite television earth stations throughout the world.;
 
52.663857, -8.626772 ~
 
[[Milestones:Shannon Scheme for the Electrification of the Irish Free State, 1929]] ~
 
Ardnacrusha Power Station, Ardnacrusha, County Limerick, Ireland. Dedicated 29 July 2002. IEEE United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland Section. (IEEE Milestone and ASCE International Historic Engineering Landmark). The Shannon Scheme was officially opened at Parteen Weir on 22 July 1929. One of the largest engineering projects of its day, it was successfully executed by Siemens to harness the Shannon River. It subsequently served as a model for large-scale electrification projects worldwide. Operated by the Electricity Board of Ireland, it had an immediate impact on the social, economic and industrial development of Ireland and continues to supply significant power beyond the end of the 20th century.;
 
35.107772, 136.885567 ~
 
[[Milestones:Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train), 1964]] ~
 
Tokai Nagoya Station, 1-1-4 Meieki, Nakamura-Ku, Nagoya, Japan. Plaque is at West Side of station on concourse wall. Dedication: July 2000 - IEEE Tokyo Section. (IEEE Milestone and ASME Landmark). Tokaido Shinkansen (Bullet Train) was designed with the world's most advanced electrical and mechanical train technologies to operate at speeds up to 210 km/hr, a world record when it began service in 1964. It has carried more than 80 million passengers per year for many years with an excellent safety record.;
 
38.271629, 140.859116 ~
 
[[Milestones:Directive Short Wave Antenna, 1924]] ~
 
The laboratories have been remodelled, so the plaque is on a monument in the center of Katahira Campus, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.  Dedication: June 1995 - IEEE Tokyo Section. In these laboratories, beginning in 1924, Professor Hidetsugu Yagi and his assistant, Shintaro Uda, designed and constructed a sensitive and highly-directional antenna using closely-coupled parasitic elements. The antenna, which is effective in the higher-frequency ranges, has been important for radar, television, and amateur radio.;
 
42.866667, 21.916667 ~
 
[[Milestones:Vucje Hydroelectric Plant, 1903]] ~
 
Leskovac, Yugoslavia. Dedication: 25 June 2005, IEEE Yugoslavia Section. The Vucje hydroelectric plant began operation in 1903. It was the first in southern Serbia and the largest in the broader region. By transmitting alternating electric current of 50 Hz at 7000 volts -- high for the period -- over a distance of 16 km , it helped to transform the regional economy. It remained in continual use for more than a century.;
 
56.407980, -5.469119 ~
 
[[Milestones:The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 1956]] ~
 
Oban, Scotland, Dedication: 24 September 2006. Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.;
 
44.816528, 20.46369 ~
 
[[Milestones:Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), Electrical Pioneer]] (Special Citation)~
 
Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Dedication: October 2006, IEEE Serbia Section. On the 150th anniversary of his birth, the IEEE is pleased to recognize the seminal work of Nikola Tesla in the field of electrical engineering. Among his many accomplishments, those that stand out are his innovative contributions to the applications of polyphase current to electric power systems, his pioneering work with electromagnetic waves, and his experiments with very high voltages. The Tesla Museum in Beograd is to be commended for its successful efforts to preserve artifacts and documents related to Tesla and to make them accessible to scholars throughout the world.;
 
47.870647, -53.364887 ~
 
[[Milestones:Landing of the Transatlantic Cable, 1866]] ~
 
Cable Museum, Heart's Content, Newfoundland, Canada. Dedication: June 1985 - IEEE Newfoundland-Labrador Section. A permanent electrical communications link between the old world and the new was initiated at this site with the landing of a transatlantic cable on July 27, 1866. This achievement altered for all time personal, commercial, and political relations between peoples on the two sides of the ocean. Five more cables between Heart's Content and Valentia, Ireland were completed between 1866 and 1894. This station continued in operation until 1965.;
 
39.54602, -107.32363 ~
 
[[Milestones:Shoshone Transmission Line, 1909]] ~
 
Shoshone Hydroelectric Plant near Glenwood Springs, Colorado, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1991 - IEEE Denver Section. July 17, 1909, the Shoshone Transmission Line began service carrying power, generated by the Shoshone Hydroelectric Generating Station, to Denver. The Line operated at 90 kV, was 153.4 miles long, and crossed the Continental Divide three times reaching an altitude of 13,500 feet. Its design and construction represented an outstanding electrical engineering accomplishment due to its length, the mountainous country over which it was constructed, and the unusually severe weather conditions under which it operated.;
 
40.8120, -74.4812 ~
 
[[Milestones:Demonstration of Practical Telegraphy, 1838]] ~
 
333 Speedwell Avenue, Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: May 1988 - IEEE North Jersey Section. In this building in January 1838, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alfred Vail first demonstrated publicly crucial elements of their telegraph system, using instruments that Vail had constructed during the previous months. Electrical pulses, transmitted through two miles of wire, caused an electromagnet to ink dots and dashes (grouped to represent letters and words) on a strip of paper. Commercialization began in 1844 when funding became available.;
 
48.14626, -53.9641 ~
 
[[Milestones:The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 1956]] ~
 
Clarenville, Newfoundland, Canada. Dedication: 24 September 2006. Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.;
 
46.2317, -60.222119 ~
 
[[Milestones:The First Submarine Transatlantic Telephone Cable System (TAT-1), 1956]] ~
 
Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia, Canada. Dedication: 24 September 2006. Global telephone communications using submarine cables began on 25 September 1956, when the first transatlantic undersea telephone system, TAT-1, went into service. This site is the eastern terminal of the transatlantic cable that stretched west to Clarenville, Newfoundland. TAT-1 was a great technological achievement providing unparalleled reliability with fragile components in hostile environments. It was made possible through the efforts of engineers at AT&T Bell Laboratories and British Post Office. The system operated until 1978.;
 
37.32703, -91.02427 ~
 
[[Milestones:Taum Sauk Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant, 1963]] ~
 
Taum Sauk Power Plant, Reynolds County, Missouri, U.S.A. Dedication: September 2005. The Taum Sauk Plant, when it came on-line in 1963, was the largest pure pumped-storage electric power plant in North America. Other pioneering features for this pumped-storage plant were its high capacity turbine-generators and its ability to be operated remotely, 90 miles away, from St. Louis, Missouri.;
 
44.93875, -70.75005 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Transatlantic Transmission of a Television Signal via Satellite, 1962]] ~
 
Andover, Maine, U.S.A. Dedication: July 2002 - IEEE Maine Section. On 11 July 1962 this site transmitted the first transatlantic TV signal to a twin station in Pleumeur-Bodou, France via the TELSTAR satellite. The success of TELSTAR and the earth stations, the first built for active satellite communications, illustrated the potential of a future world-wide satellite system to provide communications between continents.;
 
47.571849, -52.689165 ~
 
[[Milestones:Reception of Transatlantic Radio Signals, 1901]] ~
 
Signal Hill, Newfoundland. Dedication: October 1985 - IEEE Newfoundland-Labrador Section. At Signal Hill on December 12, 1901, Guglielmo Marconi and his assistant, George Kemp, confirmed the reception of the first transatlantic radio signals. With a telephone receiver and a wire antenna kept aloft by a kite, they heard Morse code for the letter "S" transmitted from Poldhu, Cornwall. Their experiments showed that radio signals extended far beyond the horizon, giving radio a new global dimension for communication in the twentieth century.;
 
40.622791, -75.451035 ~
 
[[Milestones:Manufacture of Transistors, 1951]] ~
 
AT&T Technologies, 555 Union Blvd, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Dedication: April 1989 - IEEE Lehigh Valley Section. The commercial manufacture of transistors began here in October 1951. Smaller, more efficient, and more reliable than the vacuum tubes they replaced, transistors revolutionized the electronics industry.;
 
40.667603, -74.11844 ~
 
[[Milestones:Two-Way Police Radio Communication, 1933]] ~
 
26th Street and Avenue C, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.A. Dedication: May 1987 - IEEE North Jersey Section. In 1933, the police department in Bayonne, New Jersey initiated regular two-way communications with its patrol cars, a major advance over previous one-way systems. The very high frequency system developed by radio engineer Frank A. Gunther and station operator Vincent J. Doyle placed transmitters in patrol cars to enable patrolmen to communicate with headquarters and other cars instead of just receiving calls. Two-way police radio became standard throughout the country following the success of the Bayonne system.;
 
35.224517, 139.706075 ~
 
[[Milestones:Development of VHS, a World Standard for Home Video Recording, 1976]] ~
 
58-4, Shinmei-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan. Dedication: 11 October 2006. At the Yokohama Plant of Victor Company of Japan, Limited, a team of engineers headed by Shizuo Takano and Yuma Shiraishi developed VHS (Video Home System) format. They looked ahead to the need for home video tape recorders and embodied their idea in unique inventions. The first model JVC HR-3300 was announced on 9 September 1976. Their basic design with subsequent improvement gained wide customer acceptance. VHS became the world standard for home video tape recorders.;
 
44.24764, -88.40412 ~
 
[[Milestones:Vulcan Street Plant, 1882]] ~
 
807 S. Oneida St., Appleton, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Dedicated September 1977 - IEEE Northeastern Wisconsin Section. (ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark, jointly designated with ASCE and IEEE). Near this site on September 30, 1882, the world's first hydroelectric central station began operation. The station, here reproduced, was known as the Vulcan Street Plant and had a direct current generator capable of lighting 250 sixteen candle power lamps each equivalent to 50 watts. The generator operated at 110 volts and was driven through gears and belts by a water wheel operating under a ten foot fall of water.;
 
31.892571, 34.797821 ~
 
[[Milestones:WEIZAC Computer, 1955]] ~
 
Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Dedication: 5 December 2006. The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, built the Weizmann Automatic Computer (WEIZAC) during 1954-1955 with the scientific vision of Chaim Pekeris and the engineering leadership of Gerald Estrin. The WEIZAC was based on drawings from the IAS computer at Princeton University and built with much ingenuity. The machine was the first digital electronic computer constructed in the Middle East and it became an indispensable scientific computing resource for many scientists and engineers worldwide.;
 
39.741665, -105.083721 ~
 
[[Milestones:Merrill Wheel-Balancing System, 1945]] ~
 
7800 W 16th Avenue, Lakewood, Colorado, U.S.A. (Building and plaque no longer there). Dedication:September 1999 - IEEE Denver Section. (IEEE Milestone and ASME Landmark). In 1945, Marcellus Merrill first implemented an electronic dynamic wheel-balancing system. Previously, all mechanical methods were static in nature and required removing the wheels from the vehicle. Merrill's innovative balancing system came to be widely used internationally. Elements of the dynamic balancing systems are still used today, primarily for industrial and automotive production applications.;
 
36.56644, 137.66213 ~
 
[[Milestones:Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, 1956-63]] ~
 
Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Unazuki-machi, Kurobe-shi, Toyama, Japan. Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., completed the innovative Kurobe River No. 4 Hydropower Plant, including the subterranean power station and Kurobe Dam, in 1963. The 275kV long-distance transmission system delivered the generated electric power to the Kansai region and solved serious power shortages, contributing to industrial development and enhancing living standards for the population.;
 
37.875344, -122.257976 ~
 
[[Milestones:SPICE Circuit Simulation Program]] ~
 
Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley. SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) was created at UC Berkeley as a class project in 1969-1970. It evolved to become the worldwide standard integrated circuit simulator. SPICE has been used to train many students in the intricacies of circuit simulation. SPICE and its descendants have become essential tools employed by virtually all integrated circuit designers. ;
 
38.749716, -90.347239 ~
 
[[Milestones:Mercury Spacecraft MA-6, 1962]] ~
 
Boeing Company Building 100, Prologue Hall, St. Louis, MO. Col. John Glenn piloted the Mercury Friendship 7 spacecraft in the first United States human orbital flight on 20 February 1962. Electrical and electronic systems invented by McDonnell engineers, including IRE members, made his and future spaceflights possible. Among the key contributions were navigation and control instruments, autopilot, rate stabilization and control, and fly-by-wire (FBW) systems. ;
 
48.010504, -66.374000 ~
 
[[Milestones:Eel River High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station]] ~
 
Dalhousie Power Station, Eel River, New Brunswick, Canada. Eel River High Voltage Direct Current Converter Station, 1972. Operating since 1972, Eel River, New Brunswick is home to the world's first commercial solid state High Voltage Direct Current converter station. This 320 MW interconnection facility, built by Canadian General Electric and NB Power, incorporates high current silicon solid state thyristors to convert alternating current from Hydro Quebec to direct current and back to alternating, allowing asynchronous, stable power transfers to serve NB Power's customers.;
 
52.156062, 4.490498 ~
 
[[Milestones:Discovery of Superconductivity, 1911]] ~
 
Kamerlingh Onnes Building, Leiden University, Leiden, Nederland. On 8 April 1911, in this building, Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators, Cornelis Dorsman, Gerrit Jan Flim, and Gilles Holst, discovered superconductivity. They observed that the resistance of mercury approached "practically zero" as its temperature was lowered to 3 kelvins. Today, superconductivity makes many electrical technologies possible, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and high-energy particle accelerators.;
 
44.431296, 11.26719 ~
 
[[Milestones:Marconi's Early Experiments in Wireless Telegraphy, 1895]] ~
 
Villa Griffone, Via Celestini, 1, 40037 Sasso Marconi, Bologna, Italy. In this garden, after the experiments carried out between 1894 and 1895 in the “Silkworm Room” in the attic of Villa Griffone, Guglielmo Marconi connected a grounded antenna to its transmitter. With this apparatus the young inventor was able to transmit radiotelegraphic signals beyond a physical obstacle, the Celestini hill, at a distance of about two kilometres. The experiment heralded the birth of the era of wireless communication.;
 
34.47574, 135.741507 ~
 
[[Milestones:Commercialization and Industrialization of Photovoltaic Cells, 1959]] ~
 
SHARP Corporation, Katsuragi-shi, Nara, Japan. Sharp Corporation pioneered the development and commercialization of photovoltaic (PV) cells for applications ranging from satellites to lighthouses to residential uses. From the beginning of research into monocrystal PV-cells in 1959, to the mass production of amorphous PV-cells in 1983, this work contributed greatly toward the industrialization of photovoltaic technologies and toward the mitigation of global warming.;
 
40.734135, -73.988637 ~
 
[[Milestones:Pearl Street Station]] ~
 
ConEd Building, 4 Irving Place, New York, NY, U.S.A. Thomas Alva Edison established the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York, now Consolidated Edison, to commercialize his 1879 incandescent lamp invention. On 4 September 1882, Edison’s direct current (dc) generating station at 257 Pearl Street, began supplying electricity to customers in the First District, a one-quarter square mile (0.65 square km) area. This installation was the forerunner of all central electric generating stations.;
 
32.21713, -110.87787 ~
 
[[Milestones:16-bit Monolithic DAC, 1981]] ~
 
Texas Instruments, 5411 East Williams Blvd, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A. In early 1982, Burr-Brown Research Corporation, later part of Texas Instruments, Inc., demonstrated a 16-bit monolithic digital-to-analog converter. Coupled with earlier compact disc development by Philips and Sony, it enabled affordable high-quality compact disc players, helped transform music distribution and playback from analog phonograph records to digital compact discs, and ushered in digital media playback.;
 
40.751609, -73.501845 ~
 
[[Milestones:Grumman Lunar Module]] ~
 
Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, 600 Grumman Road West, Bethpage, New York, U.S.A. The Grumman Lunar Module was the first vehicle to land man on an extraterrestrial body, the Moon. Because it was designed to fly solely in space, its design, construction and testing continuously pushed the technology envelope for lightweight metals and unique electrical and electronic systems resulting in one of the most important and successful engineering achievements of mankind.;
 
49.363611, -122.956667 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Television Broadcast in Western Canada.]] ~
 
On 16 December 1953, the first television broadcast in Western Canada was transmitted from this site by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's CBUT Channel 2. The engineering experience gained here was instrumental in the subsequent establishment of the more than one thousand public and private television broadcasting sites that serve Western Canada today.;
 
49.247806, -123.229566 ~
 
[[Milestones:First 500 MeV Proton Beam from the TRIUMF Cyclotron, 1974]] ~
 
TRIUMF Meson Facility, 4004 Wesbrook Mall. Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3, Canada. At 3:30 pm on 15 December 1974, the first 500 MeV proton beam was extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron. Since then, TRIUMF has used proton beams from its cyclotron (and secondary beams of pions, muons, neutrons and radioactive ions produced in its experimental halls) to conduct pioneering studies that have advanced nuclear physics, particle physics, molecular and materials science, and nuclear medicine. The plaque will be installed on a wall outside the cyclotron main control room near the site dedication plaque. (The first successful beam extraction was manually controlled from the main console in that room.);
 
37.417158,-121.920927 ~
 
[[Milestones:The Floating Gate EEPROM, 1976 - 1978]] ~
 
SanDisk Headquarters, Bldg. 6, which includes the main Visitors' Lobby. 601 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035 From 1976-1978, at Hughes Microelectronics in Newport Beach, California, the practicality, reliability, manufacturability and endurance of the Floating Gate EEPROM -- an electrically erasable device using a thin gate oxide and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for writing and erasing -- was proven. As a significant foundation of data storage in flash memory, this fostered new classes of portable computing and communication devices which allow ubiquitous personal access to data. ;
 
42.36150,-71.09200 ~
 
[[Milestones:Loran, 1940 - 1946]] ~
 
211 Massachusetts Ave, Boston, viewable by pedestrians from street. The rapid development of Loran -- long range navigation -- under wartime conditions at MIT’s Radiation Lab was not only a significant engineering feat but also transformed navigation, providing the world’s first near-real-time positioning information. Beginning in June 1942, the United States Coast Guard helped develop, install and operate Loran until 2010. ;
 
43.6604,-79.389428 ~
 
[[Milestones:First External Cardiac Pacemaker, 1950]] ~
 
112 College Street, Toronto, beside the front entrance of the C. H. Best Institute. In 1950, in Room 64 of the Bantling Institute of the University of Toronto, Drs. Wilfred Bigelow and John Callaghan successfully paced the heart of a dog using an external electronic pacemaker-defibrillator having implanted electrodes. The device was developed by Dr. John Hopps at the National Research Council of Canada. This pioneering work led to the use of cardiac pacemakers in humans and helped establish the importance of electronic devices in medicine. ;
 
22.575507,88.363515 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Millimeter-wave Communication Experiments by J.C. Bose]] ~
 
Main corridor of the A.J.C. Bose Auditorium in the Main Building of Presidency College, Kolkata, India. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, in 1895, first demonstrated at Presidency College, Calcutta, India, transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves at 60 GHz, over a distance of 23 meters, through two intervening walls by remotely ringing a bell and detonating gunpowder. For his communication system, Bose developed entire millimeter-wave components such as: a spark transmitter, coherer, dielectric lens, polarizer, horn antenna and cylindrical diffraction grating.;
 
22.498889,88.368668 ~
 
[[Milestones:Raman Effect]] ~
 
Plaque may be viewed at the main entrance gate of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Raja Subodh Mullick Road, Kolkata, 700032, INDIA. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Nobel-laureate (Physics-1930), assisted by K S Krishnan at IACS, Calcutta, India, discovered on 28 February 1928, that when a beam of coloured light entered a liquid, a fraction of the light scattered was of a different colour, dependent on material property. This radiation effect of molecular scattering of light bears his name as ‘Raman Effect’, from which many applications in photonic communications and spectroscopy evolved. ;
 
39.954923,-75.186342 ~
 
[[Milestones:Birthplace of the Bar Code]] ~
 
Plaque may be viewed at Drexel University's Bossone Research Center, 31st Street and Market Street, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. In an attempt to automate the reading of product information in a local grocery store, Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland at the Drexel Institute of Technology developed a solution that became the ubiquitous Barcode Identification System. Patented in 1952, the Barcode has become a key technology for product identification and inventory control in industry and daily life.;
 
42.075022,-72.026767 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Optical Fiber Laser and Amplifier, 1961-1964]] ~
 
Plaque may be viewed on the Southbridge, Massachusetts town common across from the old American Optical building and next to the Eyeglass Sculpture, Southbridge, MA, U.S.A. In 1961, Elias Snitzer and colleagues constructed and operated the world's first optical fiber laser in the former American Optical complex at 14 Mechanic Street. Three years later this team demonstrated the first optical fiber amplifier. Fiber lasers that can cut and weld steel have since become powerful industrial tools and fiber amplifiers routinely boost signals in the global optical fiber network allowing messages to cross oceans and continents without interruption. ;
 
-32.833515,-56.423206 ~
 
[[Milestones:Rincón del Bonete]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed on the outside wall near the entrance to the Rincón del Bonete Powerhouse, which is still in operation. The plaque will be affixed to an outside wall, where the frequent public/student touristic/educational tours make a stop.) In December, 1945, much-needed hydroelectric power began flowing from here to other parts of Uruguay. World War II had interrupted the work begun by a German consortium, but Uruguayan engineers reformulated and completed the project using United States-supplied equipment. The large artificial lake spurred further Rio Negro electrification, availability of abundant, clean hydroelectricity was a turning point in Uruguay's development, quality of life, and engineering profession.;
 
51.498766,-0.174522 ~
 
[[Milestones:Invention of Holography]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed on or in the building of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, England, UK. In 1947 Dennis Gabor conceived the idea of wavefront reconstruction for improving the performance of the electron microscope. This became the basis for the invention of optical holography for three-dimensional imaging but implementation required coherent light sources and had to await the emergence of the laser some years later. Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize for his invention in 1971. ;
 
43.8047,15.9633 ~
 
[[Milestones:Krka-Šibenik Electric Power System, 1895]] ~
 
The plaques (English and Croatian) may be viewed at the Jaruga I power plant. On 28 August 1895 electricity generated at this location was transmitted to the city of Šibenik, where six power transformers supplied a large number of street lamps. This early system of power generation, transmission and distribution was one of the first complete multiphase alternating current systems in the world and it remained in operation until World War I.;
 
35.780745,139.308393 ~
 
[[Milestones:Toshiba T1100, a Pioneering Contribution to the Development of Laptop PC, 1985]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the Toshiba Factory, 2-9 Suehiro-cho, Ome-shi, Tokyo 198-8710, Japan. The Toshiba T1100, an IBM PC compatible laptop computer that shipped in 1985, made an invaluable contribution to the development of the laptop PC and portable personal computers. With the T1100, Toshiba demonstrated and promoted the emergence and importance of true portability for PCs running packaged software, with the result that T1100 won acceptance not only among PC experts but by the business community.;
 
39.958139,-75.172626 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Technical Meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1884]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the Franklin Institute, 222 North 20th St., Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. As part of the landmark International Electrical Exhibition organized by the Franklin Institute and held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a predecessor of IEEE, held its first conference on 7-8 October 1884. This meeting was the first formal technical conference on electrical engineering held in the United States.;
 
42.012411,-87.772694 ~
 
[[Milestones:Single-element Unidirectional Microphone - Shure Unidyne, 1939]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at 5800 W. Touhy Ave, Niles, IL, U.S.A. In 1939, Shure Incorporated introduced the Unidyne microphone. Using the Uniphase acoustical system, the patented Unidyne was the first microphone to provide directional characteristics using a single dynamic element. This breakthrough offered lower cost, greater reliability and improved performance for communication and public address systems. Shure Unidyne microphones are still manufactured and used worldwide in numerous audio applications.;
 
36.623549,-121.923315 ~
 
[[Milestones:The CP/M Microcomputer Operating System, 1974]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at 801 Lighthouse Avenue, Pacific Grove, California, U.S.A. Dr. Gary A. Kildall demonstrated the first working prototype of CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) in Pacific Grove in 1974. Together with his invention of the BIOS (Basic Input Output System), Kildall’s operating system allowed a microprocessor-based computer to communicate with a disk drive storage unit and provided an important foundation for the personal computer revolution.;
 
35.720150,139.562135 ~
 
[[Milestones:Line Spectrum Pair (LSP) for high-compression speech coding, 1975]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed in the reception hall NTT Musashino R&D center  9-11, Midori-cho 3-Chome Musashino-Shi, Tokyo 180-8585 Japan. Line Spectrum Pair, invented at NTT in 1975, is an important technology for speech synthesis and coding. A speech synthesizer chip was designed based on Line Spectrum Pair in 1980. In the 1990s, this technology was adopted in almost all international speech coding standards as an essential component and has contributed to the enhancement of digital speech communication over mobile channels and the Internet worldwide.;
 
34.621672,135.817852 ~
 
[[Milestones:Sharp 14-inch Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid-Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) for TV, 1988]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the Sharp Technology Innovation Museum, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567 Japan. Sharp demonstrated a fourteen-inch TFT-LCD for TV in 1988 when the display size of the mass-produced TFT-LCD was three inches. The high display quality in Cathode Ray Tube size convinced other electronic companies to join the infant TFT-LCD industry aimed at emerging full-color portable PCs. Two decades later, TFT-LCDs replaced CRTs, making the vision of RCA's LCD group in the 1960s a reality.;
 
52.2213787,21.0146535 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Breaking of Enigma Code by the Team of Polish Cipher Bureau, 1932-1939]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the front entrance of the Institute building, ul. Śniadeckich 8, 00-956 Warszawa (Warsaw). Polish Cipher Bureau mathematicians Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski broke the German Enigma cipher machine codes. Working with engineers from the AVA Radio Manufacturing Company, they built the ‘bomba’ – the first cryptanalytic machine to break Enigma codes. Their work was a foundation of British code breaking efforts which, with later American assistance, helped end World War II.;
 
35.637915,139.715213 ~
 
[[Milestones:Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems,1975]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the entrance to Meiden Research and Development Center, Meidensha Corporation, 2-8-1 Osaki, Shinagawa-hu, Tokyo, Japan. Meidensha Corporation developed MOSA and its mass production system by innovating on Panasonic Corporation’s ZnO varistor basic patent. MOSA dramatically raised performance levels against multiple lightning strikes and contamination, and led to UHV protective device development. This technology contributed to improving the safety and reliability of electric power systems and to establishing international standards.;
 
40.728077,-73.597389 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Blind Takeoff, Flight and Landing, 1929]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the Cradle of Aviation Museum, 1 Charles Lindberg Blvd, Garden City, NY, U.S.A. On 24 September 1929, the first blind takeoff, flight and landing occurred at Mitchel Field, Garden City, NY in a Consolidated NY-2 biplane piloted by Lt. James Doolittle. Equipped with specially designed radio and aeronautical instrumentation, it represented the cooperative efforts of many organizations, mainly the Guggenheim Fund’s Full Flight Laboratory, U.S. Army Air Corps, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Sperry Gyroscope Company, Kollsman Instrument Company and Radio Frequency Laboratories.;
 
47.566136,7.801845 ~
 
[[Milestones:Rheinfelden Hydroelectric Power Plant, 1898 - 2010]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the Rheinfelden exhibition pavilion, Kanalstrasse D, 79618, Rheinfelden, Germany. The original Rheinfelden plant was an outstanding achievement in Europe's early large-scale generation of hydroelectric power. It was important for its 17,000 horsepower (12,500 kilowatt) output, for pioneering three-phase alternating current later adopted around the world, and using 50-Hertz frequency which afterwards became standard in most countries. Gradually, Rheinfelden entered into joint operation with other stations, from which the interconnected network of continental Europe evolved.;
 
34.814411,137.837264 ~
 
[[Milestones:20-inch Diameter Photomultiplier Tubes, 1979 - 1987]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K. Electron Tube Division, Toyooka Factory 314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. began developing 20-inch diameter photomultiplier tubes at Toyooka Factory in 1979 for a 3000-ton water-filled Cherenkov particle detector, Kamiokande-II, in response to a request by Professor Masatoshi Koshiba. 1071 PMTs on it collected photons induced in the water by the particles falling on it. Kamiokande-II detected a neutrino burst in the Supernova SN1987A in 1987, earning Professor Koshiba a Nobel Prize in 2002.;
 
35.700463,139.750537 ~
 
[[Milestones:The First Transpacific Cable System (TPC-1), 1964]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at KDDI Corporation, Garden Air Tower, 3-10-10, Iidabashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-8460 JAPAN. The first transpacific undersea coaxial telephone cable linking Japan, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland was completed in 1964. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda inaugurated this communications link on 19 June 1964. This joint project involving American Telephone and Telegraph, Hawaiian Telephone Company, and Kokusai Denshin Denwa improved global communication and contributed to deep water submarine cable technologies.;
 
21.309688,-157.859081 ~
 
[[Milestones:The First Transpacific Cable System (TPC-1), 1964]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at Hawaiian Telcom, 1177 Bishop Street, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 U.S.A. The first transpacific undersea coaxial telephone cable linking Japan, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland was completed in 1964. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda inaugurated this communications link on 19 June 1964. This joint project involving American Telephone and Telegraph, Hawaiian Telephone Company, and Kokusai Denshin Denwa improved global communication and contributed to deep water submarine cable technologies.;
 
29.723186,-95.346437 ~
 
[[Milestones:High-Temperature Superconductivity, 1987]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at Science and Research Building 1, University of Houston Closest street address: 3577 Cullen Blvd., Houston, TX, U.S.A. On this site in 1987, yttrium-barium-copper-oxide, YBa2Cu3O7, the first material to exhibit superconductivity at temperatures above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77k), was discovered. This ushered in an era of accelerated superconductor materials science and engineering research worldwide, and led to advanced applications of superconductivity in energy, medicine, communications, and transportation.;
 
49.009515,8.41233 ~
 
[[Milestones:First Generation and Experimental Proof of Electromagnetic Waves, 1886-1888.]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at the Heinrich Hertz Auditorium, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany;
 
40.684376,-74.401628 ~
 
[[Milestones:Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1925-1983]] ~
 
The plaque may be viewed at Alcatel-Lucent, 600 Mountain Ave., Murray Hill, NJ, U.S.A.;
 
29.66666667, 30.65 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lake Moeris Quarry Road, 2500 -  2100 B.C. ~
 
The Lake Moeris Quarry Road is recognized as the oldest surviving paved road in the world. Dating from the Old Kingdom period in Egypt, it transported basalt blocks from the quarry to a quay on the shores of ancient Lake Moeris. ;
 
30.32861111, 35.44194444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Petra, 400 B.C. - 400 A.D. ~
 
Even though Petra was built in a hostile and barren desert, it was able to support from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants because of the water supply, drainage, and flood control infrastructure developed by the Nabateans.;
 
9.966666667, -83.68333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Guayabo Ceremonial Center, 300 BC - AD 1400 ~
 
The pre-Columbian civilization of Costa Rica built the Guayabo Ceremonial Center with care and skill. The roadways, retaining walls, underground channels, water supply, and flood control and drainage facilities represent remarkable civil engineering achievements..;
 
16.91055556, 121.0541667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ifugao Rice Terraces, 100 BC ~
 
Dating from 100 BC, the Ifugao Rice Terraces are the oldest and most extensive use of terraces in the world. ;
 
40.95, -4.166666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Acueduto de Segovia, 1 - 99  AD ~
 
One of the best preserved Roman constructions,the Roman Aqueduct at Segovia was still in use as recently as the mid-20th century and remains standing only through an equilibrium of forces.;
 
41.9, 12.5 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo, 109-110 ~
 
The Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo, the original aqueduct built by the Emperor Trajan, circa 110 AD, was a symbol of the advanced infrastructure of ancient Rome.  It continues to provide water for the fountains of Rome.;
 
41.008548, 28.979938 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hagia Sophia, 532-537 ~
 
Built under Emperor Justinian’s direction from 532-537 and named the Church of the Holy Wisdom, Hagia Sophia’s dome is still among the largest in the world.;
 
33.45, 111.816667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hohokam Canal System, 600 - 1450 AD ~
 
The Hohokam canal system is a significant pre-Columbian Native American example of modification of the environment for beneficial use by society. ;
 
33.433333, 111.983333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hohokam Canal System, 600 - 1450 AD ~
 
The Hohokam canal system is a significant pre-Columbian Native American example of modification of the environment for beneficial use by society. ;
 
37.72016667, 114.76325 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Zhaozhou Bridge (or Anji), 605 ~
 
The Zhaozhou Bridge, with a span of 37 meters, is the world’s oldest open-spandrel arch bridge. ;
 
37.18388889, -108.4886111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Prehistoric Mesa Verde Reservoirs, 750 A.D. -  1180 A.D. ~
 
Mesa Verde's industrious Ancestral Puebloans designed, constructed, and maintained Morefield, Box Elder, Far View, and Sagebrush Reservoirs for domestic water-storage between A.D. 750 and 1180.;
 
-13.56666667, -71.78333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tipon, 1200-1534 A.D. ~
 
The Tipon complex attests to the advanced hydraulic and geotechnical engineering of the Inca people and their predecessors.  Tipon is an engineering masterpiece of planning, design, and construction.  The complex irrigation system of canals, aqueduct, fountains, buried conduits, and a tunnel provided conjunctive use of both surface and spring water.;
 
-13.16333333, -72.54555556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Machu Picchu, AD 1450-AD 1540 ~
 
Machu Picchu was a masterpiece of site selection, city planning, and design and construction of trails, buildings, a water supply canal with many fountains, and agricultural terraces. The infrastructure illustrates the advanced civil, hydraulic, and geotechnical engineering capabilities of the Inca people.;
 
28.710556, -100.489444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - El Camino Real - Eastern Branch, 1500s ~
 
Running from Mexico to Louisiana, the El Camino Real-Eastern Branch was a major Spanish pioneer transportation artery that provided support, defense and political stability for early colonists.;
 
31.743056, -93.095 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - El Camino Real - Eastern Branch, 1500s ~
 
Running from Mexico to Louisiana, the El Camino Real-Eastern Branch was a major Spanish pioneer transportation artery that provided support, defense and political stability for early colonists.;
 
22.60805556, -102.3791667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - El Camino Real - The Royal Road, 1500s ~
 
The El Camino Real-Royal Road, a 1,500-mile route, connected Santa Fe and the rest of New Mexico with Mexico City during Spanish Colonial times;
 
29.89777778, -81.31138889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Castillo De San Marcos, 1672-1695 ~
 
A unique link between medieval European military engineering and modern American civil engineering, the Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest major engineered structure in the United States.;
 
22.60805556, -102.3791667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - City Plan of Philadelphia, 1682 ~
 
Including many firsts for the United States, such as a gridiron street pattern and open public squares, the city plan of Philadelphia provided a model for city planning that has helped mold the development of cities throughout the country.;
 
40.043526, -75.020553 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Frankford Avenue Bridge, 1697 ~
 
The Frankford Avenue Bridge is the first known stone arch built in the United States and probably the oldest bridge in the country.;
 
50.36666667, -4.15 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Eddystone Lighthouse, 1698-1882 ~
 
The Eddystone Lighthouse was the first masonry-tower lighthouse to be built at sea, and its form was universally adopted. ;
 
29.30455556, -98.46944444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Acequias of San Antonio, 1718-1744 ~
 
The Acequias of San Antonio represents one of the earliest uses of engineered water supply and irrigation systems in the United States.;
 
20.43, -100.4633333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Acueduto de Queretaro, 1726-1738 ~
 
The Acueducto de Queretaro, one of Mexico’s most important monuments, provided a dependable supply of clean water to the city of Queretaro, Mexico. It is still virtually intact.;
 
36.6, -83.67555556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Royal Colonial Boundary of 1665, 1728-1821 ~
 
With personal courage, dedication, and technical innovation in the art and science of cadastral and geodetic survey practice, the survey of the Royal Colonial Boundary, located in what is now Cumberland Gap National Park, Kentucky, reached the Mississippi River in 1819.;
 
32.01666667, -81.11666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - City Plan of Savannah, 1733 ~
 
The city plan of Savannah is the oldest city plan in the United States to use a repetitive modular grid with mixed residential blocks and multi-purpose public areas,  a concept still being emulated by urban planners today.;
 
48.83333333, 2.333333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 1747 ~
 
Founded in 1747, and still operating, the Ecole Nationale Des Ponts et Chaussees is the oldest civil engineering school in the world.;
 
40.61916667, -75.38333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bethlehem Waterworks, 1755 ~
 
The Bethlehem Waterworks was the first known pumping system providing drinking and wash water in the North American Colonies.;
 
43.16333333, -70.64861111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Sewall's Bridge, 1761 ~
 
Built over the York River, Sewall’s Bridge was the first pile structure for general highway traffic constructed in accordance with an engineering plan based upon a site survey. ;
 
39.72171944, -80.12203889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Mason-Dixon Line, 1763-1767 ~
 
The world famous Mason-Dixon Line established the highest standards for engineered surveys in its delineation of the boundary lines between Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia.;
 
42.67944444, -70.83777778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Choate Bridge, 1764 ~
 
The Choate Bridge is the oldest documented two-span masonry arch bridge in the United States;
 
55.92972222, -4.482222222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Forth & Clyde Canal, 1768-1790 ~
 
The Forth & Clyde Canal is recognized as the world’s first civil engineering designed and constructed public-works project, a sea-to-sea ship canal constructed with no natural waterways included on its route. ;
 
30.4019, -81.7651 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - King's Road, 1775 ~
 
The principal overland transportation link between the former British Colony of St. Augustine and the 13 Colonies, the King’s Road was originally 126 miles long. It was a remarkable engineering feat, passing through the swampy flatlands of coastal Florida and over rivers and streams.;
 
52.627245, -2.485533 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Iron Bridge, 1779 ~
 
The Iron Bridge, crossing the River Severn, is recognized as the first iron bridge in the world. ;
 
40.63333333, -79.5 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Point of Beginning, U.S. Public Lands, 1785 ~
 
The Point of Beginning survey, an original undertaking, was completed under extremely trying conditions and with primitive instruments and techniques. It resulted in the “seven ranges” of Ohio, which provided the basis for similar frameworks for the disbursement of public lands in 30 other states.;
 
38.98944444, -77.24861111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Potowmack Canal and Locks, 1785-1828 ~
 
The Potowmack Canals and Locks are a part of the first extensive system of canal and river navigation works undertaken in the United States. ;
 
43.62305556, -70.20777778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Portland Head Light, 1790 ~
 
The Portland Headlight was the first lighthouse completed and put into service by the United States federal government under the Lighthouse Act of 1789.;
 
40.916189, -74.18159683 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Great Falls Raceway & Power System, 1792-1864 ~
 
The Great Falls Raceway & Power System represents the oldest American integrated waterpower, industrial development, and urban planning system.;
 
36.92555556, -76.00833333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Old Cape Henry Lighthouse, 1792 ~
 
The Old Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first construction project authorized by the first Congress and set the stage for all subsequent public works projects of the federal government. ;
 
36.439444, -76.324556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Dismal Swamp Canal, 1793-1805 ~
 
The Dismal Swamp Canal is the oldest surviving artificial waterway in continuous use in the United States. ;
 
36.74625, -76.340028 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Dismal Swamp Canal, 1793-1805 ~
 
The Dismal Swamp Canal is the oldest surviving artificial waterway in continuous use in the United States. ;
 
39.66666667, -75.566667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - New Castle Ice Harbor, 1795 ~
 
Because of the peril of ice crushing the wooden hulls of ships using the Philadelphia area harbors, a special protected harbor, the New Castle Ice Harbor, was authorized by the state of Delaware, and three piers were built. These innovative harbor structures were prototypes for others.;
 
37.28861111, 127.0141667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hwaseong Fortress, 1796 ~
 
The rapid construction of the Hwaseong Fortress, using paid labor, symbolizes the cultural and technological renaissance under King Jeongjo.;
 
30.99780833, -88.02251667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ellicott Stone, 1799 ~
 
After the United States was formed, the government commissioned Andrew Ellicott to establish an International Boundary at the 31st parallel between the new Republic and Spanish West Florida. This “stone” is the key extant monument from the historic survey.;
 
39.96555556, -75.18083333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Philadelphia Municipal Water Supply, 1799 - 1801 ~
 
The Philadelphia Municipal Water Supply system was the first major municipal water works in the United States to employ steam powered pumping methods. ;
 
38.88944444, -77.00916667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - U.S. Capitol, 1800 ~
 
The U.S. Capitol’s construction included an iron-ribbed dome 135 feet in diameter topped by Thomas Crawford’s statue “Freedom.” The dome required a scaffolding 350 feet high. New engineering techniques for construction and quality control were developed to meet the challenge of this immense project.;
 
41.3927, -73.9584 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - United States Military Academy at West Point, 1802 ~
 
The U.S. Military Academy is the oldest educational institution in the United States to offer formal academic instruction in the field of civil engineering.;
 
42.591, -71.2842 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Middlesex Canal, 1803-1853 ~
 
The Middlesex Canal is one of the oldest man-made waterways in the United States. The canal served as a model for the later Erie Canal.;
 
15.9922, -5.122166667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Caledonian Canal, 1804-1822 ~
 
At the time, the Caledonian Canal was the largest series of locks ever built. The canal significantly advanced highland development and engineering knowledge.;
 
42.7887, -73.67386667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Waterford (Union) Bridge (replaced in 1909), 1804 ~
 
The original wooden Union Bridge, built in 1804 near Waterford, New York, was the first to cross the lower Hudson River and lasted for 105 years until it burned down in 1909 when it was replaced by the existing steel bridge. Built on the same piers, the new steel truss bridge continues the more than 200 years of service to the area.;
 
43.66527778, -70.24833333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Portland Observatory, 1807 ~
 
As one of the earliest marine signal stations in the United States, the Portland Observatory is unique in its engineering design and construction, contributing to the prosperity of Portland Harbor as a vital center of maritime commerce during the "Golden Age of Sail.";
 
58.49827, 16.17332 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Gota Canal, 1810-1832 ~
 
The Gota Canal, a transnational canal, has 58 locks and 65 bridge spans along the 190 kilometer “Blue Ribbon” waterway.;
 
39.647778, -78.762778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - National Road, 1811-1839 ~
 
The National Road was the precursor of today’s federal interstate system and represented the highest standards of road design and construction of the time.;
 
38.968056, -89.101944 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - National Road, 1811-1839 ~
 
The National Road was the precursor of today’s federal interstate system and represented the highest standards of road design and construction of the time.;
 
57.49155, -3.192383333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Craigellachie Bridge, 1814 ~
 
The elegant 150-foot-span cast iron arch of the Craigellachie Bridge is the earliest surviving example of a new portable lattice-braced standard type developed for use at wide sites unsuitable for masonry spans.;
 
42.35833333, -71.16666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Watertown Arsenal, 1816 ~
 
The Watertown Arsenal was the first major engineering testing laboratory in the United States. The dissemination of its test results made this arsenal of special significance to the civil engineering profession.;
 
40.858023, -74.229791 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cranetown Triangulation Site, 1817 ~
 
Fieldwork established the Cranetown Triangulation Site as an essential part of the first precise geodetic survey in the United States.;
 
36.14683333, -87.12205556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Montgomery Bell's Tunnel, 1818 ~
 
As the earliest known rock tunnel of significant size in the United States, the Montgomery Bell’s Tunnel served as a guide to early American civil engineers and thus can be said to be the precursor to later American tunneling accomplishments.;
 
44.5, -73.48333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bridges of Keeseville, 1821 ~
 
The Bridges of Keeseville, three remarkable operational 19th century bridges of different types, are all within 500 yards of each other. The evolution of civil engineering materials, analysis, and design, is clearly illustrated by these structures, all of which remain in service.;
 
42.61666667, -71.35 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lowell Waterpower System, 1823-1880 ~
 
The Lowell Waterpower System was a pioneer water development scheme consisting of a network of power canals with a highly sophisticated controlled and measured distribution system.;
 
42.7300, -73.6775 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1824 ~
 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, was the first college in the United States to award the degree of Civil Engineer.;
 
40.910269, -74.770717 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hydraulic-Powered Inclined Plane System of the Morris Canal, 1824-1836 ~
 
The Hydraulic-Powered Inclined Plane system was the key civil engineering feature that permitted the successful completion of the Morris Canal project in 1831. The inclined planes were essentially short railways that allowed the canal boats to change as much as 100 feet in elevation in 15 minutes. ;
 
42.939625, -74.28628333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Erie Canal, 1825 ~
 
In its day, the Erie Canal was the world’s longest canal and America’s greatest engineering feat. ;
 
41.38194444, -81.64083333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ohio Canal System, 1825-1845 ~
 
The engineering of the Ohio Canal System, a complex system of canals, bridges and dams totaling over 1,015 miles in length, produced the largest manmade lake in the world at the time, and was one of the greatest civil engineering feats of the early 1800s.;
 
53.28333333, -3.816666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Conwy Suspension Bridge, 1826 ~
 
A major structure on the strategically important Bangor to Chester road, the Conwy Suspension Bridge was built with the identical technology developed for the larger Menai Bridge and still has its original iron chains.;
 
42.24527778, -71.03722222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Granite Railway, 1826 ~
 
The Granite railway, a unique project that first demonstrated the engineering advantages of rail transport in America, introduced many technical features such as switches, the turntable and the double-truck railway car.;
 
53.22013889, -4.163125 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Menai Suspension Bridge, 1826 ~
 
The Menai Suspension Bridge was a major structure on the road connecting London with Holyhead and by sea to Ireland. The bridge had the world’s longest span, which greatly advanced suspension bridge development;
 
40.35111111, -76.46583333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Union Canal Tunnel, 1827 ~
 
The Union Canal Tunnel is the oldest existing transportation tunnel in the United States. ;
 
37.26666667, -76.66666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Carrollton Viaduct, 1829 ~
 
The Carrollton Viaduct was the first major structure that was part of an American railroad.;
 
39.54444444, -75.72055556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, 1829 ~
 
The Chesapeake & Delaware Canal is the only canal built in 19th-century America that still operates today as a major shipping route. It was one of the first civil engineering projects proposed in the New World and one of the most difficult to carry out.;
 
43.11472222, -71.895 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Five Stone Arch Bridges, 1830 - 1860 ~
 
The five New Hampshire stone arch bridges constitute the largest extant cluster of dry-laid stone arch bridges within the U.S. ;
 
38.27170, -85.77940 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Louisville and Portland Canal Locks & Dam, 1830 ~
 
The original Louisville & Portland Canal and Locks constructed at this site were responsible for permanently changing navigation on the Ohio River. These projects improved the transportation of people and goods towards St. Louis, New Orleans and points west and played an important role in the settlement and growth of the nation.;
 
42.479444, -72.618056 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Borden Base Line, 1831 ~
 
The Borden Base Line, a survey line of over 39,000 feet, remains today as an outstanding achievement in precision measurements. It obtained international recognition for American skill in geodetic engineering.;
 
42.3725, -72.62 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Borden Base Line, 1831 ~
 
The Borden Base Line, a survey line of over 39,000 feet, remains today as an outstanding achievement in precision measurements. It obtained international recognition for American skill in geodetic engineering.;
 
32.78333333, -79.93333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Charleston-Hamburg Railroad, 1833 ~
 
At the time of its construction, the Charleston-Hamburg Railroad was the world’s longest railroad (136 miles).;
 
40.45416667, -78.54027778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Allegheny Portage Railroad, 1834 ~
 
A 36-mile railroad project, the Allegheny Portage RR included the first railroad tunnel in the United States, 10 double-track inclined planes and 4 viaducts.;
 
43.47666667, -72.39611111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ascutney Mill Dam, 1834 ~
 
The Ascutney Mill Dam is among the very earliest masonry dams of significant size. Made of granite, the dam is the structural precursor of today’s concrete gravity dams.;
 
42.376111, -71.0525 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Naval Drydocks at Boston and Norfolk, 1834 ~
 
The Charlestown Naval Dry Dock, Boston, Massachusetts and the Gosport Naval Dry Dock, Norfolk, Virginia, are two of the earliest major structures of their type in the United States and served the U.S. Navy well for over a century;
 
36.820556, -76.293056 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Naval Drydocks at Boston and Norfolk, 1834 ~
 
The Charlestown Naval Dry Dock, Boston, Massachusetts and the Gosport Naval Dry Dock, Norfolk, Virginia, are two of the earliest major structures of their type in the United States and served the U.S. Navy well for over a century;
 
42.15, -71.15 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Canton Viaduct, 1835 ~
 
When completed, the Canton Viaduct was the longest and tallest railroad viaduct ever built. It is the last surviving viaduct of its kind and has been in continuous service for over 170 years.;
 
39.21666667, -76.71666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Thomas Viaduct Railroad Bridge, 1835 ~
 
The first multiple-arch stone railroad viaduct in the United States, the massive eight-arch Thomas Viaduct Railroad Bridge was built under unusual site conditions requiring a curved railway alignment.;
 
40.858023, -74.229791 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Croton Water Supply Systems, 1837-1842 ~
 
In its era, the Croton Water Supply System was the model municipal water supply system in the United States and the prototype for many large-scale projects that followed.;
 
40.02166667, -79.88805556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Dunlap's Creek Bridge, 1838 ~
 
The Dunlap’s Creek Bridge is the oldest all-metal arch bridge in the United States. It demonstrated the feasibility of using cast iron in bridge construction.;
 
51.5173, -0.1174 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Great Western Railway, 1841  ~
 
The Great Western Railway was the first major civil engineering work of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, an engineering genius and innovator.;
 
39.95, -82.03333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Muskingum River Navigation System, 1841 ~
 
The Muskingum River Navigation System, one of the United States’ first complete slackwater navigation systems for steam powered vessels, played a key role in economic development of the Greater Ohio River Valley. The project survives as the most intact system of large hand-operated locks in the United States.;
 
39.45, -77.95 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Roundhouse & Shop complex, 1842-1850s ~
 
The B&O RR Roundhouse is the sole surviving cast-iron framed roundhouse and an important example of mid-19th century industrial building design.;
 
51.503, -0.052 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Thames Tunnel, 1843 ~
 
The Thames Tunnel was the first shield-driven tunnel, the first successful soft ground subaqueous tunnel, and, in 1869, was adapted as the first subaqueous railway tunnel.;
 
39.45, -85.13333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Duck Creek Aqueduct, 1847 ~
 
The Duck Creek Aqueduct, a 71-foot span, is the oldest wooden covered aqueduct in the country.;
 
43.10916667, -79.05833333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bridges of Niagara, 1848 - 1941 ~
 
The Bridges of Niagara, a collective name for a series of structures built and replaced since 1848, span the Niagara Gorge below Niagara Falls. The successful crossing of the gorge required the skill of many engineers willing to take risks and extend their engineering knowledge beyond established limits, which greatly contributed to the advancement of design techniques for suspension and arch bridges.;
 
53.28027778, -3.823611111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Conwy Tubular Bridge, 1848 ~
 
The Conwy Tubular Bridge was the first railway bridge in which trains ran through the main girders. It represents a pioneering use of wrought iron for bridges and a major advance in the development of box-section girder elements.;
 
41.96333333, -75.58194444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Starrucca Viaduct, 1848 ~
 
The Starrucca Viaduct, the key masonry viaduct of the New York and Erie Railroad, was one of the earliest structures between the eastern seaboard and the Midwest. It was constructed in record time and was among the first, if not the first, important engineering work to utilize structural concrete. ;
 
41.4825, -74.98444444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct, 1848 ~
 
The Delaware Aqueduct was John A. Roebling’s earliest. Still-standing, this suspension bridge is perhaps the oldest existing cable suspension bridge in the world that retains its original principal elements. It was completely restored by the National Park Service in 1983.;
 
39.13472222, -76.82527778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bollman Truss Bridge, 1852 ~
 
The Bollman Truss Bridge is the only remaining example of a patented design that was used extensively on the Baltimore & Ohio and other railroads.;
 
40.71277778, -74.00583333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Site of the Founding Meeting of ASCE, 1852 ~
 
When the twelve founders of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects gathered at the Croton Aqueduct on November 5, 1852, and agreed to incorporate the new organization, they laid a foundation for what proved to be one of the most prominent engineering societies in the world. ;
 
40.49763889, -78.48416667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Horseshoe Curve-Pennsylvania RR, 1854 ~
 
The Horseshoe Curve of the Pennsylvania Railroad was 549 meters across and 805 meters long with a 1.8 percent grade, which eliminated the Portage Railroad’s 10 incline planes and greatly encouraged east-west trade crossing the Allegheny Mountains.;
 
39.51389, -121.50528 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge, 1855 ~
 
Typical of the suspension bridges constructed during California gold rush days, the Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge is the only remaining suspension bridge of its time in the West.;
 
42.47253056, -74.44127222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Blenheim Bridge, 1855 ~
 
The covered wooden truss Blenheim Bridge was the longest (210 feet) bridge of its kind in the world until the Blenheim Bridge was destroyed by flooding in 2011.;
 
53.347778, -6.259722 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Dublin-Belfast Rail Link, 1855 ~
 
The Dublin-Belfast rail-link provides a link between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and is recognized for the first large-scale use of wrought-iron latticed girders and the first full-scale test of continuous beams.;
 
54.597, -5.930 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Dublin-Belfast Rail Link, 1855 ~
 
The Dublin-Belfast rail-link provides a link between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and is recognized for the first large-scale use of wrought-iron latticed girders and the first full-scale test of continuous beams.;
 
31.790278, -106.423333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - International Boundary Marker, 1855 ~
 
Boundary Marker No. 1, located between Dona Ana County, New Mexico (near El Paso, Texas), and Juarez, Mexico, not only represents an international boundary but is also a monument to the professional skills of the American surveyors who were called upon to locate it in 1855.;
 
31.739444, -106.486944 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - International Boundary Marker, 1855 ~
 
Boundary Marker No. 1, located between Dona Ana County, New Mexico (near El Paso, Texas), and Juarez, Mexico, not only represents an international boundary but is also a monument to the professional skills of the American surveyors who were called upon to locate it in 1855.;
 
47.75, -73.91666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Whipple Truss Bridge, 1855 ~
 
The Whipple Truss Bridge, relocated to Union College, was built from a design patented in 1841 by Squire Whipple and was the first scientifically designed truss bridge in the United States.;
 
42.24166667, -70.80416667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, 1855-1860 ~
 
The Minot’s Ledge Lighthouse successfully served mariners for over 116 years. It was internationally recognized as an outstanding achievement in the civil engineering design and construction of structures that can resist open-sea wave forces.;
 
40.07016111, -80.72735 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Wheeling Suspension Bridge, 1856 ~
 
When built, the Wheeling Suspension Bridge was the first long-span wire-cable suspension bridge in the country. ;
 
54.1, 18.71666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Old Wisla Bridge, 1857 ~
 
The Old Wisla Bridge is the first example of a long span lattice-truss bridge on the European mainland. ;
 
38.97285556, -77.14796944 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cabin John Aqueduct, 1857-1862 ~
 
The Cabin John Aqueduct was the longest span stone masonry arch in the world until 1903. This structure still provides water to Washington, DC, as well as carrying the traffic loads.;
 
38.28055556, -85.70138889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Louisville Waterworks, 1857-1912 ~
 
When constructed, the Louisville Waterworks demonstrated the practicality of rapid sand filtration on a municipal scale, and was a major milestone in American sanitary engineering.;
 
38.03833333, -78.8625 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Crozet's Blue Ridge Tunnel, 1858 ~
 
The 4,270-foot Crozet’s Blue Ridge Tunnel was the longest railroad tunnel in the United States of its time and represents the culmination of civil engineering technology based on manual drilling methods. ;
 
40.60388889, -74.90222222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Fink Through Truss Bridge, 1858 ~
 
Although destroyed in 1978 by a car collision, at the time of its dedication the Fink Through Truss Bridge was possibly the oldest metal truss bridge in the nation.;
 
42.71666667, -73.70833333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Iron Building of the U.S. Army Arsenal, 1859 ~
 
Built entirely of cast iron and wrought iron elements, the Iron Building of the US Arsenal is believed to be the oldest all-metal building in the United States.;
 
30.705, 32.34416667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Suez Canal, 1859-1869 ~
 
The Suez Canal was the longest man-made sea level canal in the world when opened. This modern canal is one of the world’s most heavily used shipping routes and continues to play a critical role in international trade.;
 
46.76897222, -118.2062778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Mullan Road, 1860 ~
 
The Mullan Road was surveyed between 1853 and 1854 and constructed between 1858 and 1862. It was the first major engineered highway in the Pacific Northwest. ;
 
39.29273889, -121.1949056 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, 1862 ~
 
The Bridgeport Covered Bridge is the longest single span covered bridge (230 feet) west of the Mississippi River.;
 
42.66905556, -71.12255556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Moseley Wrought Iron Arch Bridge, 1864 ~
 
Designed and patented in 1857 by Thomas Moseley, the Wrought Iron Arch Bridge incorporated for the first time in the United States the use of riveted wrought iron plates for the bridge’s triangular-shaped top chord.;
 
41.89722222, -87.62388889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Chesbrough's Chicago Water Supply system, 1864-1869 ~
 
Designed to supply 50 gallons of potable water per capita per day for one million people, the Chicago Water Supply System consisted of a two-mile tunnel under Lake Michigan with an intake crib.;
 
43.46472222, -72.36916667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge, 1866 ~
 
The Cornish-Windsor Covered Bridge, a two-span covered bridge with an overall length of 460 feet, is the longest covered bridge existing in the United States.;
 
39.09223056, -84.50956944 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - John A. Roebling Bridge, 1866 ~
 
The John A. Roebling Bridge, a suspension bridge with a main span of 1,057 feet, was the greatest structure of its kind in the world and was the prototype for the Brooklyn Bridge, which followed 16 years later. ;
 
40.7704, -111.8930 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Mormon Tabernacle, 1867 ~
 
With 150-foot wooden lattice arches, the design and construction of the roof of the Mormon Tabernacle was an engineering challenge. Stone and lumber building materials were obtained from surrounding mountains since metal building components from the industrialized East were not available.;
 
38.55555556, -121.4688889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Central Pacific Railroad, 1869 ~
 
America’s first transcontinental railroad, the Central Pacific Railroad, began in Sacramento in 1863, and was completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah.;
 
41.61861111, -112.5475 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Joining of the Rails -Transcontinental RR, 1869 ~
 
On May 10, 1869, two railroads joined their rails to form the Transcontinental Railroad. The 1,776 miles over the mountains and deserts of the continent marked a turning point in American history by signaling the opening of the West and the emergence of a unified nation.;
 
44.27388889, -71.33138889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Mount Washington Cog Railway, 1869 ~
 
When completed, the Mt. Washington Cog Railway was the first mountain climbing railway in the world. Its cog rail system allows the railway to overcome grades exceeding 37 percent.;
 
35.25053333, -75.52881667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, 1870 ~
 
At 198 feet, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse is the tallest in the United States and the second tallest brick light tower in the world.;
 
37.403672, -79.170205 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Fink Deck Truss Bridge, 1870 ~
 
The Fink Deck Truss Bridge is a unique survivor of a truss system widely used between 1854 and 1875.  This all cast and wrought iron system was patented by Albert Fink in 1854. ;
 
39.30010683, -76.62635683 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Druid Lake Dam, 1871 ~
 
When completed, the Druid Lake Dam was the first major earthfill dam to be constructed in the United States. ;
 
21.3, -157.8666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Kamehameha V Post Office Building, 1871 ~
 
The Kamehameha V Post Office building is the oldest public building in the United States to incorporate structural elements of reinforced Portland cement concrete.;
 
39.31027778, -119.6494444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Marlette Lake Water System, 1873-1887 ~
 
The Marlette Lake Water System was the first American system developed to overcome mountainous topography. Its inverted siphon, sustaining a head of over 1,700 feet, was the greatest in the world—more than double the next highest ;
 
38.62805556, -90.17138889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Eads Bridge, 1874 ~
 
To found the mid-river piers of the Eads Bridge on solid rock, James B. Eads used the first large pneumatic caissons in the United States. Their sinking represented the deepest subaqueous construction work in the world at the time,  and the bridge’s name honors Eads’ ingenuity.;
 
29.01559806, -89.17104889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Eads South Pass Navigation Works, 1875-1879 ~
 
The Eads South Pass Navigation Works enabled the entire Mississippi River basin to have direct deep draught marine access to the oceans of the world. Today it is still a classic of hydraulic engineering.;
 
42.675, -73.04527778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hoosac Tunnel, 1876 ~
 
When completed, the Hoosac Tunnel was the largest and longest transportation tunnel in the Western Hemisphere.;
 
35.3, -119.616667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line, 1876 ~
 
The Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line had 18 tunnels, 10 bridges and numerous water towers for the old steam locomotives and was the primary factor in the early growth of the city of Los Angeles and the state of California.;
 
35.133333, -118.45 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line, 1876 ~
 
The Tehachapi Pass Railroad Line had 18 tunnels, 10 bridges and numerous water towers for the old steam locomotives and was the primary factor in the early growth of the city of Los Angeles and the state of California.;
 
20.8, -156.3333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - East Maui Irrigation System, 1876-1923 ~
 
Built by private enterprise, the East Maui Irrigation System was a pioneering example of irrigation technology. It consists of 74 miles of tunnels, ditches, inverted siphons, and flumes with a capacity of 455 million gallons per day.;
 
41.02583333, -73.66694444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ward House, 1876 ~
 
When built, the Ward House was the first reinforced concrete building constructed in the United States dramatically demonstrating the construction potential of an engineered combination of steel and concrete. ;
 
36.16583333, -86.78416667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tennessee State Capitol, 1877 ~
 
The Tennessee State Capitol was one of the first buildings in the nation with structural iron roof trusses. In addition, the grounds set the standard for park development in the region.;
 
37.81694444, -84.72027778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - High Bridge, 1877 ~
 
Known as the first major cantilever bridge in the United States, the High Bridge represents the highest (275-feet) and longest cantilever bridge in the world at that time.;
 
41.13333333, -8.6 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ponte Maria Pia Bridge, 1877 ~
 
When opened, the Ponte Maria Pia Bridge was the longest iron arch bridge in the world, with a 160-meter-long parabolic arch. ;
 
39.45194444, -121.0486111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Pelton Impulse Water Wheel, 1878 ~
 
The Pelton Impulse Water Wheel was the site of the first highly efficient and successful impulse water wheel, made possible by the development and first-time use of the split bucket. This method was the key to tapping the vast waterpower of the American West.;
 
40.49305556, -80.06555556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Davis Island Lock & Dam, 1878-1885 ~
 
The Davis Island Lock facility, the world’s first rolling lock gate and the widest lock chamber ever built, served as the prototype for 50 similar locks in the Ohio River canalization.;
 
36.9, -106.5833333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, 1880 ~
 
The 64-mile Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railway is now one of the last narrow gauge railroads in existence.;
 
37.2975, -107.8705556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Durango-Silverton Narrow Gauge Br of the D&RGWR, 1882 ~
 
The Durango-Silverton Narrow Gauge Train is one of the last of the narrow gauge railroads, linking the Colorado mining towns of Durango and Silverton and is an example of the important role that civil engineering played in developing the west.;
 
41.76111111, -78.58861111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Kinzua Railway Viaduct, 1882 ~
 
Constructed in only 102 days, the Kinzua Railway Viaduct was by far the highest (302 feet) and the longest (2,053 feet) viaduct in the world at that time.;
 
44.25333333, -88.41166667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Vulcan Street Plant, 1882 ~
 
When it began operation, the Vulcan Street Plant was the first Edison hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America. This project was the beginning of cooperation among civil, mechanical, and electrical engineers to provide power for the United States. ;
 
40.70569, -73.99639 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Brooklyn Bridge, 1883 ~
 
When built, the Brooklyn Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world and the first to use steel cables and trusses.;
 
40.43472222, -80.00222222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Smithfield Street Bridge, 1883 ~
 
The Smithfield Street Bridge represented a unique adaptation of a contemporary European engineering device, the lenticular truss, to suit American needs. It served as a guide for the many highway bridges of similar design built in America during the ensuing decades. ;
 
44.98333333, -93.26666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Stone Arch Brige of Burlington Northern RR, 1883 ~
 
The Stone Arch Bridge of the Burlington Northern Railroad, the oldest extant railroad bridge over the Mississippi, was a key element in development of the northwest part of the United States.;
 
44.95722222, -93.07638889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Seventh Street Improvement Arches, 1884 ~
 
The Seventh Street Improvement Arches celebrates the engineering application of mathematics to improve living conditions. It is currently one of the only documented examples of helicoidal arch construction in the United States.;
 
35.88333333, -77.03333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Washington Monument, 1885 ~
 
When completed, the Washington Monument was the tallest structure in the world. ;
 
42.70694444, -71.16361111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lawrence Experimental Station, 1886 ~
 
The Lawrence Experiment Station was a pioneer engineering laboratory dedicated to research on the treatment of water supply, sewage and industrial waste and has been recognized nationally and internationally for contributions to the environmental engineering field.;
 
42.5258, -85.8484 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Second Street Bridge, 1886 ~
 
The Second Street Bridge—a 225-foot span, Whipple double intersection through truss—represented the culmination of an era during which cast iron was replaced by the far more reliable wrought iron as an engineering material.;
 
40.68916667, -74.04444444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Statue of Liberty, 1886 ~
 
Through the aesthetic genius of Frederick Bartholdi and the engineering ingenuity of other French and American engineers, particularly Gustav Eiffel, Charles Stone and Charles C. Schneider, the Statue of Liberty was completed in 1886 and became the world’s symbol of the United States as the land of the free.;
 
38.75, -90.5 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Chain of Rocks Water Purification Plant, 1886-1915 ~
 
At the Chain of Rocks Water Purification Plant, a civil engineer and a chemist cooperated on an innovative process of chemical coagulation to purify the highly turbid water of the Mississippi River. This pioneering effort was recognized internationally as an outstanding success in the field of municipal water supply.;
 
32.51739167, -93.75699167 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - McNeill Street Pumping Station, 1887 ~
 
The McNeill Street Pumping Station is a self-contained lesson in the history of municipal water system development. From high-volume pumping technology to water filtering and disinfection, the pumping station helped introduce or refine key technologies that were central to the evolution of America’s urban water supply.;
 
36.21305556, -105.925 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Embudo, New Mexico Stream Guaging station, 1888 ~
 
The stream gauging system at Embudo, New Mexico, the first of its kind undertaken, led to the development of techniques that have been used extensively to collect essential data for water resources projects, land use, and urban planning.;
 
32.69160306, -117.0080556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Sweetwater Dam, 1888 ~
 
The Sweetwater Dam was once the tallest masonry arch dam in the United States, and it served as a model for many others.  The dam has survived three over-toppings, and the water impounded by it has enabled economic development of the National City, Chula Vista, and Bonita regions.;
 
37.76972222, -122.4769444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Alvord Lake Bridge, 1889 ~
 
The Alvord Lake Bridge, located in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, was the first reinforced concrete bridge built in the United States;
 
48.85638889, 2.303055556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Eiffel Tower, 1889 ~
 
When completed, the Eiffel Tower was the highest structure in the world and became renowned as a symbol of Paris.;
 
41.7, -73.93333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Poughkeepsie-Highland Bridge, 1889 ~
 
The Poughkeepsie-Highland Bridge is the oldest surviving steel cantilever bridge in the world and, when built, had the longest truss and cantilever spans.;
 
56, -3.383333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Firth of Forth Railway Bridge, 1890 ~
 
For 27 years the Firth of Forth Railway Bridge held the world’s record for span (521 meters). The overall length of the bridge is 2,529 meters.;
 
-37.96305556, -72.43888889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Viaducto Del Malleco, 1890 ~
 
The Viaducto del Malleco,  an early steel viaduct, utilized steelwork prefabricated in France. The structure has an overall length of 408 m and carries the rail line 91 m above the Malleco River. The viaduct typifies the engineering challenge associated with design and construction in remote mountainous areas.;
 
40.25833333, -76.88916667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Walnut Street Bridge, 1890 ~
 
When completed with fifteen truss spans and an overall length of 2820 feet, the Walnut Street Bridge was the finest and largest example of the standardized wrought iron truss bridges produced by the Phoenix Bridge Company.;
 
42.95, -82.41666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - St. Clair Tunnel, 1891 ~
 
The St. Clair Tunnel, built under the St. Claire River, was the first successful subaqueous railway tunnel in North America. ;
 
35.12861111, -90.07638889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Morison's Memphis Bridge, 1892 ~
 
The Memphis Bridge, a cantilever truss designed by George S. Morison, was built entirely of the then-newly developed basic open hearth steel. When completed, its 790-foot main span was the longest railroad truss in North America.;
 
41.88638889, -87.6375 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Reversal of the Chicago River, 1892 - 1900 ~
 
Completed in 1900, the reversal of the Chicago River, a major civil engineering innovation, required imaginative planning and ingenious construction. The result was a multi-purpose project that significantly benefited the development of America’s heartland.;
 
40.36055556, -83.75916667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - First Concrete Pavement, 1893 ~
 
The first engineering use of Portland cement concrete street pavement in public road construction represented a milestone for civil engineering.;
 
35.72138889, -81.11527778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bunker Hill Covered Bridge, 1894 ~
 
The Bunker Hill Covered Bridge, constructed in 1895 and restored in 1994, is the only remaining example of the improved lattice-truss timber bridge patented by Herman Haupt in 1839.;
 
38.62802778, -90.20787222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Union Station, 1894 ~
 
Union Station, in which 22 railroad lines from east and west terminated in a centralized location, was the largest in the world at the time of its construction.;
 
38.68055556, -121.1755556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Folsom Hydroelectric Power System, 1895 ~
 
The Folsom Hydroelectric Power System was the second system in the U.S. to provide long–distance, high voltage, three-phase transmission for significant municipal and industrial multi-purpose power use. (The first was Mill Creek No. 1, near Redlands, CA, which was completed two years earlier, but the original generators no longer exist);
 
-31.95666667, 116.165 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Goldfields Water Supply, 1895-1903 ~
 
The Goldfields Water Supply scheme was the world’s longest fresh water pipeline when built and the first to be fabricated from steel.;
 
40.7, -75.2 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Northampton Street Bridge, 1896 ~
 
The Northampton Street Bridge is the sole existing through-type cantilever eyebar bridge in the United States to serve only highway traffic.;
 
42.35638889, -71.06305556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Boston Subway, 1897 ~
 
As the first subway in North America and an engineering innovation, the Boston Subway became the prototype for other urban mass transit subway systems in the United States.;
 
47.7425, -121.0694444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Stevens Pass Railroad Tunnels, 1897 - 1929 ~
 
The first and second Cascade Tunnels and the switchbacks carried the Great Northern Railroad trains over the Stevens Pass since 1892. John F. Stevens was made chief engineer of the Great Northern in 1895 and supervised construction of the Cascade Tunnels. The second Cascade Tunnel was the longest tunnel in the Western Hemisphere from 1929 to 1989.;
 
-33.97638889, 18.40222222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Woodhead Dam, 1897 ~
 
The Woodhead Dam was the first large masonry dam in South Africa.  A regional water system with a major reservoir was a bold venture requiring difficult construction in a remote area. Innovative techniques, including an aerial cableway to carry materials, were needed.  The dam's successful completion paved the way for sister dams that continue to supply water to Cape Town and its environs.;
 
47.54192, -121.83685 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Snoqualmie Falls Cavity Generating Station, 1899 ~
 
The concept of an underground hydroelectric station was first successfully achieved at the Snoqualmie Falls Cavity Generating Station. This innovation has since been applied successfully in many other sites throughout the world. ;
 
44.9425, -93.34527778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Peavy-Haglin Concrete Grain Elevator, 1900 ~
 
When completed, the Peavey-Haglin Concrete Grain Elevator was the first circular concrete grain elevator constructed in North America and the prototype of those ubiquitous structures that hold the country’s wheat harvest. ;
 
59.45833333, -135.3125 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - White Pass and Yukon Railroad, 1900 ~
 
American and Canadian engineers constructed the White Pass and Yukon Railroad, extending from Skagway, Alaska, to White Horse, Yukon Territory, in only 27 months, representing the first cold region engineered construction in Alaska.;
 
39.95224722, -75.16389444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Philadelphia City Hall, 1901 ~
 
Philadelphia City Hall was the world's tallest occupied structure and the nation's largest municipal government building when completed.  Its load-bearing masonry construction is unique for a building of this size.;
 
38.56722222, -86.61805556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - West Baden Springs Hotel, 1901 ~
 
At the time of its completion, the West Baden Springs Hotel was the largest domed structure in the world. The dome diameter of 200 feet was not surpassed for more than 60 years.;
 
46.49743, -84.33213 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Sault Ste. Marie Hydroelectric Power complex, 1902 ~
 
When completed, the Sault Ste. Marie Hydroelectric Power Complex was the largest low-head facility in the United States, with a canal that carried 30,000 cubic feet per second. ;
 
41.91666667, -87.66666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Courtland Street Drawbridge, 1902 ~
 
The Cortland Street Drawbridge, a trunnion-bascule highway bridge, was the first of its kind and became the model for this type of urban transportation structure;
 
40.3334, -76.9103 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Rockville Stone Arch Bridge, 1902 ~
 
When opened, the Rockville Stone Arch Bridge represented the zenith of American stone arch construction. This span is one of the longest (3,820 feet) and widest (52 feet) multiple stone arch bridges in the world.;
 
47.60972222, -122.3330556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cedar Falls Water Supply, 1902-1905 ~
 
The Cedar Falls Water Supply was the first municipally owned hydroelectric project in the United Sates, and the forerunner of the public power movement.;
 
39.10027778, -84.5125 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Ingalls Building, 1903 ~
 
The Ingalls Building was the first reinforced concrete skyscraper in the world.;
 
40.75, -73.95 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Williamsburg Bridge, 1903 ~
 
The Williamsburg Bridge's 1,600-foot main span was the longest in the world from 1903 until 1924. With 40-foot deep stiffening trusses, it was the first suspension bridge over 1,000 feet to have steel towers.;
 
40.71277778, -74.00583333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - First New York Subway, 1904 ~
 
New York City built the first major rapid transit subway system in the United States.;
 
29.28333333, -94.78333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Galveston Seawall and Grade Raising Project, 1904 & 1911 ~
 
Using pioneering materials and methods, civil engineers designed and built a concrete seawall on Galveston Island and raised the island’s elevation to prevent future natural disasters such as the 1900 hurricane in which 6,000 people were lost.;
 
9.08, -79.68 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Panama Canal, 1904-1914 ~
 
Originally undertaken by the French and then redesigned and constructed by American engineers, the Panama Canal is one of the greatest sea-to-sea lock canals of all time. ;
 
39.20750833, -105.2722361 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cheesman Dam, 1905 ~
 
When completed, the Cheesman Dam was the world’s highest gravity stone arch masonry dam.;
 
-17.93333333, 25.85 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Victoria Falls Bridge, 1905 ~
 
The Victoria Falls Bridge is a 152-meter span, steel-lattice, two-hinged arch bridge with a deck level 122 m above the Zambezi River and is situated just downstream from Victoria Falls in a site of unsurpassed grandeur. ;
 
43.03361111, -87.90888889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Marshall Building, 1906 ~
 
The Marshall Building’s structure is the oldest extant example of the “mushroom” flat-slab system developed by reinforced concrete construction pioneer Claude A.P. Turner. The technique transformed the design and construction of reinforced concrete floors worldwide.;
 
36.975678, -118.210541 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - First Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct, 1907-1913 ~
 
Unprecedented in size and scope at the time of its completion, the First Owens River-L.A. Aqueduct system was the prototype for the extensive water supply systems needed to support the major urban complexes of today.;
 
34.312860, -118.492988 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - First Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct, 1907-1913 ~
 
Unprecedented in size and scope at the time of its completion, the First Owens River-L.A. Aqueduct system was the prototype for the extensive water supply systems needed to support the major urban complexes of today.;
 
55.89733333, -4.408733333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Titan Crane, 1907 ~
 
When tested with a 160-ton load at a radius of 85 ft [26 m] and then commissioned, this 164 ft [50 m] high crane became the largest of the hammerhead type.  The Titan Crane’s fixed counterweight and electrically operated hoists also made this crane faster and more responsive than its steam-powered predecessors. It influenced the design of cranes of this genre worldwide and is now the earliest survivor.;
 
40.712, -74.012 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hudson and Manhattan RR Tunnel, 1908 ~
 
The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Tunnel was the first railroad tunnel under a major river in the country and introduced a shield-system of subaqueous tunneling to the United States. ;
 
-41.28888889, 174.7772222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - North Island Main Trunk Railway, 1908 ~
 
Built under challenging conditions and over difficult terrain, the North Island Main Trunk Railway linked Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand, permitting overland travel and development of the hinterland.;
 
46.93888889, -97.99472222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Northern Pacific High Line Bridge No. 64, 1908 ~
 
The Northern Pacific High Line Bridge No. 64, a steel viaduct across the Sheyenne River Valley, allowed the railroad to avoid steep grades. At 3886 feet (1184 meters) long and 155 feet (47 meters) high, the structure is an excellent example of this bridge type.;
 
38.49333333, -107.7213889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Gunnison Tunnel, 1909 ~
 
The Gunnison Tunnel was the longest irrigation tunnel in America and was the key to the first major trans-mountain irrigation system in the United States.;
 
42.7887, -73.67386667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Waterford Bridge, 1909 ~
 
The original wooden Union Bridge, built in 1804, was the first to cross the lower Hudson River and lasted for 105 years until it burned down in 1909 when it was replaced by the existing steel bridge. Built on the same piers, the new steel truss bridge continues the more than 200 years of service to the area.;
 
40.75, -73.95 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Manhattan Bridge, 1909 ~
 
Considered to be the first modern suspension bridge, the Manhattan Bridge was the earliest to use slender "two dimensional" steel towers with shallow stiffening trusses. The Manhattan Bridge was the world's third longest from 1909 to 1924. ;
 
40.75, -73.95 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Queensboro Bridge, 1909 ~
 
The Queensboro Bridge was the longest cantilever span in North America (1,182 feet) from 1909 until the Quebec Bridge opened in 1917 and the longest in the United States until 1930;
 
41.76420278, -70.56841111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cape Cod Canal, 1909-1914 ~
 
Without the use of locks, the sea-level, 17-mile Cape Cod Canal was designed to successfully cope with a tidal differential of 4.5 feet coupled with a three-hour out-of-phase tidal cycle.;
 
44.50166667, -109.1841667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Buffalo Bill Dam, 1910 ~
 
When completed, the Buffalo Bill Dam was the highest in the world, and the only one with a height/width ratio greater than one.;
 
42.36277778, -71.10777778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Charles River Basin Project, 1910 ~
 
A pioneering environmental engineering project, the Charles River Basin Project converted 675 acres of estuarial muck into a freshwater basin of beauty and recreational value and has served as an international model in environmental engineering, landscape architecture, and urban planning.;
 
40.6, -75.38333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Fritz Engineering Laboratory, 1910 ~
 
When constructed, the Fritz Engineering Laboratory at Lehigh University was the largest and best-equipped university structural laboratory in the United States, serving as a prototype for subsequent university and research laboratories.;
 
39.11666667, -94.57944444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Armour-Swift-Burlington Bridge, 1911 ~
 
The Armour-Swift-Burlington Bridge is a unique, telescoping vertical-lift, steel-truss bridge that spans the Missouri River at Kansas City and is representative of the innovative moveable bridges designed by leading bridge engineer John Alexander Low Waddell.;
 
44.75, -103.6666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Belle Fourche Dam, 1911 ~
 
The Belle Fourche Dam was the largest homogeneous rolled-earth fill dam in the world when completed in 1911.;
 
33.67166667, -111.1611111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Theodore Roosevelt Dam & Salt River Project , 1911 ~
 
The Theodore Roosevelt Dam & Salt River Project was the first project of the Bureau of Reclamation and the first multipurpose (irrigation, river regulation, power generation and recreation) project in the United States;
 
45.533333, -122.383333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Columbia (Old) River Scenic Highway, 1913 - 1922 ~
 
The Columbia River Scenic Highway is an outstanding example of civil engineering, which blended 74 miles of roadways, tunnels, viaducts, and overlooks into the natural environment harmoniously.;
 
45.633333, -121.216667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Columbia (Old) River Scenic Highway, 1913 - 1922 ~
 
The Columbia River Scenic Highway is an outstanding example of civil engineering, which blended 74 miles of roadways, tunnels, viaducts, and overlooks into the natural environment harmoniously.;
 
40.75277778, -73.97722222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Grand Central Terminal, 1913 ~
 
Constructed under challenging conditions with no interruption of existing train service, Grand Central Terminal was a triumph of innovative engineering in the design of urban transportation centers.  Its novel, two-level station, made possible by electric traction, streamlined both train and passenger movement by separating long-haul and suburban traffic and employing an extensive system of pedestrian ramps throughout the facility.;
 
40.39888889, -91.36222222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Keokuk Dam & Power Plant Project, 1913 ~
 
At the time, the Keokuk Dam & Power Plant project incorporated the longest monolithic concrete dam in the world and was a pioneering effort in large-scale, low-head hydroelectric power.;
 
29.70833333, -95.005 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Houston Ship Channel, 1914 ~
 
Under continuous development since the original construction, the Houston Ship Channel is directly linked to hundreds of transportation facilities, industrial plants, and other enterprises that use the channel to ship products to markets throughout the world.;
 
43.31666667, -74.13333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Flight of Five Locks, 1915 ~
 
When opened, the Flight of Five Locks represented the greatest series of high lift locks in the shortest distance of any canal in the United State.;
 
39.09972222, -94.57833333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Kansas City Park and Boulevard System, 1915 ~
 
The Kansas City Park & Boulevard System, a pioneer project, was among the first to integrate the aesthetics of landscape architecture with the practicality of city planning, stimulating other metropolitan areas to undertake similar projects.;
 
41.62222222, -75.77722222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tunkhannock Viaduct, 1915 ~
 
When built, the Tunkhannock Viaduct, a reinforced concrete structure, was the largest of its kind.;
 
33.15396883, -107.192113 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Elephant Butte Dam, 1916 ~
 
The Elephant Butte Dam created the largest reservoir in the world at that time and was the first civil engineering water project associated with the international allocation of water.;
 
46.75, -71.28333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Quebec Bridge, 1917 ~
 
At the time of construction, the Quebec Bridge was the longest span (549 meters) cantilever bridge in the world. ;
 
47.66555556, -122.3958333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lake Washington Ship Canal & Hiram M Chittenden Locks, 1917 ~
 
The Hiram M. Chittenden Locks, the largest and most heavily used locks on the West Coast, incorporated unique, parallel dual-sized lock chambers for water conservation and preventive measures to reduce salt water intrusion into Lake Washington.;
 
39.75944444, -84.19166667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Miami Conservancy District , 1918 - 1922 ~
 
The Miami Conservancy District project was the first regionally coordinated flood control system in the United States that employed retention reservoirs for controlled release of floodwaters. Since its completion, the protected Miami Valley has not been damaged by flooding.;
 
29.34361111, -98.44388889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Brooks AFB, Old Hanger 9, 1919 ~
 
Out of 16 hangars and support facilities of the Brooks Air Force Field, Old Hangar 9 is the only one still standing from this WWI era training camp.;
 
41.65, -91.53333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hydraulics Laboratory at the University of Iowa, 1919 ~
 
The University of Iowa Hydraulics Laboratory is the oldest such university-based facility in the U.S. that has continuously focused on research and education in hydraulic engineering.;
 
43.017900, -87.898600 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewage Treatment Plant, 1919 - 1925 ~
 
The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewage Treatment Plant is America’s earliest large-scale activated sludge type municipal sewage treatment plant – a major improvement on contemporary methods.;
 
43.81666667, -99.33333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Missouri River Bridges, 1920 - 1927 ~
 
These Missouri River bridges were the first bridges to be built to provide permanent crossings for automobile traffic and thereby improve inter- and intra-state commerce. ;
 
38.61666667, -90.26666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - River des Peres Sewage & Drainage Works, 1924 - 1931 ~
 
The River des Peres Sewage & Drainage Works, a 13-mile system of sanitary trunk sewers and drainage channels, was the largest undertaking of its kind when completed between 1924 and 1931.  ;
 
41.41166667, -81.84972222 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Cleveland Hopkins Airport, 1925 ~
 
The Cleveland Hopkins Airport is the first major municipal airport to provide an integrated engineered system of paved landing surfaces, floodlit runways, and a terminal complex consisting of both operational buildings and hangars.;
 
40.85, -73.95 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Holland Tunnel, 1927 ~
 
The Holland Tunnel, a twin-tube subaqueous highway tunnel with its unprecedented length of 8,500 feet, was a bold step forward in navigable waterway crossings.;
 
39.90222222, -105.6461111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Moffat Tunnel, 1927 ~
 
The 6.2 mile Moffat Tunnel in the Rocky Mountains was not only the largest railroad tunnel in the Western Hemisphere when completed, but it also demonstrated new tunnel construction techniques and the innovative concept of using its pilot bore later as a permanent aqueduct.;
 
43.74938889, -69.9885 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bailey Island Bridge, 1928 ~
 
The Bailey Island Bridge was an innovative split-stone open crib construction that carries the concrete deck that bridges the navigation channel without impeding tidal flow.;
 
40.6925, -74.16861111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Newark Airport, 1928 ~
 
The Newark Airport, a pioneering major airport with its 1,600-foot runway, was one of the first hard surfaced runways to be constructed at any municipal airport in the United States and, as such, it served as prototype for today’s modern airport runways.;
 
41.03194444, -81.47083333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Goodyear Airdock, 1929 ~
 
The Goodyear Airdock, a unique structure with a volume of 55,000,000 cubic feet, was at the time the largest building in the world in terms of uninterrupted space. ;
 
36.81722222, -111.6313889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Navajo Bridge, 1929 ~
 
At the time of its construction, the Navajo Bridge was the highest steel arch bridge in the United States, and for the next 66 years it served as the only crossing of the Colorado River for 600 miles. ;
 
30.35666667, -74.43638889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Atlantic City Municipal Convention Center, 1929 ~
 
When completed, the Atlantic City Convention Hall was the world’s largest auditorium and the greatest permanent-span three-hinged roof arch system ever built.;
 
41.58333333, -73.4 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydraulic Plant, 1929 ~
 
The Rocky River Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Plant was the first major pumped storage hydroelectric project in the United States. ;
 
29.41666667, -98.5 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - San Antonio River Walk & Flood Control system, 1929 - 1941 ~
 
The San Antonio River Walk & Flood Control system has proven extremely successful in controlling San Antonio’s devastating urban flooding problem. In addition, the engineering design pioneered the sensitive and effective blending of architectural, historical, environmental and urban development needs.;
 
52.70555556, -8.612777778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Shannon Hydroelectric Scheme, 1929 ~
 
By international standards, the Shannon Hydroelectric Scheme for the electrification of the Irish Free State was one of the largest civil engineering projects at the time it was built;
 
29.75833333, -95.36388889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Texas Commerce Bank Building, 1929 ~
 
The Texas Commerce Building (now Chase) was the tallest building west of the Mississippi River until 1962. With Dr. Karl Terzaghi as consultant, this building represents one of the first applications of the new field of soil mechanics to foundation design and building settlement on a clay soil.;
 
32.28472222, -90.86388889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterway Exp Ctr, 1929 ~
 
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station was the first federal hydraulics research facility and is now the Corps’ largest engineering and scientific research facility. ;
 
40.02888889, -76.51694444 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge, 1930 ~
 
When completed, the Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge was the longest multiple-arch concrete highway bridge (one-mile) in the world. ;
 
42.32450278, -83.04005278 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, 1930 ~
 
When constructed, the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, a subaqueous single tube highway tunnel, was an exceptional engineering achievement using three distinct tunneling techniques. It was also the first use of arc welding in tunneling history.;
 
46.98181944, 9.717725 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Salginatobel Bridge, 1930 ~
 
Designed by Robert Maillart, the Salginatobel Bridge represents a major innovation of structural type – the three-hinged, hollow-bow arch of reinforced concrete – using a new method of staged-arch construction. ;
 
36.26666667, -90.54166667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - White River Concrete Arch Bridge, 1930 ~
 
When completed, the White River Concrete Arch Bridge included the first major use of a cableway in association with lattice steel ribs that acted as reinforcement and precluded the need for conventional centering.;
 
37.21666667, -112.9666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Zion Mt. Carmel Tunnel & Hwy, 1930 ~
 
The Zion Mt. Carmel Tunnel and Highway includes the longest vehicular tunnel in the National Park system (5,613 ft), which was blasted through the towering sandstone cliffs above Pine Creek Canyon.  Construction of the tunnel and highway required extraordinary access through cliff-face galleries for blasting and excavation.;
 
40.64222222, -74.1425 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bayonne Bridge, 1931 ~
 
At the time of completion, the steel arch Bayonne Bridge was the greatest span (1675 feet) of its type in the world.;
 
40.85, -73.95 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - George Washington Bridge, 1931 ~
 
The George Washington Bridge, a 3,500-foot center span suspension bridge, was virtually double the span of its largest predecessor.;
 
44.560692, -68.801966 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Waldo-Hancock Suspension Bridge, 1931 ~
 
The Waldo-Hancock Suspension Bridge was the first bridge to make use of the Vierendeel truss in its two towers, giving it an effect that David Steinman called “artistic, emphasizing horizontal and vertical lines.";
 
42.43333333, -124.4166667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Rogue River Bridge, 1931 ~
 
The Rogue River Bridge, a seven-span arch bridge, was the first major structure in America to use the concept of the pre-stressed concrete arch. ;
 
48.6950, -113.8169 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Going -To-The-Sun Road, 1932 ~
 
When completed, the Going-to-the-Sun Road was the first major trans-mountain scenic highway in the United States.;
 
-33.85222222, 151.2105556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Sydney Harbour Bridge, 1932 ~
 
A steel through-arch, multi-modal structure, the Sydney Harbour Bridge was the second longest span (503 m) of its type when completed. The bridge is now an international symbol of Australia and her engineering achievements.;
 
52.83333333, 5.333333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Zuiderzee Enclosure Dam, 1932 ~
 
The Zuiderzee Enclosure Dam has successfully barred the sea for over 50 years. The structure protects a large area north of Amsterdam, allowing construction of polders to claim these areas of land from the sea.;
 
34.289984, -114.172094 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Colorado River Aqueduct, 1933-1941 ~
 
The 242-mile Colorado River aqueduct provided the water that made the large scale population and economic growth of Southern California possible.;
 
36.01555556, -114.7377778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hoover Dam, 1935 ~
 
The Hoover Dam, a 726-foot high-arch gravity structure, was the greatest constructed project at that time and remains one of the highest concrete dams in the Western Hemisphere. ;
 
29.94416667, -90.16888889 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Huey P. Long Bridge, 1935 ~
 
The Huey P. Long Bridge was the first bridge to span the Mississippi River at New Orleans.  The dual-track railroad portion, with its  total  length  of  22,995  feet, was the longest, high-level railroad bridge  in  the  world  at  the  time.;
 
-34.6, -58.4 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Kavanagh Building, 1935 ~
 
The Kavanagh Building, 31-stories high and complete with central air conditioning and advanced technology, was one of the first reinforced concrete skyscrapers in the world when opened.;
 
36.22639722, -84.08690833 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Norris Dam, 1936 ~
 
The Norris Dam was the first of a series of dams designed and built to put the vast water resources of the Tennessee River System to work for the people of the region. The completion of the dam was a significant step in turning the destructive power of the Tennessee River into a resource for economic and social progress.;
 
37.81666667, -122.3666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, 1936 ~
 
The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge was the longest crossing over water and most costly bridge of its time. Construction was possible due to the use of compressed-air flotation caissons. ;
 
40.79527778, -73.92027778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Triborough Bridge Project, 1936 ~
 
The Triborough Bridge Project, a three and a half mile, three-branched waterway crossing, is comprised of a major suspension bridge, a large vertical lift span, a fixed span designed to be convertible to a lift span, a long viaduct, and an innovative three-legged roadway interchange. It is  an early example of the complete planning and development of a major transportation project in an urban environment.;
 
36.51861111, -80.93583333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Blue Ridge Parkway, 1937 ~
 
Begun in 1935, the 469-mile Blue Ridge Parkway was, at the time, the longest road ever planned as a single unit in the United States.;
 
45.64416667, -121.9405556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Bonneville Dam, Columbia River Power & Nav System, 1937 ~
 
The Bonneville Dam was the first Federal dam of 55 major hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River. The array constitutes one of the largest hydroelectric systems in the world.;
 
37.78333333, -122.4666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Golden Gate Bridge, 1937 ~
 
The Golden Gate Bridge, a world-renowned bridge, was the longest single span (4,200 feet) in the world at the time of construction.;
 
29.75, -95.08333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - San Jacinto Monument, 1939 ~
 
The San Jacinto Monument was the world’s tallest free-standing concrete tower at the time of construction. The precise monitoring of foundation settlement provided data for testing Dr. Karl Terzaghi’s consolidation theory, a fundamental component of soil mechanics.;
 
34.1, -118.2 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Arroyo Seco Parkway, 1940 ~
 
The 6.7-mile Arroyo Seco Parkway was the first freeway in the United States to be built as a state highway and the first freeway west of the Mississippi.;
 
48, -106.4333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Fort Peck Dam, 1940 ~
 
The Fort Peck Dam was more than five times larger than the largest dam in the world at the time, with its crest extending four miles.;
 
47.58988, -122.27031 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lacey V. Murrow Bridge and Mount Baker Ridge Tunnels, 1940 ~
 
When completed in 1940, the Lacey V Murrow Bridge & Mt Baker Ridge Tunnels constituted the world’s first reinforced concrete floating bridge – the largest floating structure ever built – and the largest diameter soft-earth tunnels.;
 
47.590278, -122.298611 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lacey V. Murrow Bridge and Mount Baker Ridge Tunnels, 1940 ~
 
When completed in 1940, the Lacey V Murrow Bridge & Mt Baker Ridge Tunnels constituted the world’s first reinforced concrete floating bridge – the largest floating structure ever built – and the largest diameter soft-earth tunnels.;
 
40.316667, -79.683333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Pennsylvania Tunpike (Old Section), 1940 ~
 
When completed, the original section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike was the greatest single highway project in the history of the United States. It was the prototype of the modern American high-speed, limited access superhighway that became a world standard for long distance highway travel.;
 
40.233333, -77.15 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Pennsylvania Tunpike (Old Section), 1940 ~
 
When completed, the original section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike was the greatest single highway project in the history of the United States. It was the prototype of the modern American high-speed, limited access superhighway that became a world standard for long distance highway travel.;
 
47.26666667, -122.55 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tacoma Narrows Bridges, 1940 ~
 
Taken together, the 1940 and 1950 Tacoma Narrows bridges represent both tragedy and triumph for civil engineers. The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge failed dramatically in a windstorm on November 7, 1940, four months after opening.  The lessons in aerodynamics learned from this failure generated new knowledge necessary to build safe, efficient, and stable suspension bridges worldwide.;
 
47.46666667, -119 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Grand Coulee Dam, 1941 ~
 
The Grand Coulee Dam, a concrete gravity dam, is the largest concrete structure and hydroelectric facility in the United States. ;
 
55.73333333, -120.2166667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Alaska Highway, 1942 ~
 
Built in just eight months, the 2500 km (1570 miles) Alaska Highway was a significant feat of time-critical engineering and construction. Besides being completed much sooner than expected, it was the largest undertaking at the time for a cold-regions construction project.;
 
33.70666667, -117.8216667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Blimp Hangars, 1942-1943 ~
 
The blimp hangars in California remain the largest clear span wooden structures in the world.;
 
33.91666667, -96.56666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Denison Dam, 1943 ~
 
The Denison Dam was the largest rolled-earth fill dam in the United States when it was constructed from 1939 to 1943.;
 
21.37404167, -157.8938556 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility, 1943 ~
 
Buried under 100 feet of volcanic rock, the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility, a complex of 20 fuel tanks, was innovatively designed and constructed. This system provided fuel for United States forces during the latter half of World War II and for the 50 years that followed. ;
 
46.63027778, -119.6475 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Hanford B Reactor, 1944 ~
 
Designed and built as a part of the Manhattan Project during World War II, the Hanford B Reactor was the world’s first full scale nuclear production facility.;
 
37.01305556, -88.26916667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Kentucky Dam, 1944 ~
 
The Kentucky Dam, at mile 22.4 on the Tennessee River, is the key structure in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system and continues to play an important role in the reduction of flood crests on the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.;
 
43.25, -70.75 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Maine Turnpike, 1947 ~
 
The first superhighway in New England and the second modern toll highway in the United States, the Maine Turnpike was the first major modern highway to be built without any state or federal funding.;
 
43.666667, -70.333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Maine Turnpike, 1947 ~
 
The first superhighway in New England and the second modern toll highway in the United States, the Maine Turnpike was the first major modern highway to be built without any state or federal funding.;
 
-36.12, 148.6 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Snowy Mountains Hydo-electric Scheme, 1947-1972 ~
 
The Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme is a world class civil engineering project that provides vital electric power and irrigation water. Its construction remains the largest construction project in Australia, and one of the largest of its type in the world.;
 
47.26666667, -122.55 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Tacoma Narrows Bridges, 1950 ~
 
Taken together, the 1940 and 1950 Tacoma Narrows bridges represent both tragedy and triumph for civil engineers. The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge failed dramatically in a windstorm on November 7, 1940, four months after opening.  The lessons in aerodynamics learned from this failure generated new knowledge necessary to build safe, efficient, and stable suspension bridges worldwide.;
 
35.8, -78.71666667 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Dorton Arena, 1952 ~
 
The Dorton Arena was the first permanent use of a cable-supported roof system in the world;
 
45.6125, -121.1311111 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - The Dalles Lock and Dam, 1952 - 1956 ~
 
The Dalles Lock and Dam was one of the largest, most complete, and complex multipurpose projects of its kind in the united states at the time of its construction.  It provided an example for future projects benefitting navigation, recreation, water for irrigation and hydropower, fish migration, and flood mitigation.  The unusual "L" configuration of the project enabled reduced construction dewatering and created a permanent shallow stilling basin that aids fish passage.;
 
30.19972222, -90.12277778 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Lake Pontchartrain Causeway bridge, 1956 ~
 
In building the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge, which took just fourteen months, assembly-line, mass-production methods were utilized for the first time in the construction of a bridge.;
 
45.8166, -84.7277 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Mackinac Bridge, 1957 ~
 
Representing a new level of aerodynamic stability in suspension bridges for its time, the Mackinac Bridge was the first suspension bridge to incorporate specific design features to manage the forces imposed on it by winds. ;
 
43.105, -75.23333333 ~
 
ASCE Landmark - Utica Memorail Auditorium, 1959 ~
 
The Utica Memorial Auditorium was among the first of three cable-suspended roofs in the world and the first to employ a double-layer bicycle roof system where cables are strung from an exterior compression ring to an interior tension ring held in midair.|height=650|zoom=1|static=no|center=39.948849, -75.147622}}
 

Latest revision as of 20:36, 16 May 2016

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