IEEE History Center
Creation and First Decade of the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering, 1980-1989
Since the formation of IEEE in 1963 there has been a standing History Committee responsible for promoting the collection, writing and dissemination of historical information in the fields covered by IEEE technical and professional activities, as well as historical information about the IEEE and its predecessor organizations.
In 1979, the IEEE Board of Directors endorsed the concept of a professionally staffed history center to support the work of the IEEE History Committee and allocated funds, and in 1980, the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering was established in the New York offices of the IEEE. For most of the first decade, the Center staff consisted of a director, an archivist or curator, and a part-time research assistant. The first director was Dr. Robert Friedel, and Dr. Ronald Kline succeeded him in 1984. These individuals and their staffs laid the groundwork for the Center, establishing it as a leading resource for electrical history.
The Center undertook many projects during its first decade. Most notable, perhaps, were three exhibits that circulated nationally: the first on Faraday and Maxwell, the second on the IEEE Centennial, and the third on Edison and the electric light. In addition, the Center collaborated on exhibits with the Smithsonian and other institutions. Perhaps most importantly the Center established the IEEE Milestones Program, overseen by the History Committee, wherein IEEE Sections could have recognized and publicized engineering achievements within their geographical area.
Move to Rutgers and Program Expansion, 1989-1997
At the end of the decade, the History Committee determined that the Center should become a place where considerable historical research would be carried out. This decision was heavily influenced by a report prepared for the Committee by historian Terry Reynolds. In order to better carry out research, the Center moved in 1990 to the campus of Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. This move was carried out under the leadership of the Center's third director, Dr. Bill Aspray, who had been hired in 1989.
With University support added to IEEE support, the Center was able to expand to a staff of three permanent Ph.D. historians, a rotating post-doc, a curator, a research assistant, and four (later six) Rutgers graduate-students working part-time as research assistants. Dr. Frederik Nebeker joined the staff in 1990 as Research Historian. He was later promoted to Senior Research Historian.
Center staff carried out and published research projects on the National Science Foundation's role in the development of computing, the impact of the computer on meteorology, the history of the electric trolley, the history of radar, and many other topics. Oral history became a major activity; the Center conducted more than 200 interviews in this period. The interviews were transcribed, edited, and made available to researchers. The Center started a series of international conferences on the history of technology with conferences in 1991 in New Jersey on Technological Competitiveness; in 1995 on the history of Electrical Engineering in Williamstown, Massachusetts; and in 1997 in Williamsburg, VA, on the history of computing. Long-term cooperation was begun with sister groups, such as the History Committee of the IEEJ (Japan’s counterpart to the IEEE).
=== New Director, Emphasis, and Name: IEEE History Center, 1997-2013 ===
In 1997, Dr. Michael Geselowitz became the Center's Staff Director. With the guidance of the History Committee, the Center embarked on a new phase, characterized by an increased emphasis on reaching out to engineers, to public-policy makers, to public-school teachers, and to a fourth, sometimes overlooked group of people concerned with electrical history--amateur historians and collectors. Shortly thereafter, the Center acquired a new name, the IEEE History Center. It more accurately described the scope of the Center’s activities. In 1998 Geselowitz, Nebeker, and the post-doc were joined in these efforts by Robert Colburn as Research Coordinator, as well as by an archivist/web manager. Projects carried out by this team include a major overhaul of the Center’s web site; several IEEE Society histories; teaching and participating in the intellectual activity at Rutgers University; a workshop with the IEEJ in 2000; the Going Digital web history project sponsored by the Sloan Foundation; and two more international conferences (1999 in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, on women and technology; 2001 in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, on the history of telecommunications).
The Center also began a more concerted effort to promote awareness of history to the IEEE membership beginning features in many IEEE publications, including a series of special millennium articles in Proceedings of the IEEE, a regular column in The Institute, occasional special articles for IEEE Spectrum, and regular e-features for Spectrum and Today’s Engineer. In 2000, the History Center also increased its public outreach with the introduction of an entirely new web-based program, the IEEE Virtual Museum. This program was discontinued in 2008, and most of its articles were migrated to the IEEE Global History Network website, and then to the Engineering Technology and History Wiki.
In 2003, the History Center staff was responsible for Philosophy Hall at Columbia University in New York being named a U.S. National Historic Landmark (this is the building where Edwin Armstrong, winner of the first IEEE Medal of Honor in 1919, when it was the IRE, did most of his pioneering radio work). The Center also worked on a special project to copy to DVD and make accessible some very important privately held video interviews with computer pioneers. In 2004, the Center held its conference at Bletchley Park, Milton Keynes, England on the history of electronics.
Perhaps most importantly, the Milestones Program passed its own Milestone in 2004, as the 50th Milestone was dedicated and IEEE Region 9—the last Region without a Milestone—received two recognitions. By 2010, the number of milestones had passed 100. In addition, the Center conducted institutional history research projects with Eta Kappa Nu and with the Marconi Fellowship Foundation at Columbia University.
In 2006 and 2007, the History Center was involved in numerous special projects, including Society anniversaries and lectures. The oral history program began videotaping interviews. The IEEE Milestones Program--now with more than 80 Milestones--continued to grow at a record pace. In 2007, the Center held its biennial conference, at New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark, N.J., U.S.A, on the history of electric power. In 2008, John Vardalas, who had started at the Center as a post-doctoral fellow, was promoted to Outreach Historian, and Dr. Sheldon Hochheiser joined the center as Institutional Historian and Archivist.
Beginning in 2008, a major focus of the Center’s activity became building a new wiki-based website for bringing the history of IEEE’s fields of interests to both IEEE Members and the public, the IEEE Global History Network (GHN). The GHN went live late in 2008. While anyone can access the GHN, only IEEE members and staff, and other registered users can add and edit material. To oversee the GHN, Nathan Brewer joined the History Center staff in 2009 as Web Content Administrator. By 2010, the GHN had grown to include thousands of entries, including firsthand accounts by IEEE Members, over 450 oral histories, articles on the history of technology, selected documents from the IEEE Archives, and articles on the history of IEEE and its organizational units.
In 2009, as part of IEEE’s celebration of its 125th anniversary, the History Center undertook two projects. The Center’s conference, held at both Drexel University and the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, had the theme of the history of professional technical societies. The Center conducted oral histories with 23 IEEE Past-Presidents. The Center began a new program, STARS, an online compendium of invited, peer-reviewed articles on the history of major developments in electrical and computer science and technology. STARS articles appeared on the GHN before being reprinted in Proceedings of the IEEE and being transferred to the Engineering and Technology History Wiki. The program was designed to provide recognition to the most important technological trajectories, and thus to complement the Milestone program’s emphasis on specific achievements in specific places. The Center also undertook a pilot program with the Hillsborough, NJ, school district on bringing the history of technology into high school social studies curricula.
In 2010, the History Center processed the Washington DC Section Archives scrapbook, a collection of documents from the fifthieth anniversary of the section, covering 1903 to 1953. The Merger Collection, a comprehensive collection of documents related to the merger of AIEE and IRE in 1963 to form IEEE, was also digitized and added to the GHN. Collecting institutional history pertaining to the IEEE History Center, oral histories were conducted with the previous History Center staff directors.
The IEEE History Center Book Publishing program began in 2011 with the publishing of Bell Labs: Voices of Innovation and an e-book of "US Federal Government and Innovation". The IEEE History Center hosted a screening of LeAnn Erickson's "Top Secret Rosies," a documentary film on the women who worked on the ENIAC, at Rutgers University. Outreach historian John Vardalas began teaching classes at the University of California at Merced, and Senior Historian Rik Nebeker retired after 22 years at the History Center.
Outreach historian Alexander Magoun was hired in 2012, and the History Center staff wrote a series of articles detailing the history of Proceedings of the IEEE. 2012 was the 100th anniversary of the founding of the IRE, and 10 articles, one for each decade of the journal being active, appeared in Proceedings. The History Center held its ninth Historical Conference in conjunction with HISTELCON 2012 in Pavia, Italy. In preparation for her book "Recoding Gender", Janet Abbate conducted 52 oral histories with American and British women in the computing industries and made them available on the Global History Network.
In 2013 the IEEE History Center expanded its book publishing program with the publishing of New York Power, and The Birth of Electric Traction. In an attempt to explore social media, the History Center launched a blog on Tumblr and a Twitter feed. Beginning in 2011 with U-matic tapes, and continuing with 1/4" reel tapes in 2012, the History Center finished digitizing its audiovisual content with two 16mm films produced by Eta Kappa Nu. In conjunction with Rutgers University, the History Center co-sponsored three lectures: Janet Abbate described her research on women’s experiences in programming and computer science from the dawn of the digital age in the 1940s to the late 20th century; Liz Bruton spoke on "Blurred Lines: Interception and secrecy in World War One Telecommunications," and Bernard Carlson lectured on "Method in His Madness: Nikola Tesla and Disruptive Technologies."
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The IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society (EMC-S) celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 2007. Dan Hoolihan headed the EMC-S anniversary committee. The IEEE History Center worked with the Society to research, document, and publicize the history of the Society and the history of its technical field. Ten oral-history interviews, of pioneers in electromagnetic compatibility, were conducted. These interviews were transcribed, edited, and made available on the IEEE Global History Network. Using these interviews, as well as published articles and unpublished materials, staff of the History Center wrote the text of anniversary booklet. Center staff also prepared a small exhibit on the history of the Society and the field; displayed at the IEEE conference center in New Jersey and at the Society's annual meeting in 2007.
The IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society and the IEEE History Center collaborated on a historical project to support the OE Society's 25th Anniversary celebrations leading up to 2008. The IEEE History Center provided a historical article which will be a sequel to Ivan Coggeshall's 1985 article in the IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, to bring the history of the OE society and its technologies up to the present.
The History Center conducted a pilot program of a series of three lectures at a local high school on the importance of science and technology in history. These 9th grade students are bring presented an audio-visually rich presentation in PowerPoint™ format, materials which emphasize the role of technology and engineering at different places in global history that the students cover over the course of a year.
The first lecture - on the role of the magnetic compass and other navigational technologies - was presented in November 2005 by Center Post Doc John Vardalas to great acclaim. Subsequent lectures (in March and May 2006) on the industrial revolution and on the telecommunications revolution of the late 19th century were given by Center Staff Director Dr. Mike Geselowitz and Center Senior Research Historian Dr. Rik Nebeker. In addition to the PowerPoint™ presentations, the Center is leaving behind instructional materials such as glossaries and further references, including tie-ins to the IEEE Global History Network. If the pilot program is successful, it may become possible to create additional lectures, and to distribute them to a broader audience.
The International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) sponsors frequent events in computing history. "Perspectives on Soviet and Russian Computing," held 3-7 July 2006 in Petrozavodsk, Russia, was the first time such an event happened. This historic conference had two phases. The first phase consisted of a discussion on the history of Soviet and Russian computing. The second phase of the conference focused on the future of computing in the region as seen by computing pioneers and by industry and commercial innovators.
Computing in the Soviet Union had faced significant challenges such as rapidly evolving technologies, globalization, changing demographics, and different opportunities associated with schooling and higher education. This conference investigated the transitions that had taken place in the Soviet Union between 1950 and 1990, particularly before the pervasive use of the internet had taken place. Information and communication technology played a significant role not only within the Soviet Union, but also throughout the rest of the world. The conference attempts to view introspectively the current evolving transitions of ICT in the region and explore how these changes might affect the region in the future.
The IEEE History Center was a technical co-sponsor of the Petrozavodsk conference, and Dr. Rik Nebeker, Senior Research Historian presented a paper entitled "The importance of oral history in researching the development of computers". In addition, IFIP held two other conferences on computing history, "History of Computing in Education" [Santiago, Chile, 20-25 August 2006], and "Pioneering Software in the 1960s in the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium" [Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2-4 November 2006].
The Life and Work of Nikola Tesla
On the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of Nikola Tesla's birth and proclamation of 2006 as The Year of Nikola Tesla in Croatia, the Croatian Academy of Engineering is preparing Scientific and Professional Meeting "The Life and Work of Nikola Tesla" took place on June 28-29, 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The Meeting was organized under auspices of the Croatian Parliament and in cooperation with the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Inc., Koncar Group, Inc., Hrvatska elekroprivreda, Inc., Technical Museum Zagreb and Croatian Association of Engineers.
The IEEE History Center is a non-profit organization which relies on your support to preserve, research, and promote the legacy of electrical engineering and computing. To support the Center’s projects – such as the Global History Network, Milestones, and Oral History Collection, please click the "Donate Online" tab at http://www.ieee.org/donate
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