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16-bit Monolithic DAC, 1981 +Texas Instruments, 5411 East Williams Blvd, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A. In early 1982, Burr-Brown Research Corporation, later part of Texas Instruments, Inc., demonstrated a 16-bit monolithic digital-to-analog converter. Coupled with earlier compact disc development by Philips and Sony, it enabled affordable high-quality compact disc players, helped transform music distribution and playback from analog phonograph records to digital compact discs, and ushered in digital media playback.  +
16-bit Monolithic DAC, 1981 +Texas Instruments, 5411 East Williams Blvd, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A. In early 1982, Burr-Brown Research Corporation, later part of Texas Instruments, Inc., demonstrated a 16-bit monolithic digital-to-analog converter. Coupled with earlier compact disc development by Philips and Sony, it enabled affordable high-quality compact disc players, helped transform music distribution and playback from analog phonograph records to digital compact discs, and ushered in digital media playback.  +
19th Century Textile Tools and Machinery Collection +During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, textile manufacture was the catalyst for the Industrial Revolution in America. It was the leading edge in the transformation from an agricultural to a manufacturing economy and started the move of significant numbers of people from rural areas to urban centers. With industrialization came a change in the way people worked. No longer controlled by natural rhythms, the workday demanded a life governed by the factory bell. On the consumer side, industrialization transformed textiles from one of a person's most valuable possessions to a product widely available at incredibly low prices.  +
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20-inch Diameter Photomultiplier Tubes, 1979 - 1987 +The plaque may be viewed at HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K. Electron Tube Division, Toyooka Factory 314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. began developing 20-inch diameter photomultiplier tubes at Toyooka Factory in 1979 for a 3000-ton water-filled Cherenkov particle detector, Kamiokande-II, in response to a request by Professor Masatoshi Koshiba. 1071 PMTs on it collected photons induced in the water by the particles falling on it. Kamiokande-II detected a neutrino burst in the Supernova SN1987A in 1987, earning Professor Koshiba a Nobel Prize in 2002.  +
20-inch Diameter Photomultiplier Tubes, 1979 - 1987 +The plaque may be viewed at HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K. Electron Tube Division, Toyooka Factory 314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. began developing 20-inch diameter photomultiplier tubes at Toyooka Factory in 1979 for a 3000-ton water-filled Cherenkov particle detector, Kamiokande-II, in response to a request by Professor Masatoshi Koshiba. 1071 PMTs on it collected photons induced in the water by the particles falling on it. Kamiokande-II detected a neutrino burst in the Supernova SN1987A in 1987, earning Professor Koshiba a Nobel Prize in 2002.  +
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A .O. Smith Automatic Frame Plant +Built in 1920, the A.O. Smith Corporation's automated automobile frame factory—which took 6 years of labor and $8,000,000 to build—began production May 23, 1921, and operated until June 24, 1958. Known as the " Mechanical Marvel," it achieved a manufacturing output of better than one frame every six seconds, or 10,000 frames a day.  +
A.B. Wood Screw Pump +In the early 20th century, New Orleans, with its water table several feet below ground level, faced a crisis after every heavy rainfall—not just through the flooding that continues to imperil the city today, but also through yellow fever, malaria, and other disease caused by impure water. Drainage in New Orleans meant lifting every inch of rainfall out of the city mechanically and lifting it over protective levees—a process that was never successful until the screw pump was developed by A. Baldwin Wood (1879-1956) in 1912.  +
AAR Railroad-Wheel Dynamometer +An inertia dynamometer is used to test railroad wheels under controlled conditions that can greatly exceed normal service. The dynamometer at the Association of American Railroads (AAR), built in 1955, is the first and only railroad dynamometer to test track wheels using vertical and lateral loads, as well as thermal braking loads, at the wheel rim. It can also test railway car and locomotive axles.  +
ABACUS II Integrated-Circuit Wire Bonder +TI's early ABACUS ("Alloy, Bond, Assembly Concept, Universal System") models remained too costly to build and lacked reliability. The ABACUS II project was begun in late 1971. This all-new automatic wire bonder was to be controlled by the recently announced TI960A computer, a powerful and inexpensive "bit-pusher" process-control computer. By 1972, ABACUS II was on the market as the first practical automated production machine for the assembly of integrated circuits. Using heat and pressure, it bonded fine gold wire to microscopic contacts on the silicon chip and pin connections on the package. The ABACUS II could maintain a positioning accuracy of ± 0.00025 inch while bonding up to 375 devices an hour.  +
AC Electrification of the New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad +On July 24, 1907, the first regular train to be operated under electric power completed a trip from Grand Central to New Rochelle, New York. Electrification was extended to Stamford in October of 1907.  +
ALCOA 50,000-Ton Hydraulic Forging Press +The ALCOA 50,000-ton die-forging press is among the largest fabrication tools in the world. It was designed and built for the U.S. Air Force by the Mesta Machine Company of Pittsburgh, following the discovery a 30,000-ton press used by the Germans in World War II (and later acquired by the Soviet Union).  +
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code +Published in 1914-15, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) was the first comprehensive standard for the design, construction, inspection, and testing of boilers and pressure vessels. With adoption in the United States and use in many countries, it has contributed significantly to public safety and influenced the continued development of boiler and pressure vessel technology.  +
Aberdeen Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground +During the 1930's, research into advanced ballistic measurement techniques began at Aberdeen Proving Ground—the world's first large-scale, fully-instrumented ballistic range producing data on the aerodynamic characteristics of missiles in free flight.  +
Acequias of San Antonio, 1718-1744 +The Acequias of San Antonio represents one of the earliest uses of engineered water supply and irrigation systems in the United States.  +
Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo, 109-110 +The Acquedotto Traiano-Paolo, the original aqueduct built by the Emperor Trajan, circa 110 AD, was a symbol of the advanced infrastructure of ancient Rome. It continues to provide water for the fountains of Rome.  +
Acueduto de Queretaro, 1726-1738 +The Acueducto de Queretaro, one of Mexico’s most important monuments, provided a dependable supply of clean water to the city of Queretaro, Mexico. It is still virtually intact.  +
Acueduto de Segovia, 1 - 99 AD +One of the best preserved Roman constructions,the Roman Aqueduct at Segovia was still in use as recently as the mid-20th century and remains standing only through an equilibrium of forces.  +
Adams Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 1895 +Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1990 - IEEE Buffalo Section. Only the 1895 transformer house,(long, grey-roofed building in center of satellite photo) designed by the famous architects McKim, Mead and White, remains at the original location. The entrance to the first Adams plant has been re-erected in the park on Goats Island (between the falls). When the Adams Plant went into operation on August 26, 1895, it represented a key victory for alternating-current systems over direct-current. The clear advantage of high voltage AC for long distance power transmission and the unprecedented size of the plant (it reached its full capacity of ten 5,000-HP generators in May 1900) influenced the future of the electrical industry worldwide.  +
Adams Hydroelectric Generating Plant, 1895 +Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: June 1990 - IEEE Buffalo Section. Only the 1895 transformer house,(long, grey-roofed building in center of satellite photo) designed by the famous architects McKim, Mead and White, remains at the original location. The entrance to the first Adams plant has been re-erected in the park on Goats Island (between the falls). When the Adams Plant went into operation on August 26, 1895, it represented a key victory for alternating-current systems over direct-current. The clear advantage of high voltage AC for long distance power transmission and the unprecedented size of the plant (it reached its full capacity of ten 5,000-HP generators in May 1900) influenced the future of the electrical industry worldwide.  +
Advanced Engine Test Facility at Marshall +The Advanced Engine Test Facility was built in 1964, three years after President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to world leadership in aeronautical science. Conceived and designed by Wernher von Braun, the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, this facility was used to perform static tests on the booster of the Saturn V rocket, which launched Apollo 11 to the moon on July 16, 1969.  +
Alaska Highway, 1942 +Built in just eight months, the 2500 km (1570 miles) Alaska Highway was a significant feat of time-critical engineering and construction. Besides being completed much sooner than expected, it was the largest undertaking at the time for a cold-regions construction project.  +
Alden Research Laboratory Rotating Boom +In need of a moving test stand for hydraulic experiments and for rating current meters, Professor Charles Metcalf Allen, head of the Alden Hydraulic Laboratory from 1896 to 1950, designed a rotating test boom in 1908.  +
Alexanderson Radio Alternator, 1904 +General Electric Co., 1 River Rd, Building 37, Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: February 1992 - IEEE Schenectady Section. The Alexanderson radio alternator was a high-power, radio-frequency source which provided reliable transoceanic radiotelegraph communication during and after World War I. Ernst F.W. Alexanderson (1878-1975), a General Electric engineer, designed radio alternators with a frequency range to 100 kHz and a power capability from 2 kW to 200 kW. These machines, developed during the period 1904 to 1918, were used in research on high-frequency properties of materials as well as for international communications.  +
Alexanderson Radio Alternator, 1904 +General Electric Co., 1 River Rd, Building 37, Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. Dedication: February 1992 - IEEE Schenectady Section. The Alexanderson radio alternator was a high-power, radio-frequency source which provided reliable transoceanic radiotelegraph communication during and after World War I. Ernst F.W. Alexanderson (1878-1975), a General Electric engineer, designed radio alternators with a frequency range to 100 kHz and a power capability from 2 kW to 200 kW. These machines, developed during the period 1904 to 1918, were used in research on high-frequency properties of materials as well as for international communications.  +
Allegheny Portage Railroad, 1834 +A 36-mile railroad project, the Allegheny Portage RR included the first railroad tunnel in the United States, 10 double-track inclined planes and 4 viaducts.  +