ASME Landmarks

Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmarks are existing artifacts or systems representing a significant mechanical engineering technology. They generally are the oldest extant, last surviving examples typical of a period, or they are machines with some unusual distinction.

The breadth of our mechanical engineering heritage is evident in the landmarks program. Over 250 landmarks have been designated since the program began in 1971.

For more information on the program and the landmarking process, see the ASME Landmark program website.


Pre-industrial Period (Prior to 1760)

Noria al-Muhammadiyya (1361)
Hama, Syria – ASME Landmark #241, Designated on December 22, 2006

The Noria al-Muhammadiyya is the most famous of many norias in Hama. This giant operating noria is unique for both size of 21 meters (69 feet) and age having been built in 763 AH, or 1361 CE. Still in use today, it is a stand-alone water pump raising water from a stream or river and discharging it at a higher elevation. The river that provides the water it raises also serves as its sole source of energy.


Saugus Ironworks (1647)
Saugus, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #7, Designated on June 15, 1975

As the first commercial ironworks in North America, the Saugus Ironworks was an impressive technological achievement for an early colony. The same basic processes are used today: reducing iron oxide with carbon to produce metallic iron that can be cast in a mold, producing wrought iron by puddling cast iron, and fabricating wrought iron with power hammer and rolls.


Newcomen Engine (1712)
Dartmouth, Devon, England – ASME Landmark #70, Designated on September 17, 1981

The unprecedented innovation of the steam-atmospheric engine by Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) of Dartmouth and his assistant John Calley stands at the beginning of the development of practical thermal prime movers in the early years of the eighteenth century. This engine represents the Newcomen line of engines, also known as "fire engines," which employed a vacuum created by condensing steam from a pressure just above atmospheric.


Ringwood Manor Iron Complex (1740)
Ringwood, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #33, Designated on September 30, 1978

The Ringwood Manor Iron Complex was a prominent property in the early development of the U.S. iron industry. The iron mines, furnaces, forges, and stamping mills of the complex supplied many of the needs of the American Revolutionary Army. The Ogdens built the Ringwood Company's first blast furnace in 1742. The second furnace, built in 1762, has two stones that remain on display


Cornwall Iron Furnace (1742)
Cornwall, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #106, Designated on June 8, 1985

When erected by Peter Grubb to smelt the rich iron ore of the nearby ore banks, this stone-built blast furnace was typical for its time, producing about 20 tons of pig-iron and cast-iron products a week. During a major reconstruction from 1856 to 1857, the furnace itself was enlarged, the blast-air bellows were replaced by a pair of wooden cylinder "blowing tubs", the waterwheel was replaced by a 20-horsepower steam engine and a pair of waste-heat boilers to supply the engine was built into the open stack of the furnace.


Old Mill in Nantucket (1746)
Nantucket, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #165, Designated on October 3, 1992

The Old Mill, a smock type of windmill and believed to be the oldest operating windmill in the United States, was built in 1746 by Nathan Wilbur, a Nantucket sailor, who put the methods he had seen on his travels to good use. The mill stands 50 feet high, with four blades 30-feet in length and is the sole survivor of four that once stood along the range of hills west of the town of Nantucket. The long spar and wheel rotate the top of the mill and turn the sails into the wind.

First Industrial Revolution (1760-1840)

Portsmouth-Kittery Naval Shipbuilding Activity (1774)
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #4, Designated on March 22, 1975

In mid-December 1774, American colonists took the Portsmouth-Kittery Port from the British and soon began a fully integrated operation for U.S. warships, which became the Portsmouth-Kittery Naval Shipbuilding Activity. By the end of 1775, Congress authorized thirteen frigates to be ready in three months' time: the frigate Raleigh was launched first. By 1874 the yards had accounted for the construction of over fifty-four ships.


Boulton & Watt Rotative Steam Engine (1785)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia – ASME Landmark #111, Designated on April 17, 1986

James Watt (1736-1819) designed and built engines incorporating many of the mechanical innovations that became steam engine practice such as the separate condenser, parallel motion and centrifugal governor, the sun-and-planet crank motion, and the double-acting cylinder. The oldest surviving rotative engine was built by Boulton and Watt in 1785 for the London Brewery of Samuel Whitbread to drive the malt crushing mill. It is currently house in the Power House Museum in Sydney, Australia


Great Falls Raceway and Power System (1792)
Paterson, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #28, Designated on May 20, 1977

The raceway and power system, constructed from 1792 to 1864, was the first major water power system in the United States. The project, conceived by Alexander Hamilton in 1791 and designed by Pierre Charles L'Enfant, engineer-planner of the Capitol, and Peter Colt is the basis of the oldest American community integrating water power, industrial development, and urban planning.


Springfield Armory (1794)
Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #41, Designated on February 19, 1980

George Washington's concern over standardization of rifles for the Continental Army led to the formation of national armory and to his selection of Springfield as its site. Completed in 1794, the Springfield armory was the first national armory in the United States. It was an outstanding machining center for the design and mass production, employing notable engineers such as Thomas Blanchard, Thomas Warner, and Cyrus Buckland.


Lowell Power Canal System and Pawtucket Gatehouse (1796)
Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #107, Designated on July 1, 1985

It is the first Francis inward-flow water turbine placed in service and the oldest in existence. The Francis turbine, developed from the Howd, is the most widely used water turbine in situations involving medium-head and large-flow rates. This turbine was designed to lift, by means of a belt drive, the ten head gates in the Pawtucket Gatehouse, which control the flow of water from the Merrimack River into the northern canal of the Lowell Hydraulic Canal System.


Brandywine River Powder Mills (1803-1921)
Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #221, Designated on October 9, 2002

The Brandywine River Mills was the largest maker of explosive black powder in the United States. That success resulted directly from the firm's pioneering use of gunpowder processing machinery driven by water wheels and water turbines. Divided into separate buildings to promote safety, its rolling, graining, and glazing mills produced black powder in a range of grades for military, sporting, hunting, construction, mining, and other applications.


Jackson Ferry Shot Tower (1807)
Fort Chiswell, Virginia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #63, Designated on May 9, 1981

This facility was typical of others in the country that made small spherical lead shot for the fowling pieces of frontier settlers. Smelted lead was melted at the top of the tower and poured through a sizing sieve to produce small droplets. Surface tension caused the molted lead to assume a spherical shape that solidified during its 150-foot fall. The shot was then collected in a water-filled kettle at the bottom of the shaft.


Colvin Run Mill (1810)
Great Falls, Virginia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #214, Designated on May 20, 2001

Having received a patent in 1790 for milling improvements, Oliver Evans' ideas of automation revolutionized the milling process using use elevators, moving belts and screw conveyors to make a milling operation more efficient and profitable. Each of the four floors of the building served a specific function in turning the grain into flour or cornmeal. Gravity and waterpower moved grain through the mill. In operation the design of the Colvin Run mill allows the owner to load, convey, sift, grind, separate and dry grain into various desired grades with very little manual labor.


Wilkinson Mill (1810)
Pawtucket, Rhode Island, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #30, Designated on October 12, 1977

The Wilkinson Mill, situated on the west bank of the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, played a critical role in the history of textile technology, in steam power generation, and in the development of the machine tools industry. Three and one-half stories tall and constructed from field stones, it contained a machine shop on the first floor and cotton spinning mill on the upper floors.


Fairmount Water Works (1815)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #21, Designated on March 29, 1977

The Fairmount Water Works was opened on September 7, 1815 to lift water from the Schuylkill River and distribute it through the city's wooden pipes and mains. These water works represented one of the first large-scale application of steam pumping to water service in the country. It was powered by a Boulton and Watt condensing steam engine and a high-pressure engine designed by Oliver Evans.


Kew Bridge Cornish Beam Engines (1820-1869)
Brentford, Middlesex, England – ASME Landmark #194, Designated on July 10, 1997

The Cornish engine was developed to pump water from mines in the early 19th century and some of the finest examples were built for waterworks, like those at Kew Bridge. Cornish engines do not have rotating parts, such as a flywheel, but rather are controlled by piston movement and the opening and closing of valves. Housing five beam engines original to the site, the Kew Bridge museum represent the progressive development of the Cornish-cycle steam engine for waterworks service from 1820 to 1869.


Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Old Main Line (1828)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #32, Designated on April 27, 1978

The development of the railroad engineering concepts and equipment that opened the American West began with the "Old Main Line" in 1828. As the first U.S. railroad in public service, constructed between 1828 and 1830, it began operating between Mount Claire, Baltimore, and Harper's Ferry, West Virginia.
Among many firsts are its use of coal-burning locomotives, T-rail sections, conical wheels, high-pressure steam engines, and iron wheels on passenger cars. Early experiments included those with feedwater heating and superheaters, Charles Grafton Page's electrically operated locomotive, etc.


Nassawango Iron Furnace (1828)
Snow Hill, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #159, Designated on October 19, 1991

This furnace was the focal point of a pre-Industrial Revolution industry town, typical of the hundreds of furnaces that thrived and failed in the 19th century. The furnace was originally built by the Maryland Iron Company to produce pig iron by the cold-blast process. At its height, the furnace began producing pig iron at a rate of 700 tons a year under Thomas Spence of Worcester County.


Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Scoop Wheel & Engines (1829)
Chesapeake City, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #9, Designated on October 25, 1975

As a shortcut between Baltimore and Philadelphia, the Chesapeake and Delaware canal has been a strategic passageway in wartime and in peace. At the summit where canals suffer from lack of water, a steam pump powered scoop wheel was needed to lift at least 200,000 cubic feet of water an hour a distance of 16 feet. The wheel is 39 feet in diameter and 10 feet wide and made of wood and iron. It has 12 buckets or scoops. As the wheel revolved, water scooped into the buckets flowed out lateral discharge openings located near the center of the wheel. It is still in use.


101 St. Charles Avenue Streetcar Line (1835)
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #101, Designated on December 9, 1984

The St. Charles Avenue Streetcar Line is the oldest surviving interurban-urban passenger rail transportation system in the United States. Originally incorporated as the New Orleans Carrollton Rail Road in 1833, service began in 1835. A variety of motive power had been used including horses, mules, overhead cable, steam engines, and ammonia engines before electrification in 1893.


Reversible Waterwheel & Man Engine (1837)
St. Andreasberg, Niedarachsen, Germany – ASME Landmark #118, Designated on May 24, 1987

This silver mine preserves two features of bygone practice. One is the reversible waterwheel of the ore-hoist, which originally was installed in 1565 and currently dates back to 1824. The present wheel is 9 meters in diameter and reaches a depth of 700 meters. Second, the man engine of 1837 with a 12-meter waterwheel was used for the transport of miners to spare them the exertion of climbing hundreds of yards of ladders. The first working depth of 600 meters was extended to 800 meters.

Second Industrial Revolution (1840-1914)

Victoria Dutch Windmill (1840s)
Victoria, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #151, Designated on May 1991

This wind-powered gristmill was built in 1870 by Fred Meiss, Jr., and Otto Fiek near Spring Creek, from parts of the first windmill in the new state of Texas, erected by E.G. Witte. Standing approximately 35 feet high, it supports four blades approximately 15 feet long, and contains equipment and machinery necessary for grinding meal from corn. It is similar to a Dutch turret mill, the top of which can be turned so the sails face the wind, which was common throughout 19th century Europe.


John Penn & Sons Oscillating Steam Engine (1841)
Dresden, Saxony, Germany – ASME Landmark #245, Designated on July 2, 2008

The oscillating steam engine, built by John Penn & Sons, is located aboard the famed paddle steamer Diesbar. Diesbar is the second oldest of a fleet of nine paddle steamers in Dresden. What makes the Diesbar unique is its coal fueled engine and single deck design. The John Penn and Sons engine that runs the steamer is the oldest operational marine steam engine in the world. It has been in operation for over 165 years.


SS Great Britain (1843)
Bristol, England – ASME Landmark #97, Designated on September 25, 1984

The SS Great Britain was the first iron-hulled, screw-propelled ship to cross any ocean and led mercantile history into British domination in the late nineteenth century. The compartmented hull, unprecedented 1,500-horsepower engine with chain drive, and many other seminal features were the designs of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. New design features included a balanced rudder, an electric log, a double bottom, and water-tight bulkheads.


Robbins & Lawrence Machine Shop (1846)
Windsor, Vermont, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #120, Designated on May 28, 1987

In fulfilling a contract for 25,000 U.S. Army rifles (Model 1841) and a like quantity for the British government, Robbins and Lawrence were the first to achieve interchangeability of parts on a fully practical level, contributing greatly to all subsequent mass production of machine products. The firm also introduced the milling machine and the turret lathe into routine commercial usage for production manufacturing.


Cruquius Pumping Station (1849)
Haarlemmermeer, North Holland, Netherlands – ASME Landmark #153, Designated on June 19, 1991

The Cruquius pumping station was instrumental in removing millions of gallons of water to reclaim valuable new land for farming, industry, and residences. Steam was chosen to power the pumps, when the traditional solution would have been windmills with Archimedean screw pumps. The pumps lifted 55,000 gallons a minute up 15 feet.


Morris Canal (Reaction) Turbine (1850)
Greenwich Township, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #38, Designated on June 2, 1979

The inclined planes of the Morris Canal were powered by large reaction turbines geared to the winding drums that hauled the canal boats between levels. The turbine was installed during the winter of 1851-52 after the canal was enlarged and was housed in a vaulted stone chamber underground. When the canal was razed in the 1920s, the turbine was burned before being unearthed in the 1970s.


Westmoreland Iron Works (1850)
Westmoreland, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #126, Designated on 1987

This foundry was the oldest malleable iron company in continuous operation in the United States for many years. Malleable iron founding is one of the oldest national industries, having been introduced in the United States by Seth Boyden in the 1820s.


Graue Mill (1852)
Oak Brook, Illinois, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #64, Designated on May 2, 1981

Designed and built by Fred Graue, a German immigrant, together with William Asche, the Old Graue Mill is one of a few survivors of typical US mill machinery with wood as the principal material. Its undershot waterwheel, wooden gearing system, belt power transmission, bucket elevators, and related bolters and sifters were representative of an ancient technology that began with Roman engineer Vitruvius. It ground wheat, corn, oats, and buckwheat.


Barker Turbine/Hacienda Buena Vista (1853)
Ponce, Puerto Rico, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #177, Designated on July 16, 1994

This is the only known example of a Barker turbine, the earliest practical reaction turbine design. Water jetting from nozzles at the ends of the arms cause the arm-and-shaft assembly to rotate. The brass nozzles were adjusted to balance the water flow to each side. It can produce about 6 hp at 22 rpm.


Rumely Companies' Agricultural Products (1853-1931)
La Porte, Indiana, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #225, Designated on March 15, 2003

Beginning with the blacksmith shop of German immigrant Meinrad Rumely, this successive family of firms invented and produced a line of agricultural equipment that played a vital role in the evolution of farming. In 1872, the Rumely Company developed a portable steam engine that could be horse-drawn from one farmyard to another and linked to a thresher with a driving belt. A decade later, it introduced a steam traction engine that pulled the threshing machine and water wagon. In 1886 a new straw-burning engine was introduced. In 1891 a self-feeder was added to the line and a clover hulling machine was added in 1901.


Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad Roundhouse (1858)
Aurora, Illinois, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #132, Designated on May 14, 1988

The Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy Railroad was the first railroad to link Chicago and the Mississippi River. This forty-stall roundhouse became a major center for railroad activity for the CB&Q. It served as a repair and construction facility. Steam engines, passenger cars, freight cars, precision parts, tools, and machines were designed and built, beginning at about 1858. At least 250 locomotives, incorporating innovations from numerous patented inventions, were built between 1871 and 1910 during which rail track mileage increased five-fold.


Drake Oil Well (1859)
Titusville, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #40, Designated on October 21, 1979

The drilling of this oil well marks the modern phase of the petroleum industry. A series of revolutionary technological changes, unforeseen even by the most prophetic, followed. Drake demonstrated practical oil recovery by applying salt-well drilling techniques, including the use of the derrick, and invented the modern method of driving iron pipe.


Holyoke Water Power System (1859)
Holyoke, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #129, Designated on October 1987

January 1859 marked the incorporation of the Holyoke Water Power Company (HWP) which owned the wooden dam across the Connecticut River, over 1,100 acres of land, roughly two and half miles of power canals and the water supply and distribution system. Businesses and factories flocked to Holyoke during the late 1800s to take advantage of the water power supplied to the city. This site became a major industrial center with extensive paper mills, textile mills and machine shops, all whom purchased energy from HWP to run their operations.


Cooper Steam Traction Engine Collection (1860–1883)
Mount Vernon, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #201, Designated on September 17, 1998

These engines, built by Cooper & Co., are among the oldest surviving agricultural steam engines to show the evolution from the portable, skid-mounted engine (1860) to the horse-drawn engine (1875), through the self-propelled but horse-guided engine (1875) and finally to the self-propelled, self-steered traction engine (1883). Such engines powered the conversion to mechanized farming, which was a great hallmark of the Industrial Revolution.


Hacienda La Esperanza Sugar Mill Steam Engine (1861)
Manatí, Puerto Rico, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #35, Designated on February 10, 1979

The La Esperanza sugar mill steam engine is one of the few remaining American links to the pioneer beam engines of the English inventors Thomas Newcomen (1712) and James Watt (1769). The engine was built in 1861 in Cold Spring, New York, by the West Point Foundry. The general arrangement and details, including the Gothic embellishment, are typical of machinery of the period. The straight-line motion of the piston rod is accommodated to the arc of the moving beam end by a parallel motion.


USS Cairo Engine and Boilers (1862)
Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #143, Designated on June 15, 1990

The Cairo is the sole survivor of the fleet of river gunboats built by the Union during the Civil War with the object of controlling the lower Mississippi River. It saw limited battle and was sunk on the Yazoo River in 1862 by newly developed electronically detonated mines, becoming the first craft ever sunk by this predecessor to torpedo technology. The propulsion system is the only known early example of the widely used "western rivers" steamboat engine.


Holly Fire Protection and Water System (1863)
Lockport, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #121, Designated in 1987

The Lockport district Heritage Site once held the first US integrated system to supply water for public safety. In 1863, Birdsill Holly created a system to supply plenty of water on demand and with enough force to effectively put out fires. Those same pipelines also provided the local water supply.


Batavia Windmills (1863-1951)
Batavia, Illinois, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #254, Designated on September 2013.

This collection of early mass-produced, self-governing windmills were designed for ease of assembly, operation, and maintenance by six manufacturing companies in the town of Batavia, Illinois from 1863 to 1951.Invented by Connecticut machinist David Halladay, the mechanical design of the wind engine system of gears and linkages made efficient use of centrifugal and gravitational forces in controlling the windmill blade's resistance to airflow.


The United States Standard Screw Threads (1864)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #234, Designated on June 12, 2005

In April 1864, inspired by Great Britain's adoption of a comprehensive system of screw threads promulgated by that nation's leading maker of machine tools, Joseph Whitworth, William Sellers laid out his proposed system of screw threads in a paper delivered at Philadelphia's Franklin Institute. Sellers simplified Whitworth's design and offered systematic approaches to thread pitch, form, and depth, as well as rules to proportion hex nuts.


Watkins Woolen Mill (1868)
Lawson, Missouri, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #43, Designated on April 15, 1980

The Watkins Woolen Mill is among the best preserved examples of a Midwest woolen mill in nineteenth-century United States. Its machinery for preparing, spinning, and weaving wool reflects the existence of well-established textile industry in the country.


Mount Washington Cog Railway (1869)
Mt. Washington State Park, New Hampshire, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #18, Designated on June 26, 1976

The Mount Washington Cog Rail was the world’s first cog railway. It ascends almost 3,600 feet along a western spur of Mt. Washington between Burt and Ammonoosuc Ravines from the Marshfield Base Station. Specially built steam locomotives, beginning with the Peppersass, drove toothed wheels into a ladder-like between-rails rack bolted to the cross ties of a three-mile trestle.


Monongahela Incline (1870)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #26, Designated on May 11, 1977

As an early conveyance, the Monongahela Incline is one of the only two remaining operating units of the seventeen built and operated in Pittsburgh in the last century. While the Mt. Washington Incline was as a coal-carrying incline plane in 1854, the Monongahela Incline is probably the earliest passenger-carrying incline in the United States and has been in continuous successful service since its construction.


Boyden Hydraulic Turbines (1871)
Cohoes, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #5, Designated on May 28, 1975

These two water turbines were probably the largest and nearly the most powerful ever built in the United States, supplying direct mechanical power to a manufacturing plant. Their installation between 1871 and 1873 makes them among the oldest surviving water turbines.


Geared Locomotives of Heisler, Shay, Climax (1872)
Felton, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #134, Designated on August 1988

All three are representative of geared locomotives. The Shay locomotive, designed in 1872 and patented in 1881, and its two variants -- the Climax and the Heisler -- employ small high-speed steam engines geared down to axles on four-wheel trucks. They were suited to slow and heavy hauling with high-tractive effort on the rough and temporary tracks of the lumber and mineral industries. They hauled heavy loads through difficult terrain from about 1890 to 1960 until replaced by highway trucks.


Knight Foundry and Machine Shop (1873)
Sutter Creek, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #182, Designated on February 25, 1995

This is one of the earliest US foundry-machine shops remaining in operation and one of the few water powered. It was founded by Samuel N. Knight (1838-1913) to manufacture machinery for the gold mines of the Mother Lode region. Today the foundry continues to operate, producing gray iron castings for industry and tourism. The machine shop is still powered by water falling more than 400 feet from the ridge above Sutter Creek.


Sholes & Glidden 'Type Writer' (1873)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #249, Designated on October 6, 2011

Manufactured by E. Remington and Sons, the Sholes & Glidden incorporated designs that were found in models created by earlier inventors. However, the arrangement of the keys was a feature that had not been present in previous Type Writer models. This model employed a lever-action key mechanism, inked ribbon, and cylindral, shifting platen. It also incorporated the 'QWERTY' keyboard layout, which minimized sticking keys.


TV Emery Rice Steam Engine (1873)
Kings Point, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #112, Designated on September 28, 1985

During the nineteenth-century, poorly armored screw-propelled warships were given engines of low profile, fitting below the waterline for protection of vital parts. The horizontal compound engine of the Emery Rice is a unique survivor typical of the period 1840 to 1880. The 61-ton back-acting engine has an unconventional configuration in that its two cranks lie close to their cylinders and two off-center piston rods straddle the crank-shaft in a cramped, but efficient, arrangement.


Siegfried Marcus Car (1875)
Vienna, Austria – ASME Landmark #203, Designated on September 23, 1998

The Siegfried Marcus Car is believed to be the oldest extant automobile known worldwide and the first vehicle powered by a four-cycle engine and use gasoline as a fuel, featuring the first carburetor for a gasoline engine and the first magneto ignition. It was the second of the possibly four experimental cars that Siegfried Marcus had constructed and is still operable today.


Creusot Steam Hammer (1876)
Le Creusot, France – ASME Landmark #69, Designated on September 16, 1981

This steam-powered forging hammer at Creusot once delivered blows to shape and strengthen iron and steel objects before forging. With a striking capacity of 100 tons and a stroke of 5 meters, it worked massive iron and steel shafts, piston rods, and other forgings for fifty-four years, until its retirement in 1930. For years, it was the most powerful steam hammer in the world.


Pioneer Oil Refinery California Star Oil Works (1876)
Santa Clarita Valley, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #8, Designated on September 27, 1975

After an unsuccessful attempt at refining in Lyons, the refinery at Andrews Station (Newhall) was built by the California Star Oil Works, a predecessor of the Standard Oil Company. The Pioneer Refinery became the first successful commercial refinery in the West, producing mostly kerosenes but also benzene, a fire-test safety illuminating oil, and lubricants.


Edison Experimental Recording Phonograph (1877)
West Orange, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #68, Designated on July 1981

On December 6, 1877, Edison put tinfoil around the cylinder, turned the handle of the shaft and, shouting into one of the diaphragms, recorded a verse of Mary Had a Little Lamb "almost perfectly." This simple and unprecedented instrument allowed for the first time the permanent recording and reproduction of sound, especially the human voice.


Duquesne Incline (1877)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #27, Designated on May 11, 1977

Designed by Sam Diescher, son-in-law of the Monongahela's designer John Endres, the Duquesne Incline opened May 20, 1877, as the second of seventeen built and operated in the Pittsburgh area. Like the Monongahela, the Duquesne was steam powered and then converted to electric and updated with modern safety devices. The Duquesne Incline used individual maple bull gear teeth in the hoisting machinery. The original cars with walnut paneling and incised carved decorations are still in service.


Holly District Heating System (1877)
Lockport, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #122, Designated on 1987

As a means of avoiding the basic inefficiency of heating buildings with individual small boilers, Birdsill Holly invented the "district" steam-heating system. Its basis was a large central boiler plant that furnished steam under moderate pressure to a group of buildings in a surrounding district through a loop of supply and return mains, heavily insulated to reduce heat loss.


Paige Compositor (1877)
Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #11, Designated on 1975

The Paige Compositor was the first machine to simultaneously set, justify, and distribute foundry type from a common case using only one operator. Working out of a shop in Colt's Armory, James W. Paige invented his compositor in 1877 by combining his gravity typesetter with a Thompson distributor. It has 18,000 parts and numerous bearings, cams, and springs and could average 12,000 ems an hour.


Browning Firearms Collection (1878)
Ogden, Utah, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #141, Designated on November 18, 1989

This collection recognizes the inventive talents of John Moses Browning (1855-1926), a prolific and significant designer of sporting and military firearms, whose designs were known for simplicity, accuracy, and reliability. He held more than 128 patents covering 80 distinct firearms. The display includes 35 pistols, 33 rifles, 33 shotguns, and 9 military automatics, either production models or original guns made by Browning.


Pelton Waterwheel Collection (1880)
Grass Valley, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #157, Designated on October 12, 1991

The Pelton wheel uses the momentum of a water jet impinging on buckets attached to the periphery of a wheel to produce power. This collection illustrates the origins and development of the Pelton waterwheel. It consists of many wheels, buckets, and items built by Pelton or the company he founded, including artifacts that date from 1878.


Edison 'Jumbo' Engine-driver Dynamo (1882)
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #48, Designated on May 29, 1980

This dynamo, connected directly to a high-speed steam engine, was one of six that produced direct current at Thomas A. Edison's electric power station at 257 Pearl Street in New York City. The Pearl Street Station was the prototype for central station power generation.


Pilatusbahn (1882)
Mount Pilatus, Switzerland – ASME Landmark #220, Designated on September 21, 2002

The Pilatusbahn—the steepest rack railway in the world—has operated successfully since its opening in 1889 over a route of 4.62 kilometers (2.87 miles) between Alpnachstad on Lake Lucerne and Pilatus Kulm, rising 6,791 feet (2,070 meters) above sea level. To keep the propulsion cogwheels from literally climbing out of their mating racks on the steepest portions of the Pilatusbahn, Zürich engineer Eduard Locher (1840 - 1910) devised a unique system that turned the rack on its side. The rack actually was doubled, engaged by opposing twin horizontal cogwheels.


Reuleaux Collection of Kinematic Mechanisms at Cornell University (1882)
Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #232, Designated on December 2004

Kinematics is the study of geometry of motion. Reuleaux designed the models in the Cornell collection as teaching aids for invention, showing the kinematic design of machines. The collection contains approximately 300 artifacts relating to machine mechanism, mechanical instruments, slide rules and mechanical calculators.


Vulcan Street Power Plant (1882)
Appleton, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #29, Designated on September 15, 1977

The plant began operation only twenty-six days after Thomas Edison's first steam plant began operating on Pearl Street in New York (NL 46). It is the first Edison hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America. The present site is an exact replica of the original plant.


Fresno Scraper (1883)
Fresno, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #158, Designated on October 1991

The Fresno scraper established the basis for the modern earthmoving scraper, being able to scrape and move a load of soil, then discharge it at a controlled depth. Its blade ran along the bottom of a C-shaped bowl, which was adjustable to alter the angle of the bucket to the soil so that dirt could be dumped into low spots. It quadrupled the productivity of manual labor, replacing hand shoveling of earth into horse carts.


Montgomery Glider (1883)
San Carlos, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #189, Designated on May 11, 1996

The glider was the first heavier-than-air human-carrying aircraft to achieve controlled piloted flight. On his first successful flight, August 28, 1883, John Montgomery soared at about 600 feet. The Montgomery glider's success demonstrated aerodynamic principles and designs fundamental to the modern aircraft.


Ottmar Mergenthaler's Square Base Linotype Machine (1886)
Carson, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #235, Designated on July 23, 2005

The linotype, unlike Gutenberg's printing press, did not use moveable type. Instead, it functioned like a typewriter: the operator sat at a keyboard of 90 characters and typed copy. A Square Base Linotype had 5,000 parts, and cost $1,000. Thomas Edison called it the "eighth wonder of the world." Thanks to its efficiency, reliability, and durability, the Linotype allowed further growth in the number, circulation, and size of daily newspapers, while lowering costs in book publishing.


Ferries & Cliffhouse Cable Railway Power House (1887)
San Francisco, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #1, Designated on November 30, 1973

The F&CH Cable Railway was designed and built by civil engineer Howard C. Holmes. The line is an amalgamation of the Powell Street Railway and the Park and Cliff House Railway. It was one of the most complex cable-car systems to run from a single station and had been under construction two years prior to its opening.


Pratt Institute Power Plant (1887)
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #25, Designated on April 20, 1977

A rare survivor of the steam era, the Pratt facility is the oldest generating plant of its kind in the Northeast and embodies the typical features of engines in a row, open-front marble switchboard, and an observation balcony at street level. As early investment in steam generating equipment, the plant maintains three operational reciprocating steam generators built in 1900 and a Curtis turbine by General Electric.


George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering (1888)
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #213, Designated on October 2000

Between its opening in 1888 and the mid-1920s, Georgia Tech took a leading role in transforming mechanical engineering education from a shop-based, vocational program to a professional one built on rigorous academic and analytical methods. Led by John Saylor Coon, this curriculum merged theoretical understanding with practical experience. Tech began this transition almost from day one, though it took three decades to completely effect it.


Milwaukee River Flushing Station (1888)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #166, Designated on November 15, 1992

This pump is the major component of one of the earliest water-pollution control systems. It was capable of pumping more than a half billion gallons of water a day, the highest-capacity pump in the world when installed. It still is used during the summer to pump water from Lake Michigan into the Milwaukee River upstream of the downtown area. This maintains a current in the lower portion of the river and greatly reduces the concentration of pollutants.


Archimedes Screw Pump (1890)
Newark, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #91, Designated on February 1984

This late example of the wind-driven Archimedes screw-pump was used to recover salt through an age-old process of solar evaporation, which shifted brine from one salt concentrating pond to the one of next higher salinity. It represents a mechanically simple method used for more than a century in the San Francisco Bay Area, from about 1820 to 1930.


Coolspring Power Museum (1890-1929)
Coolspring, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #215, Designated on June 16, 2001

The Coolspring Power Museum exhibits examples of most of the early solutions and innovations that affected the marketability of the stationary internal combustion engine. There are a few that started as steam engines and were converted. The evolution of engine design is sometimes demonstrated by showing sets of engines from specific companies over time. Some are general-purpose prime movers and some are single purpose.


Refrigeration Research Museum (1890 - 1960)
Brighton, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #207, Designated on March 23, 2000

This collection includes many examples of advances in mechanical refrigeration for residential and commercial applications, dating from about 1890 to 1960. Such devices dramatically improved food storage safety and convenience and set high standards for mechanical reliability. The RRM collection contains products of such pioneers in the refrigeration industry as Frigidaire, Philco, Sunbeam, and Tecumseh.


Johnstown Incline (1891)
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #180, Designated on September 1994

The Johnstown incline is among the world's steepest vehicular inclines, with a 71 percent grade. Its length is 896.5 feet, rising 502.5 feet. It was designed as a balanced incline with a double track and two cars. As one car goes up the incline, the other car heads down, assisted by a motor. It was designed by Samuel Diescher (1839-1915) after the great flood of 1889, to provide an efficient means of transportation between Westmont and the Conemaugh Valley.


Manitou & Pike's Peak Cog Railway (1891)
Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #16, Designated on May 24, 1976

The Manitou & Pike's Peak Railway, the Cog Road, is the highest railway in the United States and the highest rack railway in the world. Built by the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works under Wilhelm Hildebrand, it has been in continuous (seasonal) operation since 1891.


Marine-type Triple-expansion, Engine-driven Dynamo (1891)
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #49, Designated on May 1980

This machine, which began operation on December 15, 1891, for the New York Edison Illuminating Company, represents the beginning of large-scale electric power generation in the United States. Built by the General Electric Company of Schenectady, this machine was the first of its type put into operation and is the sole survivor.


Crown Cork and Soda Filling Machine (1892)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #174, Designated on May 25, 1994

In 1892, William Painter patented a cheap, single-use metallic cap, crimped over a lip formed on the bottle neck and lined with a thin cork wafer that both formed a leakproof seal and separated drink and metal. Soon thereafter, he patented a machine that filled the bottle simultaneously with syrup and carbonated water, then applied the cap. The two inventions, commercially developed by Painter's Crown Cork & Seal Co., were the foundation of today's bottling industry.


USS Olympia, Vertical Reciprocating Steam Engines (1892)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #22, Designated on March 30, 1977

Borrowing from merchant ship designs of the previous decade, the development of these engines improved naval ship propulsion with particular respect to lightweight construction with minimum headroom requirements. The two 3-cylinder triple-expansion engines of the U.S.S. Olympia are excellent examples of naval ship propulsion machinery of the late nineteenth century.


Chapin Mine Pump (1893)
Iron Mountain, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #124, Designated on June 6, 1987

The Chapin Mine pumping engine is a steeple compound condensing engine capable of lifting 200 tons of water a minute, equivalent to 4 million gallons a day. The engine is fitted with a surface condenser and a Reynolds patent air pump. Mine water was used in the condenser for cooling purposes. The pump drew worldwide attention as the largest U.S. pumping engine and for the efficiency it achieved.


Roebling 80-ton Wire Rope Machine (1893)
Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #139, Designated on October 21, 1989

Built in 1893, the last remaining Roebling machine was the largest wire-rope closing machine in its time. The machine twisted six strands around a central core rope. These seven combined in the machine's forming die to produce a finished rope, a process known as closing. The machine was built to produce 1.5-inch rope for cable railways--80 tons could be loaded at a single spinning, which provided 30,000 feet of unspliced cable at a batch.


Leavitt-Riedler Pumping Engine (1894)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #2, Designated on December 14, 1973

This machine is an unusual triple-expansion, three-crank rocker engine, which in its day was a high-capacity unit providing outstanding performance for the Boston Water Works Corporation. Designed by Erasmus Darwin Leavitt, Jr., Engine No. 3 was installed in 1894 to a high-service pumping facility on the south side of the Chestnut Hill Reservoir in Brighton.


Folsom Power House #1 (1895)
Folsom, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #19, Designated on September 12, 1976

The historic Folsom Power House #l marks one of the first successful uses of hydroelectric power in the world and the first successful transmission of power long distance (twenty-two miles to Sacramento). The old Folsom Power House still shelters the machinery generated to drive streetcars and illuminate the city of Sacramento.


Harris-Corliss Steam Engine (1895)
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #110, Designated on October 16, 1985

This 350-horsepower Corliss type steam engine is an example of a typical late nineteenth century steam engine. The essential feature of Corliss type engines is the valves that admit steam to and exhaust it from the cylinder. The Corliss valve gear made the engine extremely efficient in steam consumption and was the most efficient system for controlling low to medium speed engines. This particular engine operated for more than eighty years.


Lookout Mountain Incline Railway (1895)
Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #156, Designated on September 11, 1991

The Incline Railway was the second of two inclines constructed on Lookout Mountain in competition for the booming tourism industry. The incline, 1,972 feet long and rising 1,450 feet, is superbly designed to suit its location. It makes use of a variable grade, ranging up to 72.7 percent near the top, to compensate for the changing weight of the cables as its cars move.


Multi-Zone Automatic Temperature Control System (1895)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #244, Designated on May 28, 2008

Warren S. Johnson came up with the idea for automatic temperature control while teaching at Norman School in Whitewater, Wisconsin in the 1880's. Originally, janitors would have to enter each classroom to determine if it was too hot or cold and then adjust the dampers in the basement accordingly. Johnson sought a way to end, or at least minimize the classroom interruptions of the janitors and increase the comfort level of the students. The Automatic Temperature Control System would do just that.


Reed Gold Mine Ten-Stamp Mill (1895)
Midland, North Carolina, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #84, Designated on April 25, 1983

This mill, built by the Mecklenburg Iron Works of Charlotte, North Carolina, is original except for the timber work. Two groups of five 750-pound stamps with 5- to 7-inch lift, rose and fell thirty-five times a minute to yield a finely crushed ore. It is typical of those used in the late nineteenth century, not only in this state but in the western regions as well.


Southern Railway Spencer Shops (1896)
Spencer, North Carolina, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #248, Designated on March 19, 2011

Of the four known preserved railroad shop complexes in the United States Spencer Shops is the only one designed and constructed primarily during the 20th century and the Spencer backshop is also the only one that utilizes the longitudinal design for locomotive overhaul. The facilities were originally constructed to provide regular maintenance and overhaul of steam locomotives, freight and passenger cars, and served as a base for track maintenance-of-way.


Turbinia (1897)
Newcastle upon Tyne, England – ASME Landmark #73, Designated on May 1982

The Turbinia was the world's first turbine-driven ship. It attracted worldwide attention at the 1897 Spithead Naval Review by traveling more than 34 knots. This remarkable performance accelerated the acceptance of the steam turbine as an alternative to the steam reciprocating engine on ships as well as for central electric light and power stations.


BF Clyde's Cider Mill (1898)
Old Mystic, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #181, Designated on October 29, 1994

Clyde's mill is a rare survivor of a once-commonplace seasonal rural industry. Until recently a cider mill could be found in every community where apples were grown. In the fall, mills converted the fruit of the orchard into drink just as the grist mill converted the grain into flour.


Idols Station, Fries Manufacturing & Power Company (1898)
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #99, Designated on September 7, 1984

This run-of-the-river plant is a typical example of late nineteenth-century small-scale (750 kilowatt) low-head hydroelectric power technology. Idol's was an important power source for transportation, lighting, and industry in the Winston-Salem area. The facility is still operating.


Bessemer Conversion Engine (1900)
Rockford, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #196, Designated on August 1, 1997

This run-of-the-river plant is a typical example of late nineteenth-century small-scale (750 kilowatt) low-head hydroelectric power technology. It began operation on April 18, 1898, making it the first commercial hydroelectric plant in North Carolina involving long-distance power transmission at a fourteen miles distance with 10,000 volts.


Paddle Steamer Uri (1901)
Lucerne, Switzerland – ASME Landmark #200, Designated on September 5, 1998

This is the oldest operating vessel with a diagonal, compound steam engine, with disc valve gear. Operating at a higher pressure than the oscillating-cylinder engines then used in lake steamers, this type of engine was more powerful and efficient, as well as smaller.


Buckeye Steam Traction Ditcher (1902)
Findlay, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #133, Designated on August 5, 1988

During the post-Civil War era, efforts to cultivate the land for higher crop yields resulted in the digging of thousands of miles of ditches to improve land drainage. James B. Hill (1856-1945) patented the first successful traction ditching machine in 1894. Hill initially worked in a Bowling Green, Ohio, machine shop. This steam-driven ditcher (No. 88) is the earliest surviving ditcher, built in 1902. It has been restored by the Hancock County Museum Association in Findlay.


Michigan-Lake Superior Power Hydroelectric Plant (1902)
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #61, Designated on May 3, 1981

This low-head operating plant is representative of nineteenth-century hydropower-plant practice using many small turbines in contrast to twentieth-century use of few large turbines and generators. Its 40,000 horsepower capacity made it the largest in the country using turbines of American design.


Pin-Ticketing Machine (1902)
Miamisburg, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #150, Designated on November 15, 1990

This was the first successful machine for mechanizing the identification and price marking of retail merchandise. At a stroke of the operating handle, the machine formed a tag from a roll of stock, imprinted it with price and other information, formed a wire staple, and stapled the tag to the merchandise. This amounted to a minor revolution in the then rapidly expanding retail industry.


Curtis 500-kW Vertical Turbine (1903)
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #144, Designated on July 23, 1990

Curtis 500-kW Vertical Turbine was constructed by the General Electric Co. for the Newport & Fall River Street Railway Co. It operated in the Newport, R.I., generating station until June 1927. Because there is no record of a prototype machine being built for shop testing, this may have been the first vertical turbine completed, in addition to being the first machine shipped for commercial use.


Curtis 5000-kW Vertical Turbine (1903)
Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #6, Designated on May 28, 1975

Built in 1903, the 5,000-kilowatt Curtis steam turbine-generator was the most powerful in the world. It stood just 25 feet high, much shorter than the 60 feet reciprocating engine-generator of a similar capacity, and took up considerably less floor area. The combined innovation and effectiveness of the 5,000-kilowatt Curtis steam turbine-generator helped to stimulate the growth of modern electrical generation in large central stations nationwide.


Detroit Edison District Heating System (1903)
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #105, Designated on May 22, 1985

The concept of heating a number of buildings in the core area of a city from a single heating plant was introduced into the United States by Birdsill Holly at Lockport, New York, in 1877. Organized by the Detroit Edison Company, the Central Heating Company began service in 1903, supplying twelve customers with steam piped from the Edison Company's Willis Avenue Plant.


Hart Parr Tractor (1903)
Charles City, Iowa, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #190, Designated on May 18, 1996

This landmark represents the first commercially successful farm tractor in the world powered by an internal-combustion engine. Major accomplishments included an oil-cooled engine, the valve in the head principle with overhead cam, the magneto-ignition system, the plow gear, the vaporizing carburetor with water injection, and forced-fed lubrication.


Eiffel 1903 Drop Test Machine and 1912 Wind Tunnel (1903 & 1912)
Paris, France – ASME Landmark #237, Designated on October 27, 2005

In 1903, Eiffel built a device to test the drag on various bodies by dropping them along a vertical cable hung from the second level of the tower that bears his name. He built a machine that accurately measured drag during the fall and recorded it on a chart within the machine. Wanting longer test times, Eiffel built a wind tunnel next to the tower in 1909.


Owens AR Bottle Machine (1903)
Toledo, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #86, Designated on May 17, 1983

Michael J. Owens devised the first commercially successful, fully automatic bottle-making machine in 1903. The bottle-making machine introduced the safety, standardization, quality, and convenience of glass containers. Not only did they revolutionize the industry, the National Child Labor Committee of New York City reported that the rapid introduction of the automatic machine did more to eliminate child labor than they had been able to do through legislation.


Interborough Rapid Trasit System, Original Line (1904)
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #31, Designated on January 1978

The original subway, which took opened October 27, 1904, ran 9.1 miles from City Hall to 145th Street and Broadway. Extensions to the Bronx opened in 1905 and to Brooklyn in 1908, completing the first subway. Today, the rapid transit system in New York is one of the largest in the world, with a fleet of 7,000 cars making 8,000 trips daily.


Peterborough Hydraulic (Canal) Lift Lock (1904)
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada – ASME Landmark #205, Designated on July 17, 1999

Opened July 9, 1904, this lift lock is the highest of its type in the world, transferring boats between two water levels in a single 19.8 m (65 ft.) lift. Designed in place of conventional locks, which would have lengthened the time considerably to transverse a gradual drop, this lift lock was a unique solution made feasible.


Pit-Cast Jib Crane (1905)
Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #23, Designated on March 31, 1977

Used to lift molten iron to molds where it was cast into pipe, jib cranes were the sole means of conveyance in the pit-casting process. When pit casting was replaced by centrifugal casting in the 1920s, many pits were filled and the cranes were used to produce cast iron fittings or general maintenance work. Only one jib crane remained at the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in recent years, and it was probably the last pit-cast jib crane to operate.


Wright Flyer III (1905)
Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #224, Designated on February 20, 2003

The 1905 Wright Flyer III, built by Wilbur and Orville Wright, was the world's first airplane capable of sustained, maneuverable flight. Their flight, which lasted 12-seconds and covered 120 feet, marked the first time a human had successfully piloted a self-propelled machine that rose into the air on its own power and landed on ground as high as that from which it had taken off.


Georgetown Steam Plant (1906)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #45, Designated on May 7, 1980

The Georgetown Steam Plant, a surprisingly complete and operable steam power plant after a career of nearly seventy-five years, was built in the early 1900s when Seattle's inexpensive hydroelectric power attracted manufacturers. Much of the power produced at this plant operated the streetcars. It marks the beginning of the end of the reciprocating steam engine's domination in the growing field of electrical energy generation for lighting and power.


Joshua Hendy Iron Works (1906)
Sunnyvale, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #34, Designated on December 14, 1978

Founded by Joshua Hendy in 1856 and rebuilt after the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, this ironworks exemplifies the adaptability required for industrial survival in a dynamic technical environment. It was a major western producer of mechanical equipment used in mining, ship propulsion, irrigation, power generation, optical telescope mounts, and nuclear research.


Stirling Water-tube Boilers (1906)
Dalton, Georgia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #130, Designated on October 1987

Two Stirling water-tube boilers, built and installed in 1906, are among the oldest existing steam generators in a cotton mill in this country. The Crown Cotton Mills, now named the Elk Cotton Mill, was the first major industrial plant in Cross Plains, Georgia, now known as Dalton.


AC Electrification of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad (1907)
Cos Cob, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #76, Designated on May 1982

On July 24, 1907, the first regular train to be operated under electric power completed a trip from Grand Central to New Rochelle, New York. This was a pioneering venture in mainline railroad electrification and was a proving ground for railroad electrification technology. It established single-phase alternating current as a technical and economical alternative to direct current.


Titan Crane (1907)
Clydebank, West Dunbartonshire, Scotland – ASME Landmark #253, Designated on August 21, 2013

The crane is the earliest survivor of its type, having been described as "the largest crane of the hammer-head or Titan' type. At 164 feet tall (50m), its innovative design included a fixed counterweight and electrically operated hoists, mounted on a rotating beam. This allowed the crane to be faster and more responsive than its steam-powered predecessors.


Kinne Water Turbine Collection (1907 - 1937)
Watertown, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #204, Designated on June 19, 1999

This collection was assembled by engineer Clarence E. Kinne between 1907 and 1937. It is believed to be the largest collection of its kind in the world, representing American turbine development from a time well before the invention of the 'true' turbine to the evolution of the inward-flow reaction turbine used in today's largest hydroelectric plants.


Alden Research Laboratory Rotating Boom (1908)
Holden, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #75, Designated on May 7, 1982

This rotating boom played an important part in the testing and improvement of current meters, aircraft propellers, ships' logs, pitot tubes, and mine-sweeping paravanes. The original boom was designed by Professor Charles M. Allen (1871-1950), the first director of the Alden Research Laboratory.


Model T (1908-1927)
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #233, Designated on May 20, 2005

When Ford Motor Company introduced its new Model T on October 1, 1908, even Henry Ford could not predict the vast changes that his new vehicle would produce. What flowed from this series of bold innovations was more than an endless stream of Model Ts — it was the very foundation of the twentieth century itself. The Model T spawned mass "automobility," altering our living patterns, our leisure activities, our landscape, and even our atmosphere.


Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project (1909)
Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #13, Designated on April 10, 1976

The Childs Plant, which included three Pelton-wheel generators, was completed in 1909, followed by the Irving Plant with a single Allis-Chalmers' Francis turbine, completed in 1916. Mule teams carried construction materials up the mountainous terrain, necessitating innovative use of steel towers rather than wooden transmission poles. While small by present-day standards, the plants once took care of the entire electric requirements of Yavapai County.


Evinrude Outboard Motor (1909)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #65, Designated on June 1981

This outboard motor, designed and built by Ole Evinrude at the Evinrude Motor Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was quickly accepted by the boating public of the United States. Evinrude built a 62-pound two-cycle internal combustion motor that ran at 1 1/2 horsepower at 1,000 revolutions per minute. The design has remained standard for outboard motors.


Hughes Two-Cone Drill Bit (1909)
The Woodlands, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #246, Designated on August 10, 2009

Prior to 1909 the traditional fishtail bit scraped the rock and quickly dulled in service. The Hughes two-cone bit's revolutionary rolling action crushed hard-rock formations with twin cone-shaped, hardened steel bits, each with 166 cutting edges, revolving on bronze bearings shaped to provide a large surface with reduced friction.


Lombard Steam Log Hauler (1910)
Patten, Maine, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #79, Designated on August 14, 1982

This steam crawler-tractor emancipated horses from the work of hauling trains of sleds over iced roads in the winter woods of the United States and Canada. Designed, patented and built by Alvin C. Lombard, the "Lombards" were the first practical examples of the crawler tread that would become the mark of the internal combustion engine-driven agricultural and construction equipment and military tank.


Ginaca Pineapple Processing Machine (1911)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #167, Designated on February 19, 1993

In 1911, James D. Dole hired Henry G. Ginaca to design a machine to automate the process of peeling and slicing fruit. As fruit dropped through the Ginaca machine, a cylinder was cut to proper diameter, trimmed top and bottom, and cored. This machine more than tripled production, making pineapple Hawaii's second largest crop. In the Ginaca machines used today, the principle remains unchanged.


Kingsbury Thrust Bearing (1911)
Holtwood, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #123, Designated on June 27, 1987

The first Kingsbury bearing in hydroelectric service, one of its major applications, was installed in 1912 where it remains in full use today. The load in a Kingsbury bearing is carried by a wedge-shaped oil film formed between the shaft thrust-collar and a series of stationary pivoted pads or segments. This results in an extremely low coefficient of friction and negligible bearing wear.


Pullman Sleeping Car Glengyle (1911)
Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #125, Designated on August 27, 1987

In 1859, George M. Pullman built and operated sleeping, lounge, and parlor cars. While not originating new inventions, Pullman adopted new technology, making his cars mechanically well-engineered structures. The Glengyle is the earliest known survivor of the fleet of heavyweight, all-steel sleepers built by Pullman Company. The design was introduced in 1907 as a marked improvement over the wooden version then in use.


Hulett Ore Unloaders (1912)
Whiskey Island, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #199, Designated on August 2, 1998

The Huletts were highly efficient materials handling machines unique to the Great Lakes. The first, steam-powered, with a 10-ton-capacity grab bucket, went into service at Conneaut, Ohio, in 1899. With the advent of self-unloading ore boats, most have been dismantled. This battery is the largest and oldest of those that survive.


Q-R-S Marking Piano (1912)
Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #161, Designated on March 18, 1992

The Q-R-S marking piano was one of the first machines to produce master rolls for player pianos by recording actual performances. Other roll recording devices were developed within this time frame, but as far as known, the Q-R-S is the only example still in existence and in service. The marking piano made it possible to capture live performances and thus preserve keyboard artistry of many artists.


Chestnut Street Pumping Engine (1913)
Erie, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #59, Designated on April 1981

At the site of the first water pumping station providing water and sewage systems to the City of Erie in 1868, the Chestnut Street Pumping Station houses one of the largest steam engines, which pumped 20 million gallons a day. Built in 1913 by the Bethlehem Steel Company, the engine operated from 1913 to 1951, when the plant was electrified.

Late Machine Age (1914-1945)

A.B. Wood Screw Pump (1914)
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #3, Designated on June 11, 1974

With a water table several feet below ground level, New Orleans faced a crisis after every heavy rainfall and was dependent on mechanical means for lifting water from its canals and sewage systems. A. Baldwin Wood designed and installed a system of large screw pumps to syphon water and accelerate drainage. By 1915 the Wood screw pump became the most advanced drainage pump in use.


Belle of Louisville (1914)
Louisville, Kentuck, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #247, Designated on April 23, 2010

The Belle of Louisville, built in 1914, is the oldest operating "western rivers" steamboat. It has the shallow-draft flat-bottom hull, paddlewheel propulsion, and structural configuration that were characteristic of steamboats that plied America's rivers during the 19th and 20th centuries.


Burton Farmers Gin Mill (1914)
Burton, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #173, Designated on April 15, 1994

This is the earliest known survivor of an integrated cotton ginning system widely used to process cotton from wagon to bale in a continuous operation. The gin machinery was designed and built in 1914 by the Lummus Cotton Gin Company and ran commercially until 1974. It can process seven bales per hour.


USS Texas' Reciprocating Steam Engines (1914)
La Porte, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #10, Designated on December 1, 1975

The USS Texas' pair of four-cylinder, triple-expansion engines are the largest survivors of this type. They provided 14,000 horsepower to each shaft and traveled 21.05 knots at 125 revolutions per minute. Only one other US warship, the New York (built one month later), was powered by reciprocating engines.


William Tod Rolling-Mill Engine (1914)
Youngstown, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #202, Designated on September 19, 1998

This engine, with cylinders of 34- and 68-inch bore by 60-inch stroke, is representative of the William Tod Company’s and the industry's application of steam power to rolling-mill drive during the period of gradual transition to electric drive.


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1915)
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #138, Designated on September 1989

Published in 1914-15, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) was the first comprehensive standard for the design, construction, inspection, and testing of boilers and pressure vessels. It has contributed significantly to public safety and influenced the continued development of boiler and pressure vessel technology. The original currently exists at the Henry Ford Museum.


Reynolds-Corliss Pumping Engine (1917)
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #12, Designated on February 22, 1976

Driven by a Corliss steam engine, these large city water pumps were installed in Jacksonville's water supply improvement program in 1915, and each pumped 5 million gallons of water a day until 1930 when the first of the electric-driven peripheral pumping stations began operating.


Baltimore & Ohio #4500, Freight, USRA 2-8-2A (1918)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #147, Designated on October 23, 1990

Baltimore & Ohio 4500, built by Baldwin Locomotive Works, was the first USRA locomotive built. It is a "light Mikado," the most common USRA freight design. The 4500 was built in 20 days, a record for any locomotive of similar capacity, but probably a result of overtime labor. The 4500, which was in service for almost 40 years, was finally retired August 1957.


East Wells (Onieda) Street Power Plant (1918)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #42, Designated on February 1980

Formerly known as the Oneida Street Power Plant, this plant served from 1918 to 1920 as the pilot plant in the United States for the development and use of finely pulverized coal firing in the boilers of steam-electric power plants. The results of the Oneida experiences were major changes in boiler design and lower costs of power generation.


Holt Caterpillar Tractor (1918)
Stockton, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #60, Designated on April 1981

The existing machine represents the earliest gasoline-powered track-type tractors that were to help revolutionize agriculture, logging, construction, road building, and transportation around the world. Its design and development is credited to Benjamin Holt.


Mount Wilson Observatory, 100-inch Hooker Telescope (1918)
Pasadena, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #66, Designated on June 20, 1981

The increased light-grasp of this telescope made possible many notable advances in structural cosmology between 1924 and 1930, which have revised human understanding about the universe. The telescope’s mirror support and the use of mercury flotation to reduce the friction are among its outstanding engineering features.


Atlantic Coast Line #1504, USRA 4-6-2A (1919)
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #148, Designated on October 23, 1990

ACL 1504, built by American Locomotive Co. Richmond Works, is a "light pacific," the most common USRA passenger design. The 1504 was one of 81 light pacifics. It was in service on ACL for over 30 years, most of which was spent in passenger service hauling 10 to 12 cars at 70 mph.


Edgar Station, Edison Electric Illuminating Co. (1920s)
Weymouth, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #17, Designated on May 1976

The Edgar Station high-pressure topping turbine and boiler set a new record for economy in the mid-1920s by producing electricity at the rate of 1 kilowatt hour per 1 pound of coal, when it was common to burn 5 to 10 pounds. This "high-pressure" unit, the only one of its kind in the world, was developed under the supervision of Irving Moultrop.


A. O. Smith Automatic Frame Plant (1920)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #37, Designated on May 1979

Built in 1920, the A.O. Smith Corporation's automated automobile frame factory began production May 23, 1921, and operated until June 24, 1958. It achieved a manufacturing output of better than one frame every six seconds, or 10,000 frames a day. As a mechanized orchestration of over five hundred operations, it was considered a wonder of its time and a prototype of the factory of the future.


Anderson-Barngrover Cont. Rotary Pressure Sterilizer (1920)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #74, Designated on May 17, 1982

When introduced in 1920, producers were able to feed sealed cans of food through an automated and uniform cooking and cooling system in a continuous stream. These automated machines represent an important contribution to the ageless problem of food preservation and human nutrition.


Holland Tunnel Ventilation System (1920)
New York City, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #93, Designated on April 1984

The first long underwater tunnel in the world designed for motor vehicle use was built from 1920 to 1927. The 29.5-foot-diameter, 8,500-foot-long twin tubes of this tunnel were shield-driven by the pneumatic method through extremely difficult river-bottom conditions. They were the largest in the United States when built.


Ljungstrom Air Preheater (1920)
Stockholm, Sweden – ASME Landmark #185, Designated on June 21, 1995

The Ljungstrom air preheater is a regenerative heat exchanger, invented in the 1920s and soon used throughout the world. The first installation saved as much as 25 percent of the fuel consumption. In the United States, it annually saves about $30 billion US dollars in fuel consumption.


Pitney-Bowes Model M Postage Meter (1920)
Stamford, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #114, Designated on September 17, 1986

The world's first commercial postage meter--the Model M--was designed and developed in Stamford between 1901 and 1920 by inventor Arthur Pitney and entrepreneur Walter H. Bowes. The postage meter, which eliminates the need for the adhesive stamp, fundamentally affected the expeditious handling of mail and rapidly came into use around the world.


Quincy Mining Company No. 2 Mine Hoist (1920)
Hancock, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #96, Designated on August 24, 1984

The largest mine hoist in the world, it serves the two incline skipways of Shaft No. 2, almost 9,300 feet long. Skips weighing 6 tons burdened with 10 tons of ore were brought up at speeds of up to 36 miles per hour. In its first year, the new hoist pulled larger loads, faster, saving Quincy $16,080 in fuel bills.


Wright Field 5-foot Wind Tunnel (1921)
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #183, Designated on March 22, 1995

Wind tunnel testing of aircraft models is essential to determine aerodynamic parameters such as lift and drag. The 5-foot Wright Field wind tunnel is an early example of the modern wind tunnel, well known from the early 1920s to the late 1950s for its contributions to research and the development of nearly every major aircraft and associated hardware used by the US Air Force and its predecessor, the Army Air Service.


First Ram-Type Blowout Preventer (BOP) (1922)
Houston, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #227, Designated on July 14, 2003

In 1922, oil wildcatter James Smither Abercrombie (1891-1975) and machinist Harry S. Cameron developed a successful ram-type blowout preventer (BOP) utilizing a small number of simple, rugged parts. This mechanism allowed the manual closing of a well, saved lives and prevented surface oil accumulation at drilling sites.


LeTourneau "Mountain Mover" Scraper (1922)
Longview, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #231, Designated on November 29, 2004

Although only one “Mountain Mover” ever existed, all later LeTourneau scraper designs drew upon its innovative concepts. The original Mountain Mover, modified over the years, is an example of the innovative and pioneering mechanical engineering concepts developed by R.G. LeTourneau. This predecessor to modern equipment played a large role in opening up lands to farming and helped lead to the rapid and cost-effective construction of roads, highways and airports for decades after its introduction.


Bay City Walking Dredge (1924)
Naples, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #172, Designated on February 19, 1994

Built by the Bay City Dredge Works of Bay City, Michigan, this dredge was used to construct a portion of US 41 called the Tamiami Trail, which connected Tampa with Miami through the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp. The last remaining display of walking dredges, it has a unique propulsion design enabling the dredge to cope with drainage problems in a wetlands environment.


Fairbanks-Morse Y-VA Engine Diesel (1924)
Useppa Island, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #208, Designated on April 15, 2000

This 75 horsepower type Y, style VA engine, which was used to power electrical generating machinery, is an outstanding example of early high-compression, cold-start, full-diesel engines developed in the United States. It is a descendant of the first successful diesel engine produced in 1897 by German mechanical engineer Rudolf Diesel.


Great Northern 2313 — Montana Western 31 Gas-electric Rail Motorcar (1925)
North Freedom, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #229, Designated on August 16, 2003

Great Northern 2313, later Montana Western 31, is the oldest surviving Electro-Motive Co. gas-electric rail motorcar, which reduced operating costs by 50 percent over the steam-locomotive trains it replaced. This 32-ton car features a Winton gasoline engine and General Electric generator and traction motors.


Steamboat William G. Mather (1925)
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #186, Designated on July 30, 1995

The Steamship William G. Mather represents the evolution of mechanical engineering in Great Lakes shipping. Launched as a state-of-the-art ship for its time, the Mather served as a prototype, incorporating the latest advancements. As a result, Great Lakes shipping remained efficient, productive and competitive with other modes of transportation.


Worthington Horizontal Cross-compound Pumping (1925)
York, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #77, Designated on May 7, 1982

Smaller and cheaper than a triple-expansion vertical engine, the horizontal cross-compound pumping engine, Pump No. 2 was considered the height of engineering from the 1890s to World War I. Corliss steam engines, characterized by four cylindrical oscillating valves, drove many types of machinery and enjoyed great commercial success throughout the world well into the twentieth century.


Corning Ribbon Machine (1926)
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #81, Designated on February 1983

In the 1890s the top speed of the finest glass-blowing team produced two bulbs a minute. In 1926 Corning Glass Works developed the ribbon machine, capable of producing up to two thousand light bulbs a minute. The ribbon machine, now operating the world over, was conceived by William J. Woods and designed in collaboration with David E. Gray.


Fairbanks Exploration Company Gold Dredge No. 2 (1927)
Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #113, Designated on May 16, 1986

This floating dredge is one of the last mammoth gold dredges in the Fairbanks Mining District that traveled an ancient stream bed, thawing the ground ahead of it and scooping up the gravel. It was operated by the Fairbanks Exploration Company from early 1928 until operations ended in 1959. During that time it cut a 4.5-mile track from which miners produced more than 7.5 million ounces of gold.


Texas & Pacific #610 Lima Superpower Steam Locomotive (1927)
Rusk, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #137, Designated on August 1988

The Texas & Pacific 610 is the sole surviving example of the earliest form of the super-power steam locomotives built by the Lima Locomotive Works from 1925 to 1949. The performance of these locomotives was unprecedented, and they were the prototype for the modern American steam locomotive through the end of the steam age for rail.


Cooperative Fuel Research Engine (1928)
Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #50, Designated on June 1980

The Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine is used extensively throughout the world for testing, research, and instruction in the performance of fuels and lubricants for the internal combustion engine. First effective in creating a recognized standard for defining fuel quality, the engines are relevant today for basic research in exhaust emissions and alternate fuels suitability.


Milam High-rise Air Conditioned Building (1928)
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #155, Designated on August 23, 1991

The Milam Building was the first high-rise air-conditioned office building in the United States. Many others followed suit. The system provided 300 tons of refrigeration capacity with chilled water, piped to air-handling fans serving all floors. The original unit was updated in 1945 and further modernized in 1989.


Kaplan Turbine (1929)
York Haven, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #57, Designated on October 20, 1980

This Kaplan turbine is one of the first three machines to be put into service in the United States. Named for its Austrian inventor, Viktor Kaplan, the turbine was an outstanding innovation, operating with a high, nearly constant efficiency over a wide load range.


Link C-3 Flight Trainer (1929)
Binghamton, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #210, Designated on June 10, 2000

In 1927, Edwin A. Link obtained his pilot's license and became convinced that a mechanical device could be built as an inexpensive method to teach basic piloting. In 1929, Link created a trainer that replicated realistic movements manipulated through the pilot's controls. Not only was pilot training improved before leaving the ground, but the trainer also emphasized instrument training over visual observation.


Rocky River Pumped-storage Hydroelectric Plant (1929)
New Milford, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #56, Designated on September 13, 1980

The Connecticut Light & Power Company pioneered the use of pumped storage in the United States at this hydroelectric station. First operated in 1929, the Rocky River Plant had two reversible pumps that somewhat resemble large hydroelectric turbines. This permitted significant improvements in the system efficiency of the company's network of hydroelectric and thermal-electric power generating plants.


State Line Generating Unit 1 (1929)
Hammond, Indiana, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #24, Designated on April 19, 1977

From 1929 to 1954 the "State Line" turbine-generator, located on the Indiana-Illinois border, was the largest unit of its kind in the world. Its 208,000 kilowatt rating was 30 percent above the next largest unit at that time and represented 14 percent of the entire Chicago metropolitan district when it was placed in commercial service.


Fusion-welded Test Boiler Drum (1930)
Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #44, Designated on May 2, 1980

This fusion-welded drum, tested during 1930, was the first in a series tested at Combustion Engineering Inc. that led to the industrial acceptance of welding for the fabrication of boiler drums. Electric arc fusion welding permitted increased efficiencies through higher working pressures and temperatures and fabrication of larger units of improved safety.


Radio City Music Hall Hydraulically Actuated Stage (1932)
New York, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #217, Designated on November 12, 2001

The precision "choreographed" staging of Radio City Music Hall is one of the largest movable stages in the world with innovative hydraulic equipment and controls, a forerunner of other stage designs as well as early aircraft carrier elevator systems.


Pioneer Zephyr (1934)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #58, Designated on November 18, 1980

The Zephyr was the first diesel-powered, stainless-steel streamlined train. Its luxurious accommodations and powerful engine could effectively compete for freight traffic with a burgeoning trucking industry. The debut of the Pioneer Zephyr heralded a comeback in 1934, touring the country and being seen by some two million people in 222 cities.


National Soil Dynamics Laboratory (1935)
Auburn, Alabama, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #146, Designated on October 19, 1990

The National Soil Dynamics Laboratory was the world's first full-size laboratory for controlled studies of the relationships between tillage tools and traction equipment, and various types of soils. Although it has inspired the design of more than a dozen other facilities, this remains the largest and most complete laboratory of its kind in the world.


Port Washington Power Plant (1935)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #51, Designated on June 1980

The Port Washington Power Plant of the Wisconsin Electric Company was the most thermally efficient steam power plant in the world for many years following its opening in 1935. The success of the Port Washington plant accelerated the adoption of pulverized coal burning for central power plants in the United States.


Magma Copper Mine Air Conditioning System (1937)
Superior, Arizona, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #15, Designated on May 22, 1976

The warm rock formation at the Magma Copper Company Mines created a need that brought about the first air-conditioned mine in North. Several centrifugal refrigeration machines of 140-ton capacities were lowered through shaft compartments and set to work, lowering the temperature in six weeks to better conditions than could be achieved with traditional ventilating fans after three years.


Meter-type Gas Odorizer (1937)
Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #163, Designated on August 1992

The meter-type gas odorizer was developed a few months after 294 school children and adults died in a natural gas explosion in a New London, Texas, school. Created by Don A. Sillers, the Type M odorizer established itself as a dependable, long-lasting safety device. This particular unit operated 25 years without maintenance.


EIMCO Rocker Shovel Loader, Model 12B (1938)
Park City, Utah, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #212, Designated on September 4, 2000

The Rocker Shovel Loader 12B provided a significant boost to underground mining productivity by emulating the movements of the human "mucker," the laborer who removed rubble, or "muck," from underground mines. It was the first successful mining device to replace human labor in removing the rubble from underground hard-rock blasting.


Hydromatic Propeller (1938)
Windsor Locks, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #149, Designated on November 8, 1990

The hydromatic propeller by Hamilton Standard marked a significant advance over the counterweight-type, controllable pitch propeller. It played a distinguished role in allied combat aircraft in World War II. Its continuing development has incorporated many features used on later aircraft.


Birome Ballpoint Pen Collection (1938-1948)
Buenos Aires, Argentina – ASME Landmark #236, Designated on September 29, 2005

The ballpoint pen invented by Ladislao Jose Biro was originally patented in Hungary in 1938 and was first marketed in Argentina in 1944. The collection of some of the original models of Biro ballpoint pens was donated by the Biro Foundation to an exhibit at the Centro Argentino de Ingenieros in Buenos Aires.


David Taylor Model Basin (1939)
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #197, Designated on January 30, 1998

The David Taylor Model Basin is among the largest facilities of its kind in the world. Using its sophisticated combination of towing carriages, wave makers, and measuring equipment, engineers are able to determine the sea-keeping qualities and propulsion characteristics of ship and craft models up to 40 feet in length.


Electro-Motive FT Freight-service Diesel-Electric Locomotive (1939)
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #78, Designated on June 26, 1982

This lead unit of the four-unit EMD-103 demonstrator locomotive became the prototype of the first mass-produced diesel-electric locomotives used for freight service in the United States. Rapidly replacing the steam locomotive, it was a revolutionary step for the rail industry.


Neuchâtel Gas Turbine (1939)
Neuchâtel, Switzerland – ASME Landmark #135, Designated on September 2, 1988

This simple-cycle gas turbine was the first successful electric power-generating machine to go into commercial operation. It was designed and constructed by A. B. Brown Boveri in Baden, Switzerland, and installed in 1939 in the municipal power station in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.


Sikorsky VS-300 Helicopter (1939)
Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #95, Designated on May 17, 1984

America's first practical helicopter, it pioneered the single main rotor concept that became the predominant helicopter configuration throughout the world. The principles that were developed and demonstrated by the VS-300 had direct application in the design of the early mass-production helicopter, marking the beginning of the world's rotorcraft industry.


Alligator Amphibian (1940)
Quantico, Virginia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #193, Designated on May 21, 1997

The "Alligator" amphibian tractor is the progenitor of all amphibian assault vehicles used since 1941, a pioneer venture both in its design and the materials used in its construction. Originally marketed as a vehicle for oil exploration, it came to the attention of the United States Marine Corps, which was searching for a vehicle that could cross the coral reefs encircling many of the Pacific Islands.


Thermo King© C Refrigeration Unit (1940)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #192, Designated on October 1, 1996

The refrigeration units placed on trucks in 1938 by Thermo King Corp. revolutionized the transportation of perishable foods. These installations and subsequent ones on refrigerated vehicles, ships, and railroads have had worldwide impact on the preservation of food during distribution. Today more than three quarters of the food through the United States alone is shipped and stored under refrigeration.


Norfolk & Western #611, Class J Steam Locomotive (1941)
Roanoke, Virginia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #94, Designated on March 1984

Developed for use in both the plains and mountains, this coal-fired passenger locomotive was among the most advanced in design, construction, and performance of any 4-8-4. No. 611, eleventh of fourteen constructed and the last survivor, was retired from service and donated to the Roanoke Transportation Museum in 1959.


Union Pacific Big Boy 4023 and Centennial 6900 (1941)
Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #176, Designated on June 7, 1994

To pull heavy freight trains on fast schedules over long distances and mountain grades, the Union Pacific railroad purchased some of the largest steam and diesel-electric locomotives ever built. No. 4023 is one of twenty five "Big Boy" articulated steam engines operated between 1941 and 1959. No. 6900 was the first of forty-seven 6600-hp "Centennial" diesel-electrics that saw service from 1969 to 1984.


Grumman Wildcat "Sto-Wing" Wing-folding Mechanism (1942)
Kalamazoo, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #238, Designated on May 15, 2006

The Wildcat's innovative "Sto-Wing" mechanism was crucial to the U. S. Navy's success during World War II for reducing the aircraft's overall size, increased carrying capacity on ships by 50 percent. The Wildcat’s simple design had the ruggedness and reliability required for carrier service, and became the model for many subsequent naval aircraft.


Aberdeen Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground (1943)
Aberdeen, Maryland, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #80, Designated on October 21, 1982

This was the world's first large-scale, fully instrumented ballistic range producing data on the aerodynamic characteristics of missiles in free flight. A host of supersonic aerodynamic designs of four decades have used the information developed here. The facility's unique technology became the foundation of similar installations worldwide.


Jeep Model MB (1943)
Toledo, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #152, Designated on July 23, 1991

Although not the first four-wheel-drive vehicle or the first designed for rough, multipurpose field use, the Jeep MB was built as an unusual combination of these and other features of modern vehicle design in the World War II era. The origins are traced back to the late 1930s, when the US Army called for a reconnaissance vehicle or armored personnel carrier and between 1941 and 1945, more than 637,000 Jeep vehicles were produced.


Penn. RR GG1 Electric Locomotive #4800 (1943)
Strasburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #83, Designated on April 23, 1983

The 4,620-horsepower GG1 was primarily a passenger locomotive, routinely operating at over 100 miles per hour, but was used in freight service as well. Conceived by the Pennsylvania Railroad and built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works and General Electric Company, No. 4800 logged nearly 5 million miles in its forty-five-year life.


SS Jeremiah O'Brien (1943)
San Francisco, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #98, Designated on September 18, 1984

The SS Jeremiah O'Brien, an emergency cargo vessel of the type EC2-S-C1 better known as Liberty Ships, is one of two operative survivors of 2,751 ships, the largest fleet of single class ever built. During WWII, dire necessity to move supplies across the Atlantic faster than Nazi U-boats could sink them led the U.S. Navy to adopt plans for the mass production of tramp steamers


Cooper-Bessemer Type GMV Integral-Angle Gas Engine-Compressor (1944)
Mount Vernon, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #240, Designated on August 26, 2006

The GMV compressor's efficiency and compactness had a significant impact worldwide, and the compressor enjoyed a remarkable production run of 55 years. Its ingenuity lay in its compact, V-angle engine design with an articulated connecting rod arrangement. This design had lower bearing loads than a side-by-side rod arrangement, thereby increasing efficiency and production.


Hanford B Reactor (1944)
Richland, Washington, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #14, Designated on May 10, 1976

The Hanford B-Reactor was the first plutonium production reactor to be placed in operation. Its success made possible the subsequent development of atomic energy. The research work, engineering, and planning required to make the reactor operate is one of our most advanced achievements. Much of the reactor core, cooling system, shielding, and auxiliary systems were designed by mechanical engineers.


Icing Research Tunnel, NASA Lewis Research Center (1944)
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #117, Designated on May 20, 1987

In operation since 1944, the Icing Research Tunnel is the oldest and largest refrigerated icing wind tunnel in the world. Technology developed there enables aircraft to fly safely through icing clouds. Two firsts include the unique heat exchanger and the spray system that simulates a natural icing cloud of tiny droplets.


McKinley Climatic Laboratory (1944)
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #116, Designated on April 1987

Originally designed in the 1940s to contain two B-29s, the huge hangar can test aircraft in any operational condition, except flying. Projects have advanced not only climatic simulation and testing but also concepts for refrigeration and insulation, dedicated instrumentation for evaluating turbojet performance, and surveillance and control systems.


Southern Pacific #4294 Cab-in-Front Steam Locomotive (1944)
Sacramento, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #62, Designated on May 7, 1981

The articulated wheel-base steam locomotive represents the final phase of steam locomotive development in size and power. This locomotive, built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, operated between 1944 and 1956 before being displaced by a diesel-electric locomotive.


Merrill Wheel Balancing System (1945)
Englewood, Colorado, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #206, Designated on September 18, 1999

Marcellus Merrill first implemented an electronic dynamic wheel-balancing system in 1945. Prior to the development of this system, automobile wheels had to be removed from the vehicle for static balancing. Merrill's system allowed the wheel to remain on the vehicle and to be spun at high speed so that resulting vibrations could be detected by an electronic pickup unit for analysis.


Rotating-arm Model-test Facility (1945)
Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #72, Designated on October 14, 1981

This model-test facility was the first in the world to conduct experiments for obtaining comprehensive measurements of those forces and moments necessary to define the maneuverability and control of surface ships, submersibles, and airships. This and subsequent facilities throughout the world have been essential in the design of more responsive vessels through calculations derived from the performances of precision models in laboratory water tanks.

Digital Revolution (1946-Present)

FMC Citrus Juice Extractor (1947)
Lakeland, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #82, Designated on March 24, 1983

Squeezing an orange for juice is part of the concept of this machine, only on a much larger scale. The extractor revolutionized the juice industry. The twenty-four head rotary action simultaneously extracts juice from the interior of the fruit and citrus oil from the peel surface. By 1950 the process was improved by including a system for producing high-quality prefinished juice directly from the extractor.


Howard Hughes Flying Boat, HK-1 (1947)
McMinnville, Oregon, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #219, Designated on July 20, 2002

Better known as the "Spruce Goose," the Howard Hughes Flying Boat was designed and built by Hughes Aircraft Co., to be the largest wood-constructed and the largest wingspan airplane ever built. Originally designated the HK-1 in 1942, it was designed to meet wartime troop and material transportation needs.


Roosa Master Diesel Fuel-Injection Pump (1947)
Windsor, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #131, Designated on April 1988

The distributor-type rotary diesel-fuel injection pump helped to make smaller, high-speed diesel engines cost competitive with gasoline engines and opened up markets for the diesel engine in agriculture, marine propulsion, and power generation. The Roosa Master Injection pump was the first distributor-type to provide a simple mechanism for controlling the speed of generator sets, thereby reducing its complexity and number of parts.


Commonwealth Building Heat Pump (1948)
Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #46, Designated on May 8, 1980

The use of heat pumps for the heating and cooling of the Commonwealth Building was a pioneering achievement in the western hemisphere. The theoretical conception of the heat pump was described in a book, written and published in 1824 by a young French army officer, Sadi Carnot. Though located in a moderate climate, this unique all aluminum-clad building requires air-conditioning because it has no opening windows.


Xerography (1948)
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #88, Designated on October 20, 1983

The convenient dry-copying process for printed pages is among the truly revolutionary inventions of the century. After World War II, Haloid became a corporate sponsor of the research in exchange for the license to develop machines that would print up to 20 copies. On October 22, 1948, Haloid gave a public demonstration in Detroit and in 1949 introduced the Model A. By 1955 Haloid introduced the first completely automated xerographic machine.


Belle Isle Gas Turbine (1949)
Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #100, Designated on 1984 (Re-designated on April 26, 2014)

This unit, retired from the Belle Isle Station of the Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company, was the first gas turbine to be used for electric utility power generation in the United States. It represents the transformation of the early aircraft gas turbine, in which the engines seldom ran more than ten hours at a stretch, into a long-life prime mover.


Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel (1949)
State College, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #188, Designated on May 6, 1996

The Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel is a unique experimental facility for hydrodynamic research and testing. The 48-inch (1.2-meter) diameter water tunnel enables the research staff to conduct basic and applied investigations in the fields of cavitation, hydroacoustics, turbulence, transition, hydrodynamic drag, and hydraulic and subsonic turbomachinery.


Greens Bayou Generator Plant (1949)
Houston, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #154, Designated on June 9, 1991

On April 21, 1949, a completely outdoor turbine-generator was placed into commercial operation at the Greens Bayou electric power plant--the first fully outdoor unit to operate in the United States. The outdoor design, unlike the traditional large turbine hall, resulted in significant reductions in the cost per kilowatt to build the plant.


The Lapeyre Automatic Shrimp Peeling Machine (1949)
Biloxi, Mississippi, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #230, Designated on September 21, 2004

The current Laitram Machinery Model A Automatic Shrimp Peeler is virtually identical to the first unit that was put into commercial use in 1949. Each machine peels approximately 1,000 pounds of shrimp an hour, ranging in size from 10 to 200 count per pound. Because the peeling machine lowered processing costs, shrimp could be sold at a lower price to a much broader market than ever before.


Experimental Breeder Reactor I (1951)
Arco, Idaho, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #39, Designated on June 15, 1979

On December 20, 1951, engineers and scientists at EBR-1 watched a string of four light bulbs spring to life. For the first time in history, electricity had been made with nuclear energy at the world's first nuclear power plant. EBR-1 ultimately achieved a more important milestone, the demonstration of the breeder concept in 1953, by producing more fuel than it consumed while generating electrical power.


Ditch Witch DWP Service-Line Trencher (1952)
Perry, Oklahoma, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #222, Designated on December 16, 2002

The DWP was the first mechanized, compact service-line trencher developed for laying underground water lines between the street-main and the house. This machine, first produced in 1949, replaced manual digging, thus making installation of running water and indoor plumbing affordable for the common household. The DWP paved the way for the creation of a worldwide trenching-products industry.


SS Badger Carferry (1952)
Ludington, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #191, Designated on September 7, 1996

The two 3,500-hp steeple compound Unaflow steam engines powering the S.S. Badger represent one of the last types of reciprocating marine steam engines. The Badger's four Foster-Wheeler Type D marine boilers, which supply 470-psig steam to the engines, are among the last coal-fired marine boilers built.


Mr. Charlie Oil Drilling Rig (1953)
Morgan City, Louisiana, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #250, Designated on March 17, 2012

Designed by Alden “Doc” Laborde, Mr. Charlie is the first offshore drilling rig that was fully transportable, submersible and self-sufficient, allowing it to drill more than 200 oil and gas wells along the Gulf Coast between 1954 and 1986.


USS Albacore (1953)
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #209, Designated on May 13, 2000

The USS Albacore represented a radical change in submarine design. The hull was designed with underwater speed as the prime requirement, and it was built with newly developed high-strength steel. In addition to these two major innovations, the Albacore served as a test vessel for many new designs in submarine technology so that they could be refined before implementing them into the fleet.


ALCOA 50,000-ton Hydraulic Forging Press (1954)
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #71, Designated on September 24, 1981

This 50,000-ton die-forging press is among the largest fabrication tools in the world. It was designed and built for the U.S. Air Force following the discovery of a 30,000-ton press used by the Germans in World War II. The 50,000-ton Mesta press has been dominant in commercial aircraft development as well as advanced military aircraft and aerospace programs.


Boeing 367-80 (1954)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #178, Designated on September 24, 1994

The 367-80 is the prototype for most jet transports. Its success was due largely to its mechanical systems, including turbine engines with thrust reversers and noise suppressors, redundant hydraulic control systems, and an improved cabin-pressurization system. The Dash-80 was the first commercial airliner economical enough to take the US airline industry off subsidy.


GE's Ultra High Pressure Apparatus for the Production of Diamonds (1954)
Schenectady, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #198, Designated on June 12, 1998

This is the first apparatus to operate at continuous pressures of 65 kbar (65,000 atmospheres) at 1800 C (3272 F) becoming the basis for the industrial-diamond production. It demonstrated the fundamentals of producing and containing very high pressures, as used in all comparable apparatus that followed.


Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory (1954)
Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #223, Designated on January 31, 2003

This highly diverse facility has pioneered the development of solar energy applications worldwide. The Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory (SEECL) was unique in developing practical solar energy devices based on established principles of thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics long before solar energy was considered a serious energy alternative.


AAR Railroad-wheel Dynamometer (1955)
Pueblo, Colorado, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #136, Designated on November 29, 1988

This inertia dynamometer is used to test railroad wheels under controlled conditions that can greatly exceed normal service. It is the first and only railroad dynamometer to test track wheels using vertical and lateral loads, as well as thermal braking loads, at the wheel rim. It can also test railway car and locomotive axles.


Arnold AFB Wind Tunnel (1955)
Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #140, Designated on January 1989

This propulsion wind tunnel at Arnold AFB was the first large-scale facility for testing jet and rocket engines in simulated high-speed flight conditions. It has a unique combination of transonic and supersonic wind tunnels using a common 236,000 horsepower drive. It can achieve air speeds up to Mach 4.75 at altitudes up to 150,000 feet in its 16-foot square, removable test sections.


Basic-Oxygen Steel Making Vessel (1955)
Trenton, Michigan, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #104, Designated on May 15, 1985

This is one of the three original 60-ton vessels by which the basic oxygen process (BOP) of steel making was introduced into this country from Austria, where it was invented. It heralded the first new technology in fifty years to become the basis of a major process for steel production throughout the world.


Southern Gas Association-PCRC Analog Facility (1955)
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #145, Designated on August 17, 1990

The Southern Gas Association (SGA) analog was commissioned by the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council to help design safe compressor systems, free from damaging pulsations. The analog computer is the first device of its kind applied to natural gas pipeline systems and has been used to create or modify more than 10,000 installations worldwide in natural gas, petroleum, chemical, and nuclear industries.


Wyman-Gordon 50,000-ton Hydraulic Forging Press (1955)
Grafton, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #89, Designated on October 20, 1983

This hydraulic closed-die press, among the largest fabrication tools in the world, has had a profound influence in America's leading role in commercial aircraft, military aircraft, and space technology. Among its contributions was the development of the new jetliner Boeing 747 in the 1960s.


First Hot Isostatic Processing Vessels (1956)
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #103, Designated on April 2, 1985

Today HIP is used in industry worldwide to produce advanced alloy and ceramic products, particularly complex-shaped parts and products. Developed in order to bond components of small Zircaloy-clad pin-type nuclear fuel elements, the process was soon applied to compact powders for use in tool steel, superalloys for jet engines, and materials for space applications.


Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump-Turbine (1956)
Murphy, North Carolina, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #67, Designated on July 14, 1981

This integration of pump and turbine was the first of many to be installed in power-plant systems in the United States. It was the largest and most powerful in the world. As a "pump storage" unit, it effected significant economies in the generation of electrical energy.


IBM 350 RAMAC Disk File (1956)
San Jose, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #90, Designated on February 27, 1984

The IBM 350 disk drive storage development led to the breakthrough of online computer systems by providing the first storage device with random access to large volumes of data. Since its introduction, 1956, it has become the primary computer bulk-storage medium, displacing punched cards and magnetic tapes and making possible the use of the computer in modern applications.


Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (1956)
Moffett Federal Airfield, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #187, Designated on May 1996

This wind tunnel complex was developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to serve the emerging need for supersonic research and development following World War II. The Wind Tunnel has contributed to the America's preeminence in the jet age both in commercial and military aviation testing models from the Douglas DC-8 to commercial transports that will be flying in the near future.


Atlas Launch Vehicle (1957)
El Cajon, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #102, Designated on March 1, 1985

The Atlas E-2 Space Booster, or launch vehicle, is a modified intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the Convair Division of General Dynamics and the U.S. Air Force. The basic concept of the Atlas system was proven in its first flight on June 11, 1957, followed over the years by the launching more than five hundred vehicles including the Pioneer, Ranger, Mariner, and Surveyor.


Blood Heat Exchanger (1957)
Amherst, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #55, Designated on September 9, 1980

The first commercial, human-blood heat exchanger developed in 1957, it permitted a patient's body temperature to be safely and rapidly lowered during open heart surgery to any desired and precisely controlled hypothermic level, then during the conclusion of the operation rapidly rewarmed to normal.


Gravimetric Coal Feeder (1957)
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #184, Designated on May 4, 1995

In the 1950s, Arthur J. Stock (1900-1986) successfully combined the weighing and control of material flow into a single device, now known as the gravimetric feeder. The first installation was placed in continuous operation at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Station in 1957.


Jacobs Engine Brake Retarder (1957)
Bloomfield, Connecticut, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #108, Designated on October 17, 1985

The Jake Brake permits large trucks to descend long, steep grades at a controlled speed. It was the first practical mechanism for altering on demand the valve timing on a truck diesel engine, thereby converting the engine to a power absorbing machine. The modified engine can continue to power the truck in normal operation, allowing service brakes to remain cool for emergency situations.


Philo 6 Steam-Electric Generating Unit (1957)
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #228, Designated on August 7, 2003

Philo Unit 6 was the world's first supercritical-pressure steam-electric generating unit to operate commercially. The innovations represented by Philo 6 significantly advanced the thermal efficiency of power generation, greatly reducing its production cost. Its performance proved that introduction of higher steam pressure and higher steam temperature could produce new levels of thermal efficiency,


Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor (1957)
Pleasanton, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #128, Designated on October 7, 1987

The Vallecitos boiling water reactor was the first privately owned and operated nuclear power plant to deliver significant quantities of electricity to a public utility grid. During the period October 1957 to December 1963, it delivered approximately 40,000 megawatt-hours of electricity.


RL-10 Rocket Engine (1958)
West Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #36, Designated on April 1979

The RL-10 was the first rocket engine to use high-energy liquid hydrogen as a fuel. It has provided precisely controlled, reliable power for lunar and planetary explorations. The RL-10 embodied numerous advanced design features, including multiple use of its fuel with the "bootstrap cycle." The RL-10 is also capable of multiple restarts in space, which enables positioning or further escape of Earth's gravity.


Shippingport Nuclear Power Station (1958)
Shippingport, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #47, Designated on May 20, 1980

The first commercial central electric-generating station in the United States to use nuclear energy was the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. In a dramatic high-tech display, ground was broken in 1954 during dedication ceremony by President Dwight D. Eisenhower who also opened it on May 26, 1958.


Disneyland Monorail System (1959)
Anaheim, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #115, Designated on December 1986

Disney engineers designed this monorail system based on the system developed by Axel. Wenner-Gren in Cologne, West Germany. Wenner-Gren ran his experimental monorail in 1952 on a level track, and when adopted by Disney in 1959, it was designed to simulate the terrain typical of urban transit.


PACECO Container Crane (1959)
Alameda, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #85, Designated on May 5, 1983

The world's first high-speed, dockside container-handling cranes reduced ship turnaround time from three weeks to eighteen hours. They became the model and set the standard for future designs worldwide. The A-frame cranes built at Encinal Terminals in Alameda, California, were designed to move large quantities of products with less handling, less damage, and less pilferage.


19th Century Textile Tools and Machinery Collection (1960)
Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #251, Designated on April 11, 2012

Referred to as the "catalyst of the Industrial Revolution," textile manufacturing helped to transform the American economy from an agricultural to a manufacturing economy. The collection of tools and machinery housed at the American Textile History Museum (ATHM) represents a collection of ideas which developed during this period.


Eddystone Station Unit #1 (1960)
Eddystone, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #226, Designated on May 17, 2003

Operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO), now known as Exelon Corp., Eddystone Station Unit #1 is a 325 MW pulverized-coal-fired plant that pushed the technology of steam-electric generating plants. Engineers not only made a more efficient plant using higher temperatures and pressures and larger machines, but also discovered a more economically viable generating plant design.


Geysers Unit 1 (1960)
Geyserville, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #109, Designated on October 1985

Geysers Unit 1 was the first commercial geothermal electric generating station in North America. From this turbogenerator grew the largest geothermal development in the world, pioneering the design of systems to provide corrosion-resistant cooling, environmental controls and remove noncondensible gas.


Pegasus 3 Engine BS 916 (1960)
Bristol, England – ASME Landmark #168, Designated on July 24, 1993

The Pegasus 3 is the earliest surviving example of the prototype engine for vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) jets, namely the Royal Air Force's Harriers and US Marine Corps' AV-8Bs. Owned by the Rolls- Royce Heritage, the artifact is an early developmental model of the Pegasus 3 engine, the first to fly with sufficient thrust to prove the vectored-thrust concept for V/STOL jet aircraft.


Big Brutus Mine Shovel (1962)
West Mineral, Kansas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #127, Designated on September 1987

When built in 1962, this shovel was the second largest in the world. It was used for the removal of overburden in the surface mining of thin coal seams. In its lifetime, it recovered nine million tons of bituminous coal from depths of 20 to 50 feet for local electric power generation.


Crawler Transporters of Launch Complex 39 (1962)
Cape Canaveral, Florida, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #20, Designated on February 3, 1977

The two crawler transporters of Kennedy Space Center's launch complex are the largest ground vehicles ever built. Each transporter is equipped with jacking, steering, and automatic load-leveling systems. Traveling at top speeds of 1 or 2 miles per hour, the transporter has sixteen traction motors driven by diesel engines.


NS Savannah (1962)
Fort Eustis, Virginia, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #87, Designated on October 15, 1983

The N.S. Savannah was the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation at Camden, New Jersey. With a 74 maximum-power thermal megawatt pressurized-water reactor, the ship at top speed surged along at 24 knots, with more than 22,300 shaft horsepower to a single propeller.


Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Apparatus (1962)
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #242, Designated on December 1, 2006

The Southwest Research Institute Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is a mechanical test instrument used to characterize the response of materials at high strain. Initially created to evaluate the behavior of metals under various conditions, it has since been applied to a wide range of materials.


Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (1962)
Menlo Park, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #92, Designated on March 1984

The Stanford two-mile accelerator, the longest in the world, accelerates electrons to the very high energy needed in the study of subatomic particles and forces. Experiments performed here have shown that the proton, one of the building blocks of the atom, is in turn composed of smaller particles now called quarks.


Arecibo Radiotelescope (1963)
Arecibo, Puerto Rico, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #216, Designated on November 3, 2001

The Arecibo Observatory has the largest radio telescope ever constructed. Maintaining the greatest electromagnetic wave gathering capacity of any telescope, it has been an essential tool in modern astronomy, ionosphere and planetary studies. Since its implementation in 1963, the observatory has led to advances in various fields.


Advanced Engine Test Facility at Marshall (1964)
Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #170, Designated on October 28, 1993

The Advanced Engine Test Facility was built, three years after President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to world leadership in aeronautical science. This facility was used to perform static tests on the booster of the Saturn V rocket, which launched Apollo 11 to the moon on July 16, 1969.


New England Wireless and Steam Museum (1964)
East Greenwich, Rhode Island, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #164, Designated on September 12, 1992

Stationary steam engines, once the prime movers of industry, powered trains, ships, and mills in an age when there was no electric power. This museum contains the finest collection of Rhode Island engines, including one of the few built at the Corliss Works known to survive. There are several huge, complex engines and both vertical and horizontal engines in working order.


Tokaido Shinkansen (1964)
Tokyo, Japan – ASME Landmark #211, Designated on July 2000

In 1964, Shinkansen between Tokyo and Shin-Osaka became the world's first high-speed railway system, running at a maximum business speed of over 200 km/h (130-160 mph). By 1992, the number of passengers transported by Shinkansen was over 600,000 a day on an average.


American Precision Museum (1966)
Windsor, Vermont, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #119, Designated on May 1987

The interchangeability of parts and the subsequent mass production of machine products was made possible by the systematic improvement and refinement of existing standard and special-purpose machine tools. Simultaneously, this firm was the first to introduce the milling machine and the turret lathe into routine commercial usage for production manufacturing.


Saturn V Rocket (1967)
Clear Lake City, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #52, #53, #54, Designated on July 16, 1980

The largest rocket built at the time of the historic first missions to the moon, the Saturn V carried aloft the 45-ton Apollo spacecraft on earth orbital and lunar missions from 1967 to 1972. It also launched the 120-ton Skylab into earth orbit on May 14, 1973.


Apollo Space Command Module (1968)
Downey, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #162, Designated on July 24, 1992

The Apollo was the vehicle that first transported humans to the moon and safely back to earth. The command module, built by North American Aviation, accommodated three astronauts during the mission. It was the only portion of the Apollo spacecraft system designed to withstand the intense heat of atmospheric re-entry at 25,000 mph and complete the mission intact.


Apollo Space Suit (1968)
Frederica, Delaware, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #255, Designated on September 20, 2013

Model A7L, the seventh suit designed by NASA and ILC Dover, was the primary suit worn by astronauts on Project Apollo. The basic design consisted of convoluted, latex-dipped joints which allowed for ease of movement while maintaining near-constant enclosure. The suit also needed to accommodate a wide range of motion to allow the duties of the missions to be successfully accomplished.


Big Surf Waterpark (1969)
Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #252, Designated on August 17, 2013

Big Surf Waterpark is the first wave pool in North America to consistently generate 3-5 foot spilling waves suitable for surfing. It uses 15 gates that empty water into a 2.5 acre lagoon and produces waves by pumping water to a pre-selected height and released through underwater gates.


Newell Shredder (1969)
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #179, Designated on September 16, 1994

This machine, designed by Alton S. Newell, efficiently reduced automobile bodies into scrap metal for recycling. A body was fed into the shredder at a controlled rate, and rotating hammers, driven by a 500-hp motor, shredded it into small pieces that were easily shipped. The process took about 10 minutes a car and used less energy than other shredding and crushing machines.


ABACUS II Integrated-Circuit Wire Bonder (1972)
Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #160, Designated on March 31, 1992

The ABACUS II, designed and built by Texas Instruments, was the first practical automated production machine for the assembly of integrated circuits. Using heat and pressure, it bonded fine gold wire to microscopic contacts on the silicon chip and pin connections on the package. The ABACUS II could maintain a positioning accuracy of ± 0.00025 inch while bonding up to 375 devices an hour.


Apollo Lunar Module LM-13 (1972)
Garden City, New York, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #218, Designated on April 19, 2002

On July 20, 1969, the LM "Eagle" touched down on the moon, becoming the first piloted spacecraft to land on a celestial body other than Earth. On the surface, the LM served as a shelter and base of operations as the astronauts carried out their exploration and experiments. This vehicle, LM-13, was scheduled to fly as Apollo 18, and is representative of the lunar modules that traveled to the moon.


Bay Area Rapid Transit System (1972)
San Francisco, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #195, Designated on July 24, 1997

The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system has been the prototype for most modern rail transit systems and the integration of many newly engineered components into a unified system was a key to its success. Innovative ventilation and fire-control systems made the 3.6-mile trans-bay tube practical.


Voyager Spacecraft Interplanetary Explorers (1972–1977)
Pasadena, California, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #171, Designated on November 12, 1993

The Voyager explorers, which provided scientists and the world with the first detailed pictures of faraway planets, were designed and tested during 1972 to 1977. The two most intelligent machines ever built in the NASA space program, the explorers were launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida in 1977.


Pierce-Donachy Ventricular Assist Device (1973)
Hershey, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #142, Designated on May 19, 1990

This is the first extremely smooth, surgically implantable, seam-free pulsatile blood pump to receive widespread clinical use. In its use in more than 250 patients, it has been responsible for saving numerous lives. There has never been a device-failure-related fatality of any of these patients.


Hughes Glomar Explorer (1974)
Houston, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #239, Designated on July 20, 2006

The Hughes Glomar Explorer was designed to complete the mission of lifting a Soviet Golf-II class submarine K-129, which weighed 2,000-tons, 17,000 feet from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii in July 1974. In the short years of its design and construction the modern limits of “state of the art” were extended from the impossible to the possible.


Cryogenic Cooling System, Fermilab Tevatron (1983)
Batavia, Illinois, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #169, Designated on September 27, 1993

When placed in service in 1983, the Tevatron cooling system was the largest cryogenic system ever built, doubling the world's capacity to liquefy helium. The Tevatron provided a benchmark of performance and feasibility for superconducting magnet design. It is the world's first high-energy accelerator and currently the highest-energy accelerator in the world.


Bergen County Steam Collection (1987)
Hackensack, New Jersey, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #175, Designated on May 21, 1994

This collection of equipment all of it maintained in operating condition and used for educational purposes was established in 1987. It spans the period from the late 19th century to the 1940s, when steam was the prime motive force for most U.S. industries, including rail and marine transportation.


Digital Micromirror Device (1996)
Plano, Texas, U.S.A. – ASME Landmark #243, Designated on May 1, 2008

The Digital Micromirror Device’s development began with the forming of a small team at Texas Instruments headed by noted physicist Larry Hornbeck who was charged by the Department of Defense to create a device that could modulate light. Hornbeck came up with an idea to use micromirrors as a sort of on-off switch to modulate digital light pulses changing the projection and film industry forever.


Thrust SSC Supersonic Car (1997)
Coventry, England – ASME Landmark #256, Designated on March 15, 2014

Powered by two Rolls-Royce MK 202 Spey Turbofan engines which produced over 44,000 lbs (196kN) of thrust, the Thrust SSC Supersonic car is recognized as the world land speed record holder. In achieving an average speed of over 760 mph in 1997 at Black Rock Dry Lake, Nevada, it became the first land vehicle to officially break the sound barrier.